SharePoint 2010, Claims-Based Identity, Facebook, and the Cloud


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Presentation given at the April 5, 2012 @FEDSPUG meeting.

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  • This is all admin/IT pro stuff…
  • Liam Cleary makes a good point about how anonymous access is one case where Authorization precedes Authentication.
  • Claims opens up all the doors to you…FBA, Trusted Identity Providers (external-outside world)
  • Liam Cleary’s analogy of drivers licenses and vehicle registrations; police officers. HTTP 302 redirects. Can verify this with Fiddler.
  • Can always go from Classic to Claims, can’t go back!!!
  • Go to Central Administration and provision a simple new web application using Claims. Log in with an NTLM-based domain account.
  • This is all admin/IT pro stuff…
  • Here is where the devs get to do cool stuff!
  • WS-Trust: how to request and receive security tokensWS-Federation: architecture for cleanseparation between trust mechanisms, security tokens formats, and the protocols for obtaining tokensSAML: XML vocabulary used to represent claims in an interoperable way
  • As you plan custom claims providers for use with People Picker in your SharePoint solution, consider the following questions:What will be the source of the values for the users and roles that will be displayed in People Picker query results?What claim data do you want to resolve in the Select People and Groups dialog box?You don’t necessarily need to go through the API or PowerShell, if you have a connection to an LDAP store or a BCS connection to your auth store. You can also map the properties yourself and leave it to the User Profile Synchronization service. That being said, if you’re dependent on BCS then you’ll also need to have SharePoint Enterprise Server license which isn’t available to all customers.Once you’re done you should be able to visit any of the users in your site collection and see their “Name” property set to something that is less likely to confuse your user base. Once the value is set, it helps to make sure that it doesn’t get stomped with any User Profile Synchronization (UPS) that may be in place in your farm.
  • So basically the ticket was issued by ACS/upstream identity provider for 10 minutes, SharePoint checks it a millisecond later and says, wall this ticket expires in less time that my expiration window, so go get a new ticket from ACS.
  • And, of course, always test testtest…
  • SharePoint 2010, Claims-Based Identity, Facebook, and the Cloud

    1. 1.  Senior software engineer – Corbin Company 8 years SharePoint development experience MCPD: SharePoint Developer 2010 MCTS: SharePoint 2010 Configuration Email: Twitter: @dannyjessee Blog:
    2. 2.  Authentication vs. Authorization Claims Authentication in SharePoint 2010 Integrating Facebook from scratch  New SharePoint 2010 web application  Adding an Azure AppFabric ACS Trusted Identity Provider (Facebook)  Going “beyond authentication” to surface Facebook data in SharePoint and vice versa
    3. 3.  How many of you are…  Developers?  System administrators?  IT professionals?  Others? Integrating SharePoint 2010 with an identity provider such as Facebook will present different challenges for each role
    4. 4.  Authentication (AuthN) is the process of validating a user’s identity  SharePoint never performs authentication If the login prompt keeps appearing, think authentication issue!  Unless it’s the dreaded loopback check!
    5. 5.  Authorization (AuthZ) is the process of determining the resources, features, etc. to which an authenticated user has access If you see “Access Denied” errors, think authorization issue!
    6. 6.  Claims Based Authentication (Tokens)  Windows Authentication: NTLM/Kerberos, Basic  Forms-Based Authentication (ASP.NET Membership provider and Role manager)  Other Trusted Identity providers (like Facebook!) Classic Mode Authentication (“Old School”)  Windows Authentication (NTLM/Kerberos) only Both map authenticated users to SPUser objects (security principals)
    7. 7.  What is a claim?  A piece of information describing a user ▪ Name ▪ Email Address ▪ Role/Group membership ▪ Age ▪ Hire Date Whose claims do I trust, and which claims affect authorization decisions I make?
    8. 8.  Token  Serialized set of claims about an authenticated user, digitally signed by the token’s issuer Identity Provider (IP)  Validates user credentials Security Token Service (STS)  Builds, signs, and issues tokens containing claims Relying party (RP)  Applications that makes authorization decisions based on claims (SharePoint 2010)
    9. 9.  Decoupling of authentication logic from authorization and personalization logic  Applications no longer need to determine who the user is, they receive claims identifying the user  Great for developers who rarely want to work with identity! Provides a common way for applications to acquire the identity information they need about users
    10. 10. 1. “I’d like to access this protected resource.”2. “I don’t know who you are. Identity provider, authenticate him.”3. “My user ID is Danny and my password is BaCoNbAcOn!!1.”4. “Hi, Danny. Here is a token you can use containing attributes about you.”5. “I’d like to access this resource; hopefully it has the proof you need to authorize me!” SharePoint 2010
    11. 11.  The single biggest decision of your life! Updated TechNet guidance:  “For new implementations of SharePoint Server 2010, you should consider we recommend claims-based authentication.”
    12. 12.  The Federal Bacon Administration is a highly innovative (and flavorful) new government agency that is standing up a new public-facing web site using SharePoint 2010 They want users to sign in using their Facebook accounts and bring information from Facebook into SharePoint (and vice versa)
    13. 13. Demo #1
    14. 14.  Cloud-based service that provides an easy way of authenticating and authorizing users to gain access to web applications Includes support for Windows Live ID, Google, Yahoo, and Facebook Also includes support for Active Directory Federation Services (AD FS) 2.0 Simple browser-based management portal $1.99/100k transactions (free until Nov. 30!)
    15. 15.  No! You can integrate external identity providers with SharePoint without ACS  You have no choice if you want to use identity providers not currently supported by ACS (such as LinkedIn or Twitter) You will need to write your own code to:  Ensure the user has logged in to the IP  Obtain claim information from the IP  Package and sign tokens (your own STS)
    16. 16.  Three things must be done to add support for users to login to SharePoint via Facebook:1. Create a Facebook application  Configure ACS for Facebook support  Permissions you will request from Facebook users  Relying Party application and Rule Group setup3. Configure ACS as a Trusted Identity Provider in SharePoint
    17. 17. Demo #2
    18. 18.  Click “Create New App” Provide Display Name and Namespace Note App ID and App Secret values Provide Website URL to ACS
    19. 19. Demo #3
    20. 20.  From the ACS management portal, add a new Identity Provider
    21. 21.  Enter App ID and App Secret values from Facebook application you created earlier Enter a comma-delimited list of Application Permissions you want to request  ce/api/permissions/ In our demo, we will request:  email,user_location,user_hometown,user_website,u ser_work_history,publish_stream,user_birthday,fr iends_birthday
    22. 22.  Permissions you request will be displayed to the end user the first time they log in Request the minimum subset of permissions you need  Users are more likely to reject bigger requests
    23. 23.  Generate Rule Group  Named set of claim rules that define which identity claims are passed from identity providers to your relying party application SharePoint will still need to be configured to make use of these claims
    24. 24.  Configure Relying Party application Provide Name, Realm, and Return URL  Return URL: Realm + /_trust
    25. 25.  Choose SAML 1.1 token format Update Token lifetime to >600 seconds Select Identity providers and Rule groups
    26. 26.  Generate self-signed certificate  C:Program FilesMicrosoft Office Servers14.0Tools>MakeCert.exe -r -pe -n "CN=dannyjessee.accesscontrol.wind" -sky exchange -ss my (Self-signed, exportable, subject key type “exchange,” store in “personal” certificate store) Development only! Please use a legitimate certificate in production!
    27. 27.  Upload this certificate (.pfx format) as the Token Signing Certificate in ACS
    28. 28. Demo #4
    29. 29.  New-SPTrustedRootAuthority  Name, Certificate (self-signed .cer made earlier) New-SPClaimTypeMapping  IncomingClaimType  IncomingClaimTypeDisplayName  LocalClaimType (or SameAsIncoming) New-SPTrustedIdentityTokenIssuer  Name, Realm, ImportTrustCertificate  ClaimsMappings, SignInUrl, IdentifierClaim
    30. 30.  Running this PowerShell script will add “Facebook” to the list of Trusted Identity Providers Eligible to be added to Claims-based web applications in Central Administration
    31. 31.  Before Facebook users will be authorized to access anything, we must grant them an appropriate level of permissions Best to set a “Full Read” web application policy for users coming in from Facebook  In a public-facing scenario, you likely won’t know specific user identities to set more granular permissions  Not to mention the people picker problems!
    32. 32. Demo #5
    33. 33.  All claims whose OriginalIssuer is TrustedProvider:Facebook AccessToken is the key to all user data
    34. 34.  Make calls to the Facebook Graph API  ce/api/  Retrieve data about the user and his/her friends  Upload photos/videos, post status messages  Data returned from Facebook in JSON format  Requests to ▪ me/feed, me/friends, me/photos, me/videos
    35. 35.  SharePoint maintains its own certificate store where separate trusts must be configured 011/12/required-trust-relationships-for- the-facebook-c-sdk-in-sharepoint-2010/ Need to upload two certificates in Central Admin (Security > Manage Trust):  DigiCert High Assurance EV Root CA  DigiCert High Assurance CA-3
    36. 36. Demo #6
    37. 37.  I’m sorry! Time to geek out with some code Nothing particularly special about this code, any .NET developer should be able to work similar magic Examples use the Facebook C# SDK 
    38. 38.  Code snippets in these slides are not complete  Do not include proper error checking/handling  Do not show proper impersonation of System Account where necessary Please download the code  Do not copy and paste from these slides  I will Tweet the link and update this slide deck to include it
    39. 39.  Returned in a claim from Facebook  A new AccessToken is issued each login  Our key to all of the data about the logged in user  Required for all calls to the Facebook Graph API Two hour lifetime by default To leverage this token across the site, I store it in the SPWeb.AllProperties property bag  web.AllProperties[“fbAccessToken_{loginname}”]  AllProperties required for case sensitivity
    40. 40.  Change to Initial display name for the SPUser is based on the specified IdentifierClaim Make this friendlier – we know their name!if (SPContext.Current.Web.CurrentUser == null){ SPUser user = web.EnsureUser("i:" + claimsIdentity.Name); currentUser.Name = givenName; currentUser.Update();}
    41. 41. var client = new Facebook.FacebookClient(token);var me = (IDictionary<string, object>)client.Get("me");JsonObject location = me["location"] as JsonObject;myLocation = (string)location["name"]; myLocation is in City, State format Parsed and sent to Weather Underground API [key]/ geolookup/conditions/forecast/q/[state]/ [city].json
    42. 42. var client = new Facebook.FacebookClient(token);var me = (IDictionary<string, object>)client.Get("me");SPList lstContacts = web.Lists["Contacts"];SPListItem item = lstContacts.Items.Add();item["First Name"] = (string)me["first_name"];item["Last Name"] = (string)me["last_name"];JsonArray work = me["work"] as JsonArray;// Most recent/current employer stored in work[0]JsonObject company = work[0] as JsonObject;JsonObject employer = company["employer"] as JsonObject;JsonObject position = company["position"] as JsonObject;item["Company"] = (string)employer["name"];item["Job Title"] = (string)position["name"];item.SystemUpdate();
    43. 43. var client = new Facebook.FacebookClient(token);var me = (IDictionary<string, object>)client.Get("me/friends?fields=name,birthday");JsonArray friendData = me["data"] as JsonArray;foreach (JsonObject friend in friendData){ if (friend.ContainsKey("birthday")) { /* Some users share MM/DD of birthday, others share MM/DD/YYYY We only care about MM/DD for our purposes, and Facebook always pads with leading zeros */ string birthday = (string)friend["birthday"]; birthMonth = int.Parse(birthday.Substring(0, 2)); birthDate = int.Parse(birthday.Substring(3, 2)); ...
    44. 44. SPList lstCalendar = web.Lists["Calendar"];SPListItem birthdayItem = lstCalendar.Items.Add();birthdayItem["Title"] = name + (name.EndsWith("s") ? " birthday" :"s birthday");birthdayItem["EventDate"] = dtBirthday;birthdayItem[SPBuiltInFieldId.Duration] = 60 * 60 * 24;birthdayItem[SPBuiltInFieldId.EventType] = 1;birthdayItem[SPBuiltInFieldId.fRecurrence] = true;birthdayItem[SPBuiltInFieldId.fAllDayEvent] = true;string recurrence ="<recurrence><rule><firstDayOfWeek>su</firstDayOfWeek>" +"<repeat><yearly yearFrequency=1 month=" + birthMonth.ToString()+ " day=" + birthDate.ToString() + " /></repeat>" +"<windowEnd>2014-01-01T00:00:00Z</windowEnd></rule></recurrence>";birthdayItem["RecurrenceData"] = recurrence;birthdayItem.SystemUpdate();
    45. 45. var client = new Facebook.FacebookClient(token);Dictionary<string, object> dict = new Dictionary<string,object>();dict.Add("message", "Yay Facebook, SharePoint, &Bacon!");dict.Add("link", "");dict.Add("picture","");dict.Add("name", "FEDSPUG Home Page");dict.Add("caption", "April 5, 2012");dict.Add("description", "Come see my presentation aboutClaims-Based Identity in SharePoint 2010 at FEDSPUG!");client.PostAsync("me/feed", dict);
    46. 46. var client = new Facebook.FacebookClient(token);Dictionary<string, object> dict = newDictionary<string, object> { { "title", "I know how to post videos toFacebook...from SharePoint!" }, { "description", "See more at FEDSPUG April 5, 2012!"}, { "vid1", new FacebookMediaObject { ContentType ="video/x-flv", FileName = "facebook.flv"}.SetValue(File.ReadAllBytes(@"C:facebook.flv")) }};client.PostAsync("me/videos", dict);
    47. 47.  Silverlight application courtesy MossLover Interfaces with the user’s webcam, saves captured images to document library
    48. 48.  Added event handler to upload to Facebookstring contentType = "image/jpeg";var client = new Facebook.FacebookClient(fbAccessToken);Dictionary<string, object> dict = newDictionary<string, object> { { "message", "Uploaded picture from Silverlight webcamimage capture in SharePoint!" }, { "pic1", new FacebookMediaObject { ContentType =contentType, FileName = properties.ListItem.File.Name}.SetValue(properties.ListItem.File.OpenBinary()) }};client.PostAsync("me/photos", dict);
    49. 49.  WS-Trust, WS-Federation, SAML  Requesting/receiving tokens  XML representation of claims These emerging technologies have been around for awhile  Their use in Claims-Based Identity represents a new approach for handling identity in applications  Great potential in corporate environments ▪ Active Directory Federation Services, external LDAP, etc.  Great potential as we move to the cloud ▪ Azure ACS: Facebook, Google, Windows Live ID, etc.
    50. 50.  Allows users to choose how to authenticate when multiple providers are configured (Mixed Authentication) Custom code opportunity  6/23/sharepoint-2010-mixed-authentication- automatic-login.aspx
    51. 51.  Visual Web Part Code behind:IClaimsPrincipal claimsPrincipal = Page.User as IClaimsPrincipal;IClaimsIdentity claimsIdentity = (IClaimsIdentity) claimsPrincipal.Identity;GridView1.DataSource = claimsIdentity.Claims;Page.DataBind();
    52. 52.  Similar to FBA setup for MOSS, with some exceptions:  Authentication provider does not need to be mapped to a separate zone  One additional Web.config to modify: ▪ C:Program FilesCommon FilesMicrosoft SharedWeb Server Extensions14WebServicesSecurityToken ▪ Add entries for connection string, Membership provider, Role manager ▪ Same modifications for Central Admin and web app
    53. 53.  General issues for all Claims implementations  Search crawler requires NTLM in the zone it uses  “People picker” is more of a Claims “expression editor” ▪ Custom code opportunity  User Profiles ▪ LDAP or BCS connection to authentication store  Office client integration (2007 SP2+, 2010) ▪ IE 8+: Trusted Sites  No document previews with FAST Search
    54. 54. “After migrating to Claims inSharePoint 2010, most of our userswere able to log in some of thetime.” —A less-than-thrilled system administrator
    55. 55.  Migration from MOSS to SharePoint 2010  Migrate FBA Users ▪ $wa = get-SPWebApplication $WebAppName ▪ $wa.MigrateUsers($true)  Portalsuperuser and Portalsuperreader properties need to be updated to reflect Claims-encoded format ▪ $wa.Properties["portalsuperuseraccount"] = "i:0#.w|domainapppool" ▪ $wa.Properties["portalsuperreaderaccount"] = "i:0#.w|domainapppool" ▪ $wa.Update()  Must migrate all providers from MOSS to 2010 ▪ i.e., NTLM and FBA if both existed prior to migration
    56. 56.  “Funky” display of usernames  i:0#.w|SHRPNTAdministrator  i:0#.f|CustomMembershipProvider|username  i:0#.t|selfsts| ▪ i: Microsoft.SharePoint.Administration.Claims. SPClaimsAuthMembershipProvider (Web.config) ▪ windows, forms, trusted Identity Provider
    57. 57.  Set DisplayName property of SPUser  $user = Get-SPUser -Web http://abc.shrpnt.loc -Identity "i:0#.f|CustomMembershipProvider|username"  $user.DisplayName = "John Doe"  $user.Update() Can also be done via SharePoint object model
    58. 58.  Session expiration issues with SAML Claims  Users can come back to the page hours later without having to log in again  SharePoint creates a FedAuth cookie (written to disk) that is not a Session cookie by default ▪ $sts = Get-SPSecurityTokenServiceConfig ▪ $sts.UseSessionCookies = $true ▪ $sts.Update()
    59. 59.  Continuous redirection to/from login page  This can happen when the TokenLifetime is less than the LogonTokenCacheExpirationWindow ▪ Default LogonTokenCacheExpirationWindow in SharePoint 2010 STS is 10 minutes ▪ Default Token Lifetime in Azure ACS is also 10 minutes ▪ $sts = Get-SPSecurityTokenServiceConfig ▪ $sts.LogonTokenCacheExpirationWindow = (New-TimeSpan -minutes 1) ▪ $sts.Update()
    60. 60.  Go to the login page, enter valid credentials, press the “Log In” button, and…get redirected back to the login page (once)  Check the ULS logs! ▪ Could be token expiration timeout ▪ Could be something else
    61. 61.  SPSecurityTokenService.Issue() failed: System.Runtime.InteropServices. COMException (0x800703FA): Retrieving the COM class factory for component with CLSID {BDEADF26-C265-11D0-BCED-00A0C90AB50F} failed due to the following error: 800703FA.  GPEdit: Computer Configuration > Administrative Templates > System > User Profiles ▪ Do not forcefully unload the users registry at user logoff > Set to “Enabled”
    62. 62.  Stick with Classic Mode Authentication if you are deploying SharePoint into a “simple” Active Directory environment  Particularly if strict security controls are in place that are beyond your control  Especially if you are only migrating from Windows authentication in MOSS  Once you go to Claims, you can’t go back!
    63. 63.  If you must use Claims for your Extranet, try to minimize the number of zones/host headers used  Default zone should be most secure Have a good “troubleshooter’s toolbox”  ULS Log Viewer  Fiddler  Claims Viewer web part
    64. 64.  Shane Young – my hero!  Plan Authentication Methods (SharePoint Server 2010)  us/library/cc262350.aspx A Guide to Claims-Based Identity and Access Control (Microsoft Patterns and Practices) 
    65. 65.  Writing Claims Providers for SharePoint 2010  us/library/ff699494.aspx Implementing Claims-Based Authentication with SharePoint Server 2010  s.aspx?id=27569
    66. 66.  Transparent Login with Mixed Authentication  0/06/23/sharepoint-2010-mixed- authentication-automatic-login.aspx C# Facebook SDK  Azure ACS and Facebook  us/library/gg185967.aspx
    67. 67.  Steve Peschka  2010/06/12/migrating-a-web-application- from-windows-classic-to-windows-claims-in- sharepoint-2010.aspx  us/library/hh147183.aspx Project Server Blog (GREAT tips for migrating to Claims here!!!) 
    68. 68.  SelfSTS and Vittorio Bertocci   10/08/23/selfsts-when-you-need-a-saml- token-now-right-now.aspx Paul Schaeflein  t.aspx?ID=4
    69. 69.  Claims Viewer web part  avis/Pages/Post.aspx?_ID=32 Fiddler  SharePoint ULS Log Viewers  
    70. 70.  Azure ACS Integration  rchive/2011/04/21/windows-azure-access- control-services-federation-with- facebook.aspx  2011-07-29/20983.html Robert Bogue 