Communication Disorders involve a wide variety of
problems in speech, language and hearing. For
example, speech language disorders include
stuttering, aphasia, dysfluency, voice disorders,
cleft lip and / or palate, articulation problems,
delays in speech and language, autism and
Speech and language impairments and disorders
can be attributed to environmental factors which
include drugs taken during pregnancy, common
STD’s such as syphilis and birthing trauma
Communication Disorders can also be stem from
other conditions such as learning disabilities,
dyslexia, cerebral palsy and mental retardation.
A child may have trouble forming the typical sounds
of verbal speech, omitting or other consonants to
words and distorting or substituting incorrect
When a child has difficulty understanding
language both verbal and written. They have
trouble with sentence formation, word
sequencing, clarifying ideas, following directions
and they tend to use their hands when
experiencing difficulty getting their words out.
Show understanding, patience and acceptance.
Provide extra time to answer questions.
Encourage speech practice by having one on
Keep lectures clear, simple, pronounced and in
proper language syntax.
Make eye contact with the student when
listening and speaking.
Repeat mispronounced phrases properly as a
question so it does not seem like criticism.
Never mimic a child with a speech disorder
Don’t avoid calling on children with language
development problem, and particularly if the
answers are to be short.
Make sure the student speaks in front of the
class and answer questions at least once per
Set up practice verbal skills session between
pairs of students where they read aloud work
on a problem orally, or play games that
Do not tolerate teasing or bullying by the
Do not point out communication disorders to
others in the class.
Keep the classroom environment relaxed and
When it appears that a student needs help, ask
if you can help. Accept a “No, Thank you”,
Be a good speech model.
Give them time to express themselves, do not
interrupt or try to fill in gaps for them.
Speak to them naturally.
Maintain contact with the students.
Allow students to tape lectures.
Provide an interpreter to those who require
another form of communication.
Encourage and assist in facilitation of
participation in activities and discussion.
Be a good listener.
Allow more time for the students to complete
Place the students within reasonable distance
from the instructor to meet their needs.
Provide assistance and positive reinforcement
when the students shows the ability to do
Use peer – buddy system when appropriate.
Consider alternate activities that can be utilized
with less difficulty for the student.
“Don’t assume that the person is not listening
just because you are getting no verbal or visual
“ Don’t assume that you have to explain
everything to students with learning
“ Consult with the special education specialist to
obtain help in understanding the specific
nature of the learning disability of each
Always ask questions in a clarifying manner,
then have the students with learning
disabilities to describe his or her understanding
of the questions.
Reduce course load for students with learning
Provide students with chapter outlines or
study guides that cue them to key points in
Keep oral instruction logical and concise.
Frequently verbalize what is being written on
Eliminate classroom distractions.
Establish the clarity of understanding that the
student has about class assignments.
Give assignments both in written and oral
Have practice exercises available for lessons, in
case student has problem.
Have complex homework assignments due in
two or three days rather than on the next day.
Pace instruction carefully to ensure clarity.
Present a new and / or technical vocabulary on
the chalkboard or overhead.
Use plenty of examples, oral or otherwise, in
order to make topics more applied.
Write legibly, use large type; do not clutter the
blackboard with non – current/ non – relevant
Use props to make narrative situations more
vivid and clear.
Assist the student, if necessary.
Clearly label equipment, tools and materials.
In dealing with abstract concepts, use visual
tools such as charts and graphs. Paraphrase
and present them in specific terms, sequence
and illustrate them with concrete examples,
personal experiences, or hands – on exercises.
To minimize student anxiety, provide an
individual orientation to the laboratory and
equipment and give them extra practice with
tasks and equipment.
Allow students to use computers and spell
checking programs or assignments.
Announce reading as well assignments well in
Find materials paralleling the textbook, but written
at a lower reading level.
Offer to read written material aloud, when
Read aloud material that is written on the
chalkboard and on the overhead transparencies.
Suggest that then students use both visual and
auditory senses when reading the text.
Allow students to use tape recorder.
Always ask questions in clarifying manner.
Assist the students, if necessary.
Encourage questions during and after class to
ensure that materials are understood.
Give plenty of reinforcement.
Have frequent question –and – answer sessions
for students with learning disabilities.
Avoid overly complicated language in exam
question and clearly separate items when
spacing them on the exam sheet.
Consider other forms of testing.
Eliminate distractions while students are taking
For Students who have reading difficulties,
have a proctor read the test to the student.
Gradually increase expectations as the students
with learning disabilities gains confidence.
Grant time extensions on exam and written
assignments where there are significant
demands or reading and writing skills.
If distractions are excessive, permit the student
with learning disabilities to take examination in
a separate quiet room with a proctor.
Provide study questions for exams that
demonstrate with the format along with the
content of the exam.
Permit students with learning disabilities to use
the dictionary, thesaurus or a calculator during
Ask previous teachers about interactive techniques that
have previously been affective with the students in the
Expose students with behavioral disorders to other
students who demonstrate the appropriate behavior.
Direct instruction or target behaviors is often required to
help students master them.
Have preestablished consequences for misbehavior.
Administer consequences immediately, then monitor
proper behavior frequently.
Determine whether the student is on medication, what
the schedule and what the medication effects may be on
his or her in class demeanor with and without
medication, then adjust teaching strategies accordingly.
Use time – out sessions to cool off disruptive
In group activities, acknowledge the contribution
of the student with behavioral disorder.
Treat the student as an individual who is
deserving of respect and considerations.
Enforce classroom rules consistently.
Make sure the discipline fits the “crime” without
Reward more than you punish, in order to build
self – esteem.
Praise immediate at all good behavior and
Change reward if they are not effective for
motivating behavioral change.
Encourage others to be friendly with students
who have emotional disorders.
Do not expect students to have immediate
success; work for improvement on a overall
As a teacher, you should be patient, sensitive, a
good listener, fair and consistent in your
treatment of students with behavioral
Speak normally. Don’t exaggerate.
Use visuals, graphic organizers, pictures, diagram,
When lecturing make use of overhead projectors,
so you do not turn your back on your students that
are making use of speech reading skills and your
Monitor those students that you “know” are
auditorially challenged by asking specific
questions to check on comprehension.
Repeat, rephrase, review for clarity.
Provide vocabulary, outlines and notes for new
material ahead of time.
In a lecture, assign a note taker to provide a copy
of notes or provide your own lecture notes for the
Use closed captioned videos in the classroom, if
they are not available, provide the written script
ahead of time.
Reinforce positive performance of the auditorially
challenged on a one – to –one basis. Let them know
you see improvement making use of the strategies
you’ve incorporated into your teaching style.
Use facial expressions, gestures that emphasize the
Check for understanding and rephrase if you are
Give clues, pause, gestures and change posture in
Be patient when responses are slow in coming.
Choose your attitude as a teacher, stay positive
Talk to the hard of hearing person, not about him
Value the person, respect them as an individual
and encourage them to build his/ her
YOU CAN’T DICTATE WHAT VALUES YOUR
CHILDREN WILL ULTIMATELY HOLD.
BUT IF YOU WANT THEM TO RESPECT
YOUR VALUES,BE SURE THEY ARE
THAT YOU ESTABLISH THEM EARLY AND
THAT YOU CONSISTENTLY MAINTAIN