A competent reader approaches reading as a selfmonitoring, problem-solving activity where the\ncontext and purpose of the task are analysed, a plan of action decided and appropriate\nresources are identified and accessed. These aren&#x2019;t skills that necessarily come naturally to all readers, especially struggling readers and need to be considered in a balanced literacy approach. The implications for teaching are that teachers need a way of identifying the different reading purposes that might be encountered, and the resources that a reader might need for each purpose. Teachers also need to\nidentify pedagogies that teach students to analyse tasks, problem solve, identify resources and self monitor in real life contexts. Reading pedagogy must be socially situated. Last week I posted a chart for you to have a look at that is a suggested method for analyzing texts. That chart is based on the 4 Resources model which is an framework used to help create a balanced approach to teaching reading. I&#x2019;m going to just introduce you to this model now and we will return to it throughout the course.\n
One of the jobs that competent readers do is break the codes of semiotic systems used in texts. They have to draw on resources that help makes sense of text, but don&#x2019;t think of texts exclusive as words on the page, they can also include illustration, video, and sound. These are some of the questions that a reader might ask when engaged in code-breaking. (Model this with Rodd&#x2019;s blog doing a thinkaloud.)\n
When we&#x2019;re making meaning of texts, we&#x2019;re making meaning at both the literal and inferential levels. Readers have to use their code-breaking resources and draw on all their previous social cultural and reading experiences in order to make connections and form conclusions. Model this for blog doing a think aloud. It&#x2019;s important to understand that different social and cultural backgrounds will change how a reader makes meaning. eg/ literacy test example.\n
Most reading, even reading for pleasure is pragmatic. There is a purpose for it. The purpose for reading affects the way that we interact with a text. For example, if you&#x2019;ve been assigned a text book reading for a course, there are certain pieces of information you&#x2019;re going to focus on more than others while, if you&#x2019;re reading for pleasure, you might focus on the way in which a character is developed or the beauty of the language.\n
Texts are social products. They are not neutral. These questions are the kinds of questions we have students ask when we want them to engage in what&#x2019;s commonly called critical literacy. 19th century students were expected to accept at face value the ideas presented to them in texts, but consider for example Film and video similarly promote particular values and ideologies\nabout the world through characterisation and setting; by associating particular behaviours and attitudes with certain classes, races or countries; or by adopting unexpected twists of the plot, such as the &#x2018;bad&#x2019; character ultimately &#x2018;winning&#x2019;.\n
PML 8Building a Learning Environment to Support Multiliteracies
AgendaReminders about blog postsDiscussion of Powers article and graphic organizersReturn to the 4 Resources Model (and briefly look at 3D Model)Questions for next week?
Powers Article Discussion Curriculum theorizing for multiliteracies: A rebel with a cause1) Identify Powers’ purpose.2) How does she deﬁne “multiliteracies”?3) How do her lesson examples illustrateher concept of multiliteracies?4) From a critical literacy lens, did it raiseany questions or concerns for you? photo credit: Oblong5) Was the graphic organizer useful? Haveyou used others that you think mightwork?
Four Resources ModelWhat do competent readers do?What are the implications for us as teachers?
Code BreakerHow do I crack this text?How does it work?Is there more than one semioticsystem operating here?If so, how do they relate?What are its (their) codes andconventions?How do the parts relate singly and incombination?
Code BreakerRead this passage and answer the questions. At your table, haveseveral people to read it aloud; see if they pronounce the wordsin similar ways.The tok gorded the bick and then rambushed the smole becausethe smole was a ringlebeck.
Code Breaker1) Why were several people able to read this aloud with fairlysimilar pronunciation? Think about your knowledge of letter andsound combinations (graphophonic cueing system).2) Were you able to answer the questions successfully? What wasit that helped you with this? Think about your knowledge of theorder of words in a sentence (syntactic cueing system).3) Do you have any idea what this text isabout? That is, do youknow what a ‘tok’ is, or a ‘bick’ or ‘smole’? What does‘rambushed’ mean? (Semantic cueing system.)
Code BreakerThe code-breaking practices applicable to the alphabeticcharacters of the printed word are necessary—but not sufficientfor reading the texts of today and the future.Reflection: What other types of code-breaking practices dotoday’s and tomorrow’s students need?
Meaning MakerHow are the ideas in this text sequenced—do theyconnect with one another?Is the text linear or nonlinear; interactive or non-interactive?How does this affect the way I make meaning?What prior knowledge and experiences might helpme make meaning of this text? How will my purpose for reading, and the contextin which I am reading, influence my meaningmaking? Are there other possible meanings and readings ofthis text
Meaning MakerConsider these two beginnings to a text:1 Once upon a time there was a king called Richard whoselands extended from one great ocean to another …2 In the late 14th century, King Richard had charge of the landsfrom the English Channel to the Irish Sea…Write down your predictions about these two texts. What is theirpurpose, the context in which they might beused and the genre? How do you predict each text will unfold?What content do you expect?
Meaning MakerWhat social, cultural and reading knowledge and experience didyou draw upon to make these predictions?Could your students’ prior reading experiences make it difficultfor them to read these texts?
Text UserWhat is the purpose of this text, and what is my purpose in usingit?How have the uses of this text shaped its composition?What should I do with this text in this context?What will others do with this text?What are my options or alternatives after reading?
Text UserList and compare the reading tasks associated with shoppingonline and over the counter.Consider the reading tasks in each setting in terms of the code-breaker and meaning-maker resources used.Now consider the text-user resources used. How do thestructures of the texts encountered in these two settings reflecttheir respective purposes and uses?How did your social behaviour and the use of other modes varybetween the online and face-to-face shopping experiences?
Text AnalystWhat kind of person, with what interests and values, produced this text?What are the origins of this text?What is the text trying to make me believe and do?What beliefs and positions are dominant in the text?What beliefs and positions are silenced or absent?What do I think about the way this text presents these ideas, and whatalternatives are there?Having critically examined this text, what action am I going to take?
Text AnalystWhat beliefs and positions are dominant in the text?What beliefs and positions are silenced or absent?What do you think about the values and ideologies conveyed inthis text?
4 Resources ModelHanded out onsecond day butalso in Web CT
3 D Model Similar to 4 Resources but describes three “dimensions” of literacy, whereas the 4 Resouces model looks at the types of resources of skill sets that readers must have.
QuestionsWhat’s left? What do you want to know? If I don’t have theanswer I’ll try to bring in someone who does.
For next week:Please read: Jenkins, H., with Clinton, K., Purushotma, R., Robison, A.J. & Weigel, M. (2006) What should we teach? Rethinking literacy. In Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st Century. p. 19-56 (whitepaper)