A competent reader approaches reading as a selfmonitoring, problem-solving activity where the context and purpose of the task are analysed, a plan of action decided and appropriate resources are identified and accessed. These aren’t skills that necessarily come naturally to all readers, especially struggling readers and need to be considered in a balanced literacy approach. The implications for teaching are that teachers need a way of identifying the different reading purposes that might be encountered, and the resources that a reader might need for each purpose. Teachers also need to identify pedagogies that teach students to analyse tasks, problem solve, identify resources and self monitor in real life contexts. Reading pedagogy must be socially situated. Last week I posted a chart for you to have a look at that is a suggested method for analyzing texts. That chart is based on the 4 Resources model which is an framework used to help create a balanced approach to teaching reading. I’m going to just introduce you to this model now and we will return to it throughout the course.
One of the jobs that competent readers do is break the codes of semiotic systems used in texts. They have to draw on resources that help makes sense of text, but don’t think of texts exclusive as words on the page, they can also include illustration, video, and sound. These are some of the questions that a reader might ask when engaged in code-breaking. (Model this with Rodd’s blog doing a thinkaloud.)
When we’re making meaning of texts, we’re making meaning at both the literal and inferential levels. Readers have to use their code-breaking resources and draw on all their previous social cultural and reading experiences in order to make connections and form conclusions. Model this for blog doing a think aloud. It’s important to understand that different social and cultural backgrounds will change how a reader makes meaning. eg/ literacy test example.
Most reading, even reading for pleasure is pragmatic. There is a purpose for it. The purpose for reading affects the way that we interact with a text. For example, if you’ve been assigned a text book reading for a course, there are certain pieces of information you’re going to focus on more than others while, if you’re reading for pleasure, you might focus on the way in which a character is developed or the beauty of the language.
Texts are social products. They are not neutral. These questions are the kinds of questions we have students ask when we want them to engage in what’s commonly called critical literacy. 19th century students were expected to accept at face value the ideas presented to them in texts, but consider for example Film and video similarly promote particular values and ideologiesabout the world through characterisation and setting; by associating particular behaviours and attitudes with certain classes, races or countries; or by adopting unexpected twists of the plot, such as the ‘bad’ character ultimately ‘winning’.
PML 8Building a Learning Environment to Support Multiliteracies
AgendaReminders about blog postsDiscussion of Kajder articleQuestioning techniquesReturn to the 4 Resources Model (and briefly look at3D Model)Questions for next week?
Kajder Article Discussion TechnologySituating the Conversation: New Literacies,and Learning in the English Language Arts ClassroomAt your table, generate one or two discussion questions that youcould use to engage in meaningful conversation about the articlewith another group of students in this class. •Jassar’s storyAreas of focus: •Teaching in a “New English Classroom” •Unpacking Adolescent Literacy: An NCTE Policy Research Brief •Reseeing Jassar’s story •Reseeing the Classroom through Theory and Research
Four Resources ModelWhat do competent readers do?What are the implications for us as teachers?
Code BreakerHow do I crack this text?How does it work?Is there more than onesemiotic system operatinghere?If so, how do they relate?What are its (their) codes andconventions?How do the parts relate singlyand in combination?
Code BreakerRead this passage and answer the questions. At yourtable, have several people to read it aloud; see if theypronounce the words in similar ways.The tok gorded the bick and then rambushed the smolebecause the smole was a ringlebeck.
Code Breaker1) Why were several people able to read this aloud withfairly similar pronunciation? Think about your knowledgeof letter and sound combinations (graphophonic cueingsystem).2) Were you able to answer the questions successfully?What was it that helped you with this? Think about yourknowledge of the order of words in a sentence (syntacticcueing system).3) Do you have any idea what this text isabout? That is,do you know what a ‘tok’ is, or a ‘bick’ or ‘smole’? Whatdoes ‘rambushed’ mean? (Semantic cueing system.)
Code BreakerThe code-breaking practices applicable to thealphabetic characters of the printed word arenecessary—but not sufficient for reading the texts oftoday and the future.Reflection: What other types of code-breakingpractices do today’s and tomorrow’s students need?
Meaning MakerHow are the ideas in this text sequenced—do they connect with one another?Is the text linear or nonlinear; interactive ornon-interactive?How does this affect the way I makemeaning?What prior knowledge and experiencesmight help me make meaning of this text? How will my purpose for reading, and thecontext in which I am reading, influence mymeaning making? Are there other possible meanings andreadings of this text
Meaning MakerConsider these two beginnings to a text:1 Once upon a time there was a king called Richard whose landsextended from one great ocean to another …2 In the late 14th century, King Richard had charge of the landsfrom the English Channel to the Irish Sea…Write down your predictions about these two texts. What is theirpurpose, the context in which they might be used, and thegenre? How do you predict each text will unfold? What contentdo you expect?
Meaning MakerWhat social, cultural and reading knowledge andexperience did you draw upon to make thesepredictions?Could your students’ prior reading experiences make itdifficult for them to read these texts?
Text UserWhat is the purpose of this text, and what is mypurpose in using it? How have the uses of this text shaped itscomposition?What should I do with this text in this context?What will others do with this text?What are my options or alternatives after reading?
Text UserList and compare the reading tasks associated withshopping online and over the counter. Consider the reading tasks in each setting in terms ofthe code-breaker and meaning-maker resources used. Now consider the text-user resources used. How dothe structures of the texts encountered in these twosettings reflect their respective purposes and uses? How did your social behaviour and the use of othermodes vary between the online and face-to-faceshopping experiences?
Text AnalystWhat kind of person, with what interests and values,produced this text?What are the origins of this text?What is the text trying to make me believe and do?What beliefs and positions are dominant in the text?What beliefs and positions are silenced or absent?What do I think about the way this text presents these ideas,and what alternatives are there?Having critically examined this text, what action am I going totake?
Text AnalystConsider the following clip: QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
Text AnalystWhat beliefs and positions are dominant in the text?What beliefs and positions are silenced or absent?What do you think about the values and ideologiesconveyed in this text?
4 Resources ModelHanded out onsecond day but also in OWL
3 D Model Similar to 4 Resources but describes three “dimensions” of literacy, whereas the 4 Resources model looks at the types of resources of skill sets that readers must have.
QuestionsWhat’s left? What do you want to know? If I don’t havethe answer I’ll try to bring in someone who does.
For next week:Please read: Jenkins, H., with Clinton, K., Purushotma, R., Robison, A.J. & Weigel, M. (2006) What should we teach? Rethinking literacy. In Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st Century. p. 19-56 (whitepaper)