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  2. 2.  Communication Disorders involve a wide variety of problems in speech, language and hearing. For example, speech language disorders include stuttering, aphasia, dysfluency, voice disorders, cleft lip and / or palate, articulation problems, delays in speech and language, autism and phonological disorders.  Speech and language impairments and disorders can be attributed to environmental factors which include drugs taken during pregnancy, common STD’s such as syphilis and birthing trauma  Communication Disorders can also be stem from other conditions such as learning disabilities, dyslexia, cerebral palsy and mental retardation.
  3. 3. SPEECH DISORDER  A child may have trouble forming the typical sounds of verbal speech, omitting or other consonants to words and distorting or substituting incorrect sounds. LANGUAGE DISORDER  When a child has difficulty understanding language both verbal and written. They have trouble with sentence formation, word sequencing, clarifying ideas, following directions and they tend to use their hands when experiencing difficulty getting their words out.
  4. 4.  Show understanding, patience and acceptance.  Provide extra time to answer questions.  Encourage speech practice by having one on one conversations.  Keep lectures clear, simple, pronounced and in proper language syntax.  Make eye contact with the student when listening and speaking.
  5. 5.  Repeat mispronounced phrases properly as a question so it does not seem like criticism.  Never mimic a child with a speech disorder  Don’t avoid calling on children with language development problem, and particularly if the answers are to be short.  Make sure the student speaks in front of the class and answer questions at least once per day.  Set up practice verbal skills session between pairs of students where they read aloud work on a problem orally, or play games that encourage speech.
  6. 6.  Do not tolerate teasing or bullying by the students.  Do not point out communication disorders to others in the class.  Keep the classroom environment relaxed and organized.  When it appears that a student needs help, ask if you can help. Accept a “No, Thank you”, graciously.  Be a good speech model.  Give them time to express themselves, do not interrupt or try to fill in gaps for them.  Speak to them naturally.
  7. 7.  Maintain contact with the students.  Allow students to tape lectures.  Provide an interpreter to those who require another form of communication.  Encourage and assist in facilitation of participation in activities and discussion.  Be patient.  Be a good listener.
  8. 8.  Allow more time for the students to complete activities.  Place the students within reasonable distance from the instructor to meet their needs.  Provide assistance and positive reinforcement when the students shows the ability to do something unaided.  Use peer – buddy system when appropriate.  Consider alternate activities that can be utilized with less difficulty for the student.
  9. 9. GENERAL COURTESY “Don’t assume that the person is not listening just because you are getting no verbal or visual feedback.” “ Don’t assume that you have to explain everything to students with learning disabilities.” “ Consult with the special education specialist to obtain help in understanding the specific nature of the learning disability of each student.”
  10. 10.  Always ask questions in a clarifying manner, then have the students with learning disabilities to describe his or her understanding of the questions.  Reduce course load for students with learning disabilities.  Provide students with chapter outlines or study guides that cue them to key points in their readings.  Keep oral instruction logical and concise.  Frequently verbalize what is being written on the chalkboard.
  11. 11.  Eliminate classroom distractions.  Establish the clarity of understanding that the student has about class assignments.  Give assignments both in written and oral form.  Have practice exercises available for lessons, in case student has problem.  Have complex homework assignments due in two or three days rather than on the next day.  Pace instruction carefully to ensure clarity.
  12. 12.  Present a new and / or technical vocabulary on the chalkboard or overhead.  Use plenty of examples, oral or otherwise, in order to make topics more applied.  Write legibly, use large type; do not clutter the blackboard with non – current/ non – relevant information.  Use props to make narrative situations more vivid and clear.  Assist the student, if necessary.
  13. 13.  Clearly label equipment, tools and materials.  In dealing with abstract concepts, use visual tools such as charts and graphs. Paraphrase and present them in specific terms, sequence and illustrate them with concrete examples, personal experiences, or hands – on exercises.  To minimize student anxiety, provide an individual orientation to the laboratory and equipment and give them extra practice with tasks and equipment.  Allow students to use computers and spell checking programs or assignments.
  14. 14.  Announce reading as well assignments well in advance.  Find materials paralleling the textbook, but written at a lower reading level.  Offer to read written material aloud, when necessary.  Read aloud material that is written on the chalkboard and on the overhead transparencies.  Suggest that then students use both visual and auditory senses when reading the text.  Allow students to use tape recorder.
  15. 15.  Always ask questions in clarifying manner.  Assist the students, if necessary.  Encourage questions during and after class to ensure that materials are understood.  Give plenty of reinforcement.  Have frequent question –and – answer sessions for students with learning disabilities.
  16. 16.  Avoid overly complicated language in exam question and clearly separate items when spacing them on the exam sheet.  Consider other forms of testing.  Eliminate distractions while students are taking exams.  For Students who have reading difficulties, have a proctor read the test to the student.  Gradually increase expectations as the students with learning disabilities gains confidence.
  17. 17.  Grant time extensions on exam and written assignments where there are significant demands or reading and writing skills.  If distractions are excessive, permit the student with learning disabilities to take examination in a separate quiet room with a proctor.  Provide study questions for exams that demonstrate with the format along with the content of the exam.  Permit students with learning disabilities to use the dictionary, thesaurus or a calculator during tests.
  18. 18.  Ask previous teachers about interactive techniques that have previously been affective with the students in the past.  Expose students with behavioral disorders to other students who demonstrate the appropriate behavior.  Direct instruction or target behaviors is often required to help students master them.  Have preestablished consequences for misbehavior.  Administer consequences immediately, then monitor proper behavior frequently.  Determine whether the student is on medication, what the schedule and what the medication effects may be on his or her in class demeanor with and without medication, then adjust teaching strategies accordingly.
  19. 19.  Use time – out sessions to cool off disruptive behavior.  In group activities, acknowledge the contribution of the student with behavioral disorder.  Treat the student as an individual who is deserving of respect and considerations.  Enforce classroom rules consistently.  Make sure the discipline fits the “crime” without harshness.  Provide encouragement.  Reward more than you punish, in order to build self – esteem.
  20. 20.  Praise immediate at all good behavior and performance.  Change reward if they are not effective for motivating behavioral change.  Encourage others to be friendly with students who have emotional disorders.  Do not expect students to have immediate success; work for improvement on a overall basis.  As a teacher, you should be patient, sensitive, a good listener, fair and consistent in your treatment of students with behavioral disorders.
  21. 21.  Speak normally. Don’t exaggerate.  Use visuals, graphic organizers, pictures, diagram, maps,etc.  When lecturing make use of overhead projectors, so you do not turn your back on your students that are making use of speech reading skills and your body language.  Monitor those students that you “know” are auditorially challenged by asking specific questions to check on comprehension.  Repeat, rephrase, review for clarity.
  22. 22.  Provide vocabulary, outlines and notes for new material ahead of time.  In a lecture, assign a note taker to provide a copy of notes or provide your own lecture notes for the student.  Use closed captioned videos in the classroom, if they are not available, provide the written script ahead of time.  Reinforce positive performance of the auditorially challenged on a one – to –one basis. Let them know you see improvement making use of the strategies you’ve incorporated into your teaching style.  Use facial expressions, gestures that emphasize the visuals.
  23. 23.  Check for understanding and rephrase if you are not understood.  Give clues, pause, gestures and change posture in changing subjects.  Be patient when responses are slow in coming.  Choose your attitude as a teacher, stay positive and relaxed.  Talk to the hard of hearing person, not about him / her.  Value the person, respect them as an individual and encourage them to build his/ her communications skills.