Oral Presentations


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Some pointers for Swedish students when giving presentations

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Oral Presentations

  1. 1. Hints and pointers on how to give oral presentations
  2. 2. <ul><li>Preparation is crucial </li></ul><ul><li>Ask yourself: </li></ul><ul><li>WHY? </li></ul><ul><li>to give information? </li></ul><ul><li>to persuade (övertyga)? </li></ul><ul><li>to present an argument? </li></ul><ul><li>WHOM FOR? </li></ul><ul><li>who are the audience? </li></ul><ul><li>what do they already know? </li></ul><ul><li>what do they need to know? </li></ul><ul><li>what would they find interesting ? </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>HOW LONG? </li></ul><ul><li>how much talk? </li></ul><ul><li>how much time for visual aids </li></ul><ul><li>how much time for questions? </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT SOURCES? </li></ul><ul><li>written sources </li></ul><ul><li>interviews </li></ul><ul><li>study visits </li></ul><ul><li>visual material </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>IT IS ESSENTIAL TO USE A VARIETY OF SOURCE MATERIALS! </li></ul><ul><li>Once finished, it’s time for the next step: </li></ul>the PREPARATION
  5. 5. <ul><li>This is an ORAL PRESENTATION: TALK don’t read. </li></ul><ul><li>Work from NOTES – possibly written on cards </li></ul><ul><li>Use your OWN LANGUAGE as much as possible. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Visual Aids </li></ul><ul><li>Can offer a variety of benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>something to talk to </li></ul><ul><li>serve as an eye catcher; </li></ul><ul><li>reminder of what you’ve said </li></ul><ul><li>simplify complex information e.g. statistics </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Remember: </li></ul><ul><li>keep your visual aids simple </li></ul><ul><li>limit the ideas presented on each one </li></ul><ul><li>LARGE LETTERS (bokstäver) </li></ul><ul><li>key expressions </li></ul><ul><li>use C O L O R to add to the appearance </li></ul><ul><li>check grammar and spelling!!!!! </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Make an outline of the presentation: </li></ul><ul><li>What will be mentioned in the introduction (a)? </li></ul><ul><li>What will be in the main part – development (b) – of the presentation? </li></ul><ul><li>What will be in the conclusion (c)? </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>yourself </li></ul><ul><li>your subject </li></ul><ul><li>your purpose (syfte) </li></ul><ul><li>the order of your presentation </li></ul><ul><li>An effective introduction should be brief (kortfattad) and to the point (koncis). </li></ul><ul><li>You might start with one of the following: </li></ul><ul><li>a surprising or unusual fact </li></ul><ul><li>a personal story </li></ul><ul><li>and interesting example </li></ul><ul><li>a quotation (citat) from an authority or expert </li></ul><ul><li>impressive or significant statistics. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>b) DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>This is the main part of your presentation so it is important that it is clear. Remember the audience is only listening so: </li></ul><ul><li>do not give too much information too quickly </li></ul><ul><li>space out the main points </li></ul><ul><li>establish a logical order of points. </li></ul><ul><li>c) CONCLUSION </li></ul><ul><li>This section should not contain any new information. It should: </li></ul><ul><li>refer back to the purpose of the presentation as stated in the introduction </li></ul><ul><li>summarize (sammanfatta) the main points and state your main conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>ask if there are any questions </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>It is essential that you rehearse (repeterar, tränar) your presentation. You should: </li></ul><ul><li>if a group presentation, decide who is doing what </li></ul><ul><li>check your timing – it must be right!! </li></ul><ul><li>become familiar with your visual aids - Practise </li></ul><ul><li>check that visual aids can be clearly seen at the back of the room </li></ul><ul><li>check your pronunciation (uttal), spelling, grammar and intonation – especially the third person “s”!!! </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>CLOTHES can be important – it is part of the message you are giving to the audience. </li></ul><ul><li>STANCE – do not look as if you are bored or uncomfortable. Use gestures. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain contact with your audience. Smile occasionally (då och då). </li></ul><ul><li>Look reasonably confident and enthusiastic - credibility </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>b) Voice: </li></ul><ul><li>Are you audible? (Hörs du?) </li></ul><ul><li>Are you speaking too fast? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you mumbling? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you talking to a visual aid instead of the audience? </li></ul><ul><li>Is your voice monotonous? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have the right intonation? </li></ul><ul><li>Do not sigh! (Sucka inte) </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>c) Using Visual Aids </li></ul><ul><li>Only when they are appropriate – not just because they are pretty/funny etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember not to stand in front of them. </li></ul><ul><li>Give your audience time to look at them before talking about them. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a pointer to direct the audience’s attention to them. </li></ul><ul><li>Switch off machines (OHP, projector, VCR etc.) when they are not being used. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Make sure the furniture in the room – chairs, desks etc. – are arranged according to your desire. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about whether you are going to deliver standing up or… </li></ul><ul><li>Where are you going to stand? Can everyone in the room see you? </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Nervousness is natural </li></ul><ul><li>Think of controlling your nerves </li></ul><ul><li>Breathe deeply </li></ul><ul><li>If your hands shake – do not hold anything, make gestures. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>If your knees knock – stand behind something. </li></ul><ul><li>You know what to say – not the audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn from your mistakes and do better next time. </li></ul><ul><li>When in doubt - SMILE </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>First of all </li></ul><ul><li>May I begin by </li></ul><ul><li>I would like to start by </li></ul><ul><li>to point out / as far as </li></ul><ul><li>as you can see on this… </li></ul><ul><li>on the contrary </li></ul><ul><li>on the whole </li></ul><ul><li>to sum up / finally </li></ul><ul><li>as you (may) know </li></ul><ul><li>in other words </li></ul><ul><li>draw your attention to </li></ul><ul><li>this indicates </li></ul><ul><li>in other words </li></ul><ul><li>on the other hand </li></ul><ul><li>in this particular/specific case </li></ul><ul><li>in conclusion </li></ul>