Confined Space Ppt

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Confined Space

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  • If you have any questions regarding this presentation or the use of personal protective equipment, please contact MSA at:
  • I’d like to encourage you to ask questions as we go along to clarify individual points of the standard.
  • Announce before Keying next slide Identifying what is a confined space appears to be the single biggest challenge to industry managers and safety professionals. Under California 5157: Key next Slide
  • The last definition is probably the most important criteria which today's managers have difficulty facing
  • Does anyone have any additional examples of confined spaces they have encountered?
  • A fire or explosion can occur in a confined space by Static Electricity Metal Friction Unapproved lamps or electrical equipment Cigarettes Sparks from grinding or welding
  • Examples include using Nitrogen or Carbon Dioxide to inert an atmosphere
  • The symptoms of Low Oxygen include Rapid Breathing at 16% Faulty Judgement and Rapid fatigue at 14% Unconsciousness at 12% Death at 6% Give Example of Chgo Deep tunnel Give example of Utility worker in hole
  • Say: The hazards associated with confined spaces must be identified by:
  • Say: In testing air quality, Q: How often do you calibrate your portable instrumentation: What is a calibrated monitor in OSHA’s view?
  • Say: you may not enter a permit required confined space if you exceed 10% of the LEL
  • If there is any potential for toxics, you must test for these Carbon Monoxide & Hydrogen Sulfide have poor warning properties.
  • Question:Audience what is sufficient Frequency?
  • And:
  • And: And:
  • AND
  • Under California 5158, A confined space is defined as: There is a lot of confusion among Gas & Electric Utility workers on how to determine if the space they wish to enter is really a confined space. Examples include: small pits, dig ins bell holes, above ground vaults
  • Say: Dangerous Air contamination is defined as: Note: Under Cal OSHA 5158, LEL is 20%
  • Say: If you have possible or potential combustible gases,
  • Confined Space Ppt

    1. 1. Confined Space Entry
    2. 2. Confined Space Overview <ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Confined Space Hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment Requirements </li></ul>
    3. 3. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Regulatory Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Confined Space Hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Hazard Identification </li></ul>
    4. 4. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Entry Permits </li></ul><ul><li>Lock-Out / Tag Out </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Training Requirements </li></ul>
    5. 5. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Alternate Entry Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Reclassification </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory Protection </li></ul>
    6. 6. Facts <ul><li>About 2.1 million workers enter permit confined spaces Annually </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of fatalities in confined space emergencies occur to rescuers </li></ul>
    7. 7. Confined space is defined as the interior of an enclosed area or structure <ul><li>(a) is enclosed or partially enclosed, </li></ul><ul><li>(b) is not designed or intended for continuous human occupancy, </li></ul><ul><li>(c) has limited or restricted means for entry or exit that may complicate the provision of first aid, evacuation, rescue or other emergency response service, and </li></ul><ul><li>(d) is large enough and so configured that a worker could enter to perform assigned work; </li></ul>
    8. 8. Engulfment <ul><li>Being buried by free flowing loose granular materials such as sawdust or earth </li></ul><ul><li>Being drowned in liquids </li></ul>
    9. 9. Isolation <ul><li>Separating piping from a confined space </li></ul><ul><li>May include blanking, blinding and double block & bleed </li></ul>
    10. 10. Examples of Confined Spaces Are: <ul><li>Vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Tanks (septic, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Pipes (sewer, drain, utility, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Vaults </li></ul><ul><li>Pits </li></ul><ul><li>Silo’s </li></ul><ul><li>Trenches </li></ul><ul><li>Tunnels </li></ul><ul><li>Storage Bins </li></ul><ul><li>Manholes </li></ul><ul><li>Bore holes </li></ul>
    11. 11. Entry into Confined Spaces may be necessary to periodically perform the following functions: <ul><li>Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning </li></ul><ul><li>Repairing </li></ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Removal </li></ul>
    12. 12. Hazards presenting a potential for injury, illness or death <ul><li>Toxic gases above the PEL </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen enrichment </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for engulfment </li></ul><ul><li>Flammable gas above 10% of the LEL </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for IDLH atmospheres </li></ul>
    13. 13. Ignition Sources <ul><li>A fire or explosion can occur due to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Static electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metal friction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unapproved lamps or electrical equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cigarettes Therefore NO SMOKING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sparks from grinding or welding </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Toxic Contaminants <ul><li>Above TLV should be considered a serious potential hazard </li></ul><ul><li>IDLH conditions pose serious danger to workers </li></ul><ul><li>Contaminants may already be inside the space and/or introduced by work operations </li></ul>
    15. 15. Oxygen deficient atmosphere <ul><li>May occur as a result of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The work being done (welding) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical reactions (rusting) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacterial decomposition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May also occur by displacement of another gas </li></ul>
    16. 16. Low oxygen symptoms <ul><li>16% - Rapid breathing, drowsiness </li></ul><ul><li>14% - Faulty judgement, rapid fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>12% - Unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>6% - Death </li></ul>
    17. 17. In Potential Oxygen deficient atmospheres <ul><li>Users Must wear SCBA or combination airline with egress cylinder </li></ul>
    18. 18. The hazards of each confined space shall be identified by: <ul><li>Review of the past and current uses of the confined space </li></ul><ul><li>Physical characteristics, configuration and location of the space </li></ul>
    19. 19. Existing or potential confined space hazards <ul><li>Oxygen deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Flammable or explosive atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical devices </li></ul><ul><li>Physical obstacles </li></ul>
    20. 20. Hazards identified need to be evaluated by a qualified person with respect to: <ul><li>Scope of the hazard exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Likelihood of hazard occurrence </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence of hazard occurrence </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for changing conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies for eliminating or controlling </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency response capabilities </li></ul>
    21. 21. Pre-Planning - Blinding/Flushing <ul><li>Pipes/lines must be disconnected, blinded or blocked off </li></ul><ul><li>Physical locks are placed on breakers, valves and chains </li></ul><ul><li>Space shall be emptied, flushed or purged of flammable or hazardous substances to the extent feasible </li></ul>
    22. 22. Entry - Air Quality <ul><li>Test air initially & periodically with calibrated and tested air monitor to determine whether dangerous and/or oxygen deficiency exists </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate ignition source introduction until the hazardous condition has been eliminated </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain hot work permit for ignition producing activities </li></ul>
    23. 23. Entry - Air monitoring <ul><li>Oxygen deficient or enriched atmospheres </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test for Oxygen first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 19.5% are IDLH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater than 23.5 are Oxygen enriched </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Entry - Air monitoring <ul><li>Flammable or Explosive Atmospheres </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater than 10% LEL are deemed hazardous </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Entry - Air monitoring <ul><li>If other toxics are suspected, must test or provide adequate protection for worker if above the PEL for the substance </li></ul><ul><li>CO & H2S are most common toxics in confined space entry </li></ul>
    26. 26. Entry - Air monitoring <ul><li>Maintain a written record of the monitoring performed prior to and during confined space operations. </li></ul><ul><li>Employees shall have access to the monitoring results </li></ul>
    27. 27. Entry - Air monitoring <ul><li>If dangerous air contamination/Oxygen deficiency does not exist, entry into the space requires that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air monitoring shall be done with sufficient frequency to ensure that a dangerous air contamination and/or oxygen deficiency does not occur during the operation </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Entry - Retrieval Systems <ul><li>Approved retrieval system shall be set up </li></ul><ul><li>Provide, inspect and test safety, rescue and retrieval equipment </li></ul><ul><li>The retrieval system shall be attached to the workers using an approved harness and line </li></ul><ul><li>Wristlets may be used if it can be demonstrated that a harness is not feasible or creates a greater hazard </li></ul>
    29. 29. Entry - Retrieval Systems <ul><li>Retrieval line must be attached to a properly rated mechanical devise or fixed point outside the permit space </li></ul><ul><li>The mechanical device must be available to retrieve personnel from a vertical type permit space 5 or more feet deep </li></ul><ul><li>Lines & ropes should be configured within the space as the Entrants’ route </li></ul>
    30. 30. Entry Permit <ul><li>Shall authorize entry only by designated and trained workers, into a specific confined space and for a specific purpose. The following items are required on each entry permit </li></ul>
    31. 31. Items for Entry Permit <ul><li>Known or suspected hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Steps to isolate the space; lockout/tagout </li></ul><ul><li>Measures to remove or control potential hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>purging, inerting, ventilation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Testing/monitoring equipment and procedures for their use </li></ul>
    32. 32. Items for Entry Permit <ul><li>Emergency response team available </li></ul><ul><li>Rescue equipment provided on-site </li></ul><ul><li>The personal protective equipment to be used </li></ul>
    33. 33. Items for Entry Permit <ul><li>Check list to assure & certify that all pre-entry requirements have been met </li></ul><ul><li>Name of person authorizing or in charge of entry </li></ul><ul><li>Name of attendant </li></ul>
    34. 34. Entry <ul><li>Recommended positive ventilation before and during all confined space entries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where no fixed ventilation system exists, use a portable explosion proof mechanical blower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place the blower intake line so that the make-up air is not taken from a contaminated environment </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Evaluation - Reclassification <ul><li>The only actual or potential hazard is atmospheric contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous forced ventilation alone is sufficient to maintain entry conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Collect monitoring and inspection data to support decision </li></ul>
    36. 36. Reclassification Compliance <ul><li>Must have written entry procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Non-atmospheric hazards remain eliminated </li></ul><ul><li>Testing and inspection confirm all hazards have and remain eliminated throughout operations </li></ul>
    37. 37. Reclassification Compliance <ul><li>Written documentation of hazard elimination </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation available to employees </li></ul><ul><li>If hazards develop: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>employer must reevaluate confined space operations to see if permit-required entry is required </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Pre-entry <ul><li>Barricade/guard rail entrance </li></ul><ul><li>Test atmosphere with Calibrated instrument </li></ul><ul><li>Provide continuous forced ventilation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Until hazards are eliminated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Until entrants have vacated space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be clean air supply </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Entry <ul><li>Perform periodic atmospheric testing to insure no hazardous atmosphere develops </li></ul><ul><li>If hazardous atmosphere is detected: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediately evacuate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigate causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement additional protective measures prior to re-entry </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Confined Space Definition <ul><li>A space with concurrent existence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Existing ventilation is insufficient to remove dangerous air contamination and/or oxygen deficiency which may exist or develop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ready access or egress for the removal of a suddenly disabled employee is difficult due to the location and/or size of the openings </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Dangerous Air Contamination <ul><li>Greater than 20% of the LEL </li></ul><ul><li>Toxics greater than IDLH </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen less than 19.5% </li></ul>
    42. 42. Operating Procedures <ul><li>Written program </li></ul><ul><li>Employee Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rescue procedures (may be self rescue) </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Pre-entry <ul><li>Hazardous lines must be blocked/blinded </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptions! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sewers & storm drains where no dangerous air contamination could occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas Utility distribution systems </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Procedures <ul><li>Purge, flush & empty to extent feasible </li></ul><ul><li>Test air - record data </li></ul>
    45. 45. Air Quality <ul><li>Acceptable Air - no hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test air frequently/continuously </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dangerous Air Contamination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>augment existing ventilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>retest atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlled Air Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enter space </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. Possible Dangerous Air <ul><li>Use appropriate, approved respiratory protection </li></ul><ul><li>Use belt or harness for possible rescue </li></ul><ul><li>One standby employee required </li></ul><ul><ul><li>suitable respiratory protection with independent air source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>entry for rescue only upon notice to another employee with sight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>communication is required if employee out of sight </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. Possible Combustible Gases <ul><li>No ignition sources (welding/cutting) </li></ul><ul><li>Approved intrinsically safe lighting </li></ul>
    48. 48. Top opening entry <ul><li>Approved suspension harness </li></ul><ul><li>Hoisting devise or other means of retrieval </li></ul>
    49. 49. Respiratory Protection
    50. 50. Program Requirements <ul><li>Written Plan on how it will be administered </li></ul><ul><li>Complete assessment and knowledge of the respiratory hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures and equipment to control the hazards; engineering controls, work practices </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines for selection of PPE </li></ul>
    51. 51. Program Requirements <ul><li>Employee Training Program Covering: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazard Recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dangers associated with respiratory hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper care, use, maintenance and inspection of respirators </li></ul></ul>
    52. 52. Respiratory Hazards Oxygen Deficiency <ul><li>Must use supplied air respirator with egress cylinder or </li></ul><ul><li>Self contained breathing apparatus </li></ul>
    53. 53. Particulate Contaminants <ul><ul><li>Dust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fume </li></ul></ul>
    54. 54. Gas & Vapor Contaminants <ul><li>Inert gases </li></ul><ul><li>Acidic gases </li></ul><ul><li>Alkaline gases </li></ul><ul><li>Organic compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Organometallic compounds </li></ul>
    55. 55. Respirator Selection <ul><li>What is the Hazard </li></ul><ul><li>What is the concentration level </li></ul>
    56. 56. Respirator Protection Factors <ul><li>Depends on the applicable OSHA standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asbestos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DOE/DOD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your company policy </li></ul></ul>
    57. 57. Respirator Maximum Use Concentrations <ul><li>PEL of the contaminant times the respirator protection factor is the Maximum Use Concentration, but </li></ul><ul><li>Must be less than the IDLH level </li></ul><ul><li>Must have adequate warning properties </li></ul><ul><li>Must be able to be filtered/absorbed </li></ul>

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