Reading skills

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Basic Skills for reading

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Reading skills

  1. 1. READING SKILLSMuhammad Daniyal MunirComsats Abbottabad
  2. 2. What is Reading?
  3. 3. C Nuttall Reading means getting out of the textas near as possible to the messagethat has been put in by the writer. In order to do so, you will need to : Understand, interpret, meaning, sense Decode, decipher, identify Articulate, speak, pronounce etc
  4. 4. C C Fries In reading, the student is developinga considerable range of habitualresponses to a specific set of patternsof graphic shapes.
  5. 5. N Anderson Reading is an active, fluent processwhich involves the reader and thereading material in building meaning. A synergy occurs in reading whichcombines the words on the printedpage with the reader’s backgroundknowledge and experiences.
  6. 6. John Greenwood 2 broad aspects/levels of reading1. A basically visual task, that ofdeciphering the marks on the page,the brain receiving signals from theeye – this mechanical level includeseye movement, from left to right.
  7. 7. John Greenwood2. A cognitive task, that of interpretingthe visual information, so that one isnot simply ‘barking at the print’ –we’re concerned with thinking skills –reconstruction takes place in thereader’s mind: he attempts to buildup the meaning the writer had inmind when he wrote the text.
  8. 8. Models of Reading Process
  9. 9. Bottom-up emphasizes the written or printedtext says reading is driven by a processthat results in meaning (or, in otherwords, reading is driven by text), and proceeds from part to whole.
  10. 10. Top-down emphasizes what the reader brings tothe text says reading is driven by meaning,and proceeds from whole to part.
  11. 11. Interactive model recognizes the interaction of bottom-up and top-down processessimultaneously throughout thereading process.
  12. 12. DIRECTIONS:Read the following paragraph throughonce and only once.When youve finished, look away fromyour computer screen.Then rewrite the story as best as you canremember.Dont reread the story until you aredirected to!
  13. 13. THE BOAT IN THE BASEMENT A woman was building a boat in herbasement. When she had finished thethe boot, she discovered that it wastoo big to go though the door. So hehad to take the boat a part to get itout. She should of planned ahead.
  14. 14. THE BOAT IN THE BASEMENT A woman was building a boat in herbasement. When she had finished thethe boot, she discovered that it wastoo big to go though the door. So hehad to take the boat a part to get itout. She should of planned ahead.
  15. 15.  The eyes are tools of the brain. The braintells them where to look and what to lookfor. It decides what to attend to and usefrom what the eye reports. The brain iscompletely in charge of all humaninformation processing. So, when your eyesent the input for the repeated the, yourbrains response was: "Dont get sloppy.Ive got that information already!"
  16. 16. Reading Skills
  17. 17. The Six Blind Men and theElephantThis is a story about six men. They could not see.They were blind. One day, one of the blind men said,‘There’s an elephant in Kampung Bahru.’The second man said,’An elephant? What is anelephant?’The first man said,’I don’t know’.The second man said,’I don’t know what an elephantis like. Do you know what an elephant is like?’Nobody knew. So they all went to Kampung Bahru tofind the elephant.
  18. 18. continuedThe first man touched the elephant. He couldn’t see it,but he could feel it. He felt its trunk. ‘Ah,’he said,’Now Iknow what an elephant is like. It’s like a snake. It is longand rubbery.’The second man touched the elephant. He couldn’t seeit, but he could feel it. He felt its tusks. ’Ah,’he said, ’NowI know what an elephant is like. It’s not like a snake. It’slike a kris. It’s sharp and smooth.’The third man touched the elephant. He couldn’t seeit, but he could feel it. He felt its ear. ‘Ah,’ he said, ‘Now Iknow what an elephant is like. It’s not like a snake. It’snot like a kris. It’s like a big leaf. It’s smooth and thin.’The fourth man touched the elephant. He couldn’t seeit, but he could feel it. He felt its leg. ‘Ah,’ he said, ‘Now Iknow what an elephant is like. It’s not like a snake. It’snot like a kris and it’s not like a big leaf. It’s like a tree.It’s round and hard.’
  19. 19. continuedThe fifth man touched the elephant. He couldn’t seeit, but he could feel it. He felt its side. ‘Ah,’ he said, ‘NowI know what an elephant is like. It’s not like a snake. It’snot like a kris. It’s like a big leaf and it’s not like a tree.It’s like a wall. It’s high and wide.’The sixth man touched the elephant. He couldn’t seeit, but he could feel it. He felt its side. ‘Ah,’ he said, ‘NowI know what an elephant is like. It’s not like a snake. It’snot like a kris. It’s like a big leaf. It’s not like a tree andit’s not like a wall. It’s like a rope. It’s long and thin.’The six men began to quarrel and shout at eachother.
  20. 20. continuedThe elephant just couldn’t keep quietanymore. He said,’Excuse me. Everybody isright. My trunk is like a snake. My tusks arelike krises. My ears are like big leaves. Mylegs are like trees. My sides are like walls.My tail is like a rope.’
  21. 21. Skimming and ScanningSkimming Skimming refers to the process of reading onlymain ideas within a passage to get an overallimpression of the content of a readingselection. Quickly running ones eyes across a whole textto get the gist. It gives readers the advantage of being able topredicate the purpose of the passage, the maintopic.
  22. 22. How to Skim: Read the title. Read the introduction or the first paragraph. Read the first sentence of every otherparagraph. Read any headings and sub-headings. Notice any pictures, charts, or graphs. Notice any italicized or boldface words orphrases. Read the summary or last paragraph.
  23. 23. Examples of Skimming: The Newspaper (quickly to get thegeneral news of the day) Magazines (quickly to discover whicharticles you would like to read inmore detail) Business and Travel Brochures(quickly to get informed)
  24. 24. Skimming and ScanningScanning Scanning is a reading technique to be used whenyou want to find specific information quickly. Inscanning you have a question in your mind and youread a passage only to find the answer, ignoringunrelated information. Quickly searching for some particular pieces ofinformation in a text. Scanning exercises may ask students to look fornames or dates, to find a definition of a keyconcept, or to list a certain number of supportingdetails. The purpose of it is to extract certain specificinformation without reading through the whole text.
  25. 25. How to Scan: State the specific information you are lookingfor. Try to anticipate how the answer will appearand what clues you might use to help you locatethe answer. For example, if you were looking fora certain date, you would quickly read theparagraph looking only for numbers. Use headings and any other aids that will helpyou identify which sections might contain theinformation you are looking for. Selectively read and skip through sections of thepassage.
  26. 26. Examples of Scanning The "Whats on TV" section of yournewspaper. A train / airplane schedule A conference guide

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