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Blood pressure(hypo-hypetension)


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it's a good presentation prepared by Daniyal Gohar.hope so it will help you,

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Blood pressure(hypo-hypetension)

  1. 1. T opic: Blood Pressure Prepared By: Daniyal Gohar (11011506-061) Botany Department University of Gujra
  2. 2. What is Blood Pressure? Blood Pressure is a measurement of the force against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood throughout the body. • Usually, blood pressure refers to arterial blood pressure.
  3. 3. Measurement of BP • Blood pressure is measured in mmHg (mili meters of mercury). • Blood pressure is typically recorded as two numbers, written as a ratio like this • Diastolic • systolic
  4. 4. Systolic • The top number, which is also the higher of the two numbers, measures the pressure in the arteries when the heart beats (when the heart muscle contracts).
  5. 5. Diastolic • The bottom number, which is also the lower of the two numbers, measures the pressure in the arteries between heartbeats (when the heart muscle is resting between beats and refilling with blood).
  6. 6. Blood pressure may be affected by many different conditions: • • • • • Cardiovascular disorders Neurological conditions Kidney and urological disorders Pre eclampsia in pregnant women Psychological factors such as stress, anger, or fear . • Use of various medications
  7. 7. Measurement
  8. 8. Blood pressure changes may lead to: • Low blood pressure (Hypotension) • High blood pressure (Hypertension)
  9. 9. What is low blood pressure(hypotension)? Low blood pressure means that your blood pressure is lower than normal. Another name for low blood pressure is hypotension.
  10. 10. Hypotension • If your blood pressure drops suddenly or causes symptoms like dizziness or fainting, it is too low. It can cause shock. Shock can be dangerous if it is not treated right away.
  11. 11. What causes hypotension? • Some of the causes of low blood pressure include: • Getting up after you sit or lie down. This can cause a quick drop in blood pressure called orthostatic hypotension. • Standing for a long time. • Not drinking enough fluids (dehydration).
  12. 12. What causes hypotension? • Medicines, such as high blood pressure medicine or other heart medicines. • Health problems such as , severe infection, or heart problems. • Shock • pregnancy
  13. 13. Symptoms Some common symptoms are: • Feeling dizzy, lightheaded, or faint. • Having a fast or irregular heartbeat. • Feeling sick to your stomach • Feeling more thirsty than usual. • • • • • Having blurry vision. Feeling weak. Being confused. Being tired. Having cold, clammy skin. • Breathing very fast.
  14. 14. Treatment and Prevention • Depending on the cause(s) for your low blood pressure, certain lifestyle modifications or medications might help prevent and reduce your symptoms.
  15. 15. Treatment and Prevention • There are a few lifestyle changes that can help with low blood pressure: • Drink more fluids, like water, • Limit your alcohol intake. • Wear compression stockings to prevent blood from pooling.
  16. 16. Treatment and Prevention • Change body positions slowly. • Increasing your salt intake can help with low blood pressure. prevent excessive salt intake. In the case of shock, seek emergency medical treatment immediately.
  17. 17. High blood pressure (Hypertension) • If this pressure is too high it puts a strain on your arteries and your heart, which makes it more likely that you will suffer a heart attack, a stroke or kidney disease.
  18. 18. Hypertension Hypertension may be classified as essential or secondary. •Primary hypertension: is the term for high blood pressure with unknown cause. It accounts for about 95% of cases. •Secondary hypertension: is the term for high blood pressure with a known direct cause, such as kidney disease, tumors, or birth control pills.
  19. 19. Primary Hypertension • Mostly nine in 10 people with high blood pressure have what's called primary or essential hypertension. This means it has no single clear cause.
  20. 20. Causes Many factors to do with your lifestyle may contribute to primary hypertension. These include: •smoking •being overweight or obese •drinking a lot of alcohol •lack of exercise •unhealthy diet - especially if it's high in salt
  21. 21. Secondary hypertension • Around one in 20 people with high blood pressure have secondary hypertension. This means your doctor can link your high blood pressure to a known cause such as:
  22. 22. causes • kidney disease • endocrine disease (hormone disorders) • narrowing of the aorta or the arteries leading to the kidneys. Secondary hypertension can also be caused by: • steroid medicines • the contraceptive pill • pre-eclampsia -
  23. 23. Symptoms Of Hypertension Extremely high blood pressure may lead to some symptoms • • • • • Severe headaches Fatigue or confusion Dizziness Nausea Problems with vision • • • • Chest pains Breathing problems Irregular heartbeat Blood in the urine
  24. 24. Diagnosis of high blood pressure Normal blood pressure can vary somewhat from person to person according to many factors. What's in the high-normal range for one person may be considered high in a person with diabetes
  25. 25. The National Heart Foundation offers a general guide: Normal blood pressure generally less than 120/80 mmHg Normal-to-high blood pressure between 120/80 and 140/90 mmHg High blood pressure 140/90 mmHg or higher Very high blood pressure 180/110 mmHg or higher
  26. 26. Treatment and prevention Self-help •Quit smoking •Maintain a diet low in saturated fat and salt •Cut down on alcohol
  27. 27. Treatment and prevention • Cut down on coffee and high-caffeine drinks, such as cola • Take regular, moderate-intensity exercise • Lose any excess weight