Nanotechnology and its applications to healthcare

8,998 views

Published on

Ralph C. Merkle

Published in: Technology, Education
1 Comment
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • As a management instructor I appreciate viewing the work of others. This is among the best display on planning I've viewed.
    Sharika
    http://financeadded.com http://traveltreble.com
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total views
8,998
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
119
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
693
Comments
1
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Nanotechnology and its applications to healthcare

  1. 1. Nanotechnology and its applications to healthcare Ralph C. Merkle, Ph.D. Principal Fellow
  2. 2. <ul><li>The overheads (in PowerPoint) are available on the web at: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/talks/ppt/ </li></ul><ul><li>France 010608.ppt </li></ul>Slides on web
  3. 3. <ul><li>Ninth Foresight Conference on Molecular Nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>November 9-11, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Clara, California Introductory tutorial November 8 </li></ul><ul><li>www.foresight.org/Conferences/MNT9/ </li></ul>Foresight
  4. 4. Foresight www.foresight.org/SrAssoc/ www.nanodot.org Gatherings
  5. 5. Health, wealth and atoms
  6. 6. Arranging atoms <ul><li>Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Precision </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul>
  7. 7. Richard Feynman,1959 There’s plenty of room at the bottom
  8. 8. 1980’s, 1990’s Binnig and Rohrer Experiment and theory
  9. 9. President Clinton, 2000 <ul><li>“ Imagine the possibilities: materials with ten times the strength of steel and only a small fraction of the weight -- shrinking all the information housed at the Library of Congress into a device the size of a sugar cube -- detecting cancerous tumors when they are only a few cells in size.” </li></ul>The National Nanotechnology Initiative
  10. 10. Arrangements of atoms . Today Overview
  11. 11. The goal . Overview
  12. 12. Core molecular manufacturing capabilities Today Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Products Overview
  13. 13. Positional assembly
  14. 14. Experimental 100 microns
  15. 15. H. J. Lee and W. Ho, SCIENCE 286, p. 1719, NOVEMBER 1999 Experimental
  16. 16. Theoretical
  17. 17. <ul><li>Property Diamond’s value Comments </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical reactivity Extremely low </li></ul><ul><li>Hardness (kg/mm2) 9000 CBN: 4500 SiC: 4000 </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal conductivity (W/cm-K) 20 Ag: 4.3 Cu: 4.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Tensile strength (pascals) 3.5 x 10 9 (natural) 10 11 (theoretical) </li></ul><ul><li>Compressive strength (pascals) 10 11 (natural) 5 x 10 11 (theoretical) </li></ul><ul><li>Band gap (ev) 5.5 Si: 1.1 GaAs: 1.4 </li></ul><ul><li>Resistivity (W-cm) 10 16 (natural) </li></ul><ul><li>Density (gm/cm3) 3.51 </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal Expansion Coeff (K-1) 0.8 x 10 -6 SiO2: 0.5 x 10 -6 </li></ul><ul><li>Refractive index 2.41 @ 590 nm Glass: 1.4 - 1.8 </li></ul><ul><li>Coeff. of Friction 0.05 (dry) Teflon: 0.05 </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Crystallume </li></ul>What to make Diamond physical properties
  18. 18. Making diamond today Illustration courtesy of P1 Diamond Inc.
  19. 19. Hydrogen abstraction tool
  20. 20. Other molecular tools
  21. 21. Bearing
  22. 22. Planetary gear
  23. 23. Fine motion controller
  24. 24. Theoretical
  25. 25. Self replication A redwood tree ( sequoia sempervirens ) 112 meters tall Redwood National Park
  26. 26. The Von Neumann architecture Universal Computer Universal Constructor http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/vonNeumann.html Self replication
  27. 27. Replicating bacterium DNA DNA Polymerase Self replication
  28. 28. http://www.foresight.org/UTF/Unbound_LBW/chapt_6.html Drexler’s proposal for an assembler Self replication
  29. 29. <ul><li>Von Neumann's constructor 500,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Mycoplasma genitalia 1,160,140 </li></ul><ul><li>Drexler's assembler 100,000,000 </li></ul>Complexity (bits)
  30. 30. Micro rotation
  31. 31. Exponential assembly
  32. 32. <ul><li>The impact </li></ul><ul><li>of a manufacturing technology </li></ul><ul><li>depends on what we manufacture </li></ul>Impact
  33. 33. <ul><li>We’ll have more computing power in the volume of a sugar cube than the sum total of all the computer power that exists in the world today </li></ul><ul><li>More than 10 21 bits in the same volume </li></ul><ul><li>Almost a billion Pentiums in parallel </li></ul>Impact Powerful Computers
  34. 34. <ul><li>Disease and ill health are caused largely by damage at the molecular and cellular level </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s surgical tools are huge and imprecise in comparison </li></ul>Impact Nanomedicine
  35. 35. <ul><li>In the future, we will have fleets of surgical tools that are molecular both in size and precision. </li></ul><ul><li>We will also have computers much smaller than a single cell to guide those tools. </li></ul>Impact Nanomedicine
  36. 36. Scale “ Typical” mitochondrion ~1-2 by 0.1-0.5 microns Size of a robotic arm ~100 nanometers 8-bit computer
  37. 37. Scale “ Typical” cell: ~20 microns Mitochondrion Size of a robotic arm ~100 nanometers 8-bit computer
  38. 38. Remove infections
  39. 39. Clear obstructions
  40. 40. Respirocyte
  41. 41. <ul><li>Today: preserve function </li></ul><ul><li>Tomorrow: preserve structure </li></ul>A Revolution
  42. 42. Liquid nitrogen Time Temperature Cryonics
  43. 43. <ul><li>Would you rather </li></ul><ul><li>join the control group </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>the experimental group? </li></ul><ul><li>(www.alcor.org) </li></ul>What to do?
  44. 44. <ul><li>“ Thus, like so much else in medicine, cryonics, once considered on the outer edge, is moving rapidly closer to reality” </li></ul><ul><li>ABC News World News Tonight , Feb 8 th </li></ul><ul><li>“… [medical] advances are giving new credibility to cryonics.” </li></ul><ul><li>KRON 4 News, NightBeat, May 3, 2001 </li></ul>Perception
  45. 45. <ul><li>By Robert Freitas, Zyvex Research Scientist </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys medical applications of nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>Volume I (of three) published in 1999 </li></ul>Theory Nanomedicine http://www.foresight.org/Nanomedicine
  46. 46. Human impact on the environment depends on <ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Living standards </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul>The Vision
  47. 47. Restoring the environment with nanotechnology <ul><li>Low cost greenhouse agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost solar power </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution free manufacturing </li></ul>The Vision
  48. 48. <ul><li>Nanotechnology offers ... possibilities for health, wealth, and capabilities beyond most past imaginings. </li></ul><ul><li>K. Eric Drexler </li></ul>

×