MODELS OF READING PROCESS THROUGH THE YEARS 1879 Emile Java did the first work about the moments of the eyes. 1964 Carroll said “reading is a simple one-way flow diagram from visual stimulus to an oral language recording to meaning responses. 1969 Ruddell developed a system of communication model of reading that contained a excruciating detail of component processes and stages. 1967-1970 Goodman and Smith Pused the field to consider the basic processes in reading. “Reading as a psycholinguistic guessing game”. 1970-1972 Hockberg Levind and Kaplan and Mackworth. Explained what a model of processes of skilled reading must account for. 1972 Gough assumed that all the letters in the visual field must be accounted for individually by the reader prior to the assignment of meaning to any string of letters. 1977 Rumelhart “Interactive model” emphasizes flexible processing and multiple information sources, depending upon contextual circumstances. 1971 Frank smith described reading as a Psycholinguistic process. His account of reading exhibits a procedural preference for reliance on language factors instead of graphic information. His greatest contribution is to explain how the redundancy inherit at all levels of languages provides the reader with enormous flexibility in marshaling resources to create a meaning for the text at hand. 1972-8 Model that emphasized letters to sounds to meaning. Holmes and singer emphasize the empirical evaluation of the models. 1978 Kinstsch and Van Dijk model worry about comprehension to the exclusion of world identification. 1980 Have built a model to account for comprehension process based upon studies of eye movements.
PROBLEMS IN MODEL EVALUATION The developer of the model has a limited knowledge and it is influenced by the philosophies. Each scholar who describes the process is influenced by information gathered boring experiments. <ul><li>4 factors </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Skills and task </li></ul><ul><li>Material </li></ul><ul><li>context. </li></ul>They might affect the results. The most important is to remember that none of the models is 100% complete, we have to research in many sources in order to have a better comprehension
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD MODEL SUMARIZE THE PAST It help us to understand the present It can predict the future It Synthesize much of the information that was gathered in the past, in order to generate better models. It is complex to understand a complex phenomenon can serve as a most important scientific and social function. It enable us to formulate hypothesis are those which are testable.
Rumelhart, Stanovich model &linear models Information processing models tend to be linear and to have a series of non interactive processing stage which work independently and passes to the next one. DEFICIENCIES IN LINEAR MODELS It has resources from orthographic, syntactic, semantic and lexical. Each one depend on the others. It is able to accommodate the accuracies known to take place while reading which the linear model has difficulty accommodating. 1980 integrates concepts from a variety of sources: “interactive models provide a better account of the existing data on the use of orthographic structure and sentence context by good and poor readers.”
BIBLIOGRAPHY CARREL, PATRICIA L., DEVINE JOANNE Et al.(1990) Interactive approaches to second Language Reading. USA: Cambridge applied Linguistics . Pp.22.