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Energy drinks

  1. 1. What is Energy Drink Energy drinks are beverages like Red Bull, Rock Star and Monster, which contain large doses of caffeine and other legal stimulants like guarana and ginseng. The amount of caffine in an energy drink can range from 75 milligrams to over 200 milligrams per serving. This compares to 34 milligrams in Coke and 55 milligrams in Mountain Dew. If a drink advertises no caffeine, the energy comes from guarana, which is the equivalent of caffeine. 5-hour energy drink advertises “no crash,” but this claim is referring to no “sugar crash” because the drink has artificial sweetners. Any vitamins or amino acids like taurine are better found by eating a variety of foods and taking a daily vitamin and mineral supplement. What is caffeine? Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant. It's one of the most popular drugs in the world, consumed by up to 90% of people in the world in one form or another, but mostly in beverages. It is a naturally occurring substance found in plants like cocoa beans, tea leaves, and kola nuts. What are the effects of caffeine? Caffeine's strongest effects are felt for about an hour after taking it, but some effects last 4 to 6 hours. Caffeine causes increased neuron firing in the brain which the pituitary gland perceives as an emergency and therefore causes the adrenal glands to release adrenaline. Caffeine also increases dopamine levels -- the neurotransmitter that is affected by drugs like amphetamines and heroin. Obviously, it does this on a much reduced level from those drugs, but this may be the source of caffeine's addictive quality. While caffeine is mildly addictive, it has not been shown to have a direct link with any serious health risks. Still, anyone who's been up all night after drinking too much coffee can tell you that caffeine can affect a person's mood and sleep pattern. Here are some of the frequent effects of caffeine: Caffeine is a diuretic. Caffeine prompts the body to lose water through urination. This can lead to dehydration and is the reason that caffeinated drinks are not a good idea when working out or doing other activities that require fluids. In fact, it is suggested that you add 8 ounces of water for every cup of coffee you drink. Caffeine can cause you to feel jittery, skittish, restless, excitable or anxious. It can temporarily speed the heart rate. If you're feeling stressed out, then a cup of coffee can exacerbate, rather than help, this feeling. Too much caffeine can hurt a person's ability to concentrate, making it difficult to study.
  2. 2. Caffeine can cause insomnia. It can be very hard to fall asleep when you take a lot of caffeine. This is especially true if you take it at night, but is also true of higher doses earlier in the day. Caffeine at high doses can cause headaches. Some caffeinated beverages can have other health effects. For instance, the acid in coffee can upset the stomach, and coffee (though not the caffeine in it) can worsen ulcers, raise blood pressure and blood cholesterol, and speed up the heart rate, increasing the risk of heart disease. Caffeine can have negative effects on pregnant women or on women who would like to become pregnant including an increased risk for difficult conception and miscarriage. Caffeine is transmitted through the placenta and through breast milk to the baby. Therefore, if you're pregnant or thinking about becoming pregnant, the FDA recommends that you stop taking caffeine or cut back to 1 cup per day. (,_tobacco,_&_ot her_drugs/energy_drinks.php) HISTORY OF ENERGY DRINKS People have been getting their energy fixes for centuries. Pre-Columbian Americans fondly drank a dark brew of toasted holly leaves and bark. Afterward they’d go puke. The disgusting tale is totally true. Early European explorers described the practice, although they were never quite sure if the vomiting was induced by the men or caused by the drink. Either way, Indian men used the practice as a purification ritual before religious ceremonies, political councils and war. As it turns out, the dark brew had a high caffeine content. Researchers were able to analyze traces of the beverage found in Cahokia, Ill. drinking cups dating back to at least 1250. So even Native Americans took a caffeine boost going into battle. Over history, people have used various beverages to feel that extra burst of energy. During that time, trends have changed from tea, to coffee, on to soft drinks and back and again. But just as people throughout time have sought out drugs more powerful than caffeine, they now seek soft drinks with additional energy-boosting chemicals. Enter energy drinks. From 2008 until 2012 the energy drink market grew 60 percent, totaling $12.5 billion in US sales by 2012. But despite the market’s recent explosion, energy drinks aren’t a new concept. In fact, they’ve been around since the days of the early soda fountain. The first ―energy‖ drink could actually be considered Coke since it originally contained both caffeine and another stimulant—cocaine—when launched in 1886. The soft-drink carries that history to this day – the company’s name ―Coca-Cola‖ is derived from the
  3. 3. ingredients: the coca plant from which cocaine is derived and the kola nut, the source of caffeine. Coca-Cola’s founder used five ounces of coca leaf per gallon of syrup, but it was reduced to a tenth of that in a later recipe. Cocaine was removed from Coke in 1903. • Chemist William Owen first manufactured Glucozade in 1927. For years, Owen had been trying to find an energy source for cold and flu patients. The formula was offered to UK hospitals under the name Glucozade, but in 1929 the drink was renamed Lucozade. In 1983 Lucozade rebranded itself, changing its slogan from ―Lucozade aids recovery,‖ to ―Lucozade replaces lost energy.‖ Maybe not a winner by today’s standards, but sales tripled in the next six years. GlaxoSmithKline-owned Lucozade Energy contains 46 milligrams of caffeine and 37 percent of an adult’s recommended daily amount of sugar. • Dr. Enuf was developed in 1949 when Chicago businessman William Mark Swarz was tasked with developing a soft drink full of vitamins to compete against sugared sodas loaded with nothing but empty calories. The result was an ―energy booster‖ containing B vitamins, caffeine and cane sugar—ingredients used in many of today’s energy drinks. Swarz partnered with Tri-Cities Beverage, a Tennessee bottler that also produced Mountain Dew at the time, to produce and distribute Dr. Enuf. Tri-Cities Beverage may have sold Mountain Dew to Pepsi, but it produces Dr. Enuf to this very day. Original, diet, herbal and diet herbal varieties can be found at grocers in northeastern Tennessee, southwestern Virginia and western North Carolina. All bottles of Dr. Enuf contain at least 80 percent of the recommended daily requirements of thiamine, niacin, potassium and iodine. Herbal varieties also contain ginseng and guarana. • Lipovitan may look and sound like cough syrup, but it’s actually an energy drink manufactured in Japan since 1962. Marketed to boost physical and mental fatigue, the drink—sold under the names Libogen and Livita in some parts of the world—is popular in East Asia. The bright yellow drink contains primarily taurine, an ingredient in Red Bull. The brown-colored bottles also contain caffeine. Although the largest bottles of Lipovitan contain 3,000 milligrams of taurine, they contain a warning label advising not to consume more than 100 milligrams of the chemical a day. • Another popular energy drink in Southeast Asia is sometimes called ―Thai Red Bull.‖ KratingDaeng was first introduced in Thailand in 1976, and can now be found in Europe, Oceana and North America. The sweet, non-carbonated drink contains caffeine, taurine and B-vitamins. Interestingly, it was named after the gaur, a large, wild cattle relative
  4. 4. that lives in Southeast Asia. Sound familiar? Is should, Krating Dong was the basis for Red Bull, but the Asian beverage definitely made its mark first with massive sales throughout Asia in the 1980s. Energy drink history was made in 1982 when the marketing director for a German toothpaste company visited Thailand. Something that crazy had to be fate, right? When Blendex’ DietrickMateschitz drank some KratingDaeng and found it cured his jet lag, he had an epiphany. He must tell the world about this miracle drink! So Mateschitz worked with KratingDaeng founder ChaleoYoovidhya to adapt the drink’s formula to Western tastes. Together, they launched Red Bull in 1987. Chaleo, born to a poor Thai- Chinese family around 1930, died a multi-billionaire. ( history-of-energy-drinks-a-look-back/) KINDS OF ENERGY DRINKS Carbonated Soft Drinks Cheers (a low-cost citrus flavoured soda from Cosmos) Jaz Cola (locally available cola from Coca-Cola) Lemo-Lime Pop Cola (distributed by Coca-Cola) Royal Mirinda RC Cola Calamansi – ice cold drink made with lime and mint Sarsi – a Sarsaparilla rootbeer originally made by Cosmos Bottling, now part of Coca-Cola Sparkle Squiz (orange and grape-flavoured sodas, from the Zest-O Corporation) Teem – low cost citrus flavoured soda popular in the 1970s Twist (lemon-lime soda, from the Zest-O Corporation) Energy Drinks[ Blue Men C4 Cobra Extra Joss (powdered energy drink) I-On by Revicon Sting manufactured by the Pepsi Corporation Vault Monster CULT RedBull
  5. 5. RockStar Bacchus Juice Drinks BIG 250 (line of juices available in six flavours, from the Zest-O Corporation) Eight O'Clock (powdered juice beverage) Fres-C (powdered drink mix available in three flavours) Funchum Magnolia Fruit Drinks Mix Frutz (by Innobev, Inc.) One Plus (line of iced teas available in nine flavours, from the Zest-O Corporation) Orchard Fresh (line of bottled juices available in seven flavours, from the Zest-O Corporation) Plus! Ponkana Refresh Sundays – made by snack foods giant Liwayway Marketing Corp. Sunkist – available in tetrahedral packs, Tetra packs, doy packs and powdered juice forms. Sunglo (line of juices and powdered juices available in seven flavours, from the Zest-O Corporation) Zest-O (popular line of juices available in twelve flavours, from the Zest-O Corporation) ( COMPOSITION OF ENERGY DRINKS Energy drinks generally contain methylxanthines (including caffeine), B vitamins, and herbs. Other commonly used ingredients are carbonated water, guarana, yerba mate, açaí, and taurine, plus various forms of ginseng, maltodextrin, inositol, carnitine, creatine, glucuronolactone, and ginkgo biloba. Some contain high levels of sugar, and many brands offer artificially sweetened 'diet' versions. A common ingredient in most energy drinks is caffeine (often in the form of guarana or yerba mate). Caffeine is the stimulant that is found in coffee and tea. There is little or no evidence that any of the ingredients found in energy drinks other than caffeine or sugar have a significant physiological effect. Energy drinks contain about three times the amount of caffeine as cola. Twelve ounces of Coca- Cola Classic contains 35 mg of caffeine, whereas a Monster Energy Drink contains 120 mg of caffeine. ( Do Energy Drinks Really Work? What's Really in an Energy Drink?
  6. 6. Known for their fast-acting jolt, energy drinks like Red Bull and Monster tout a high dose of caffeine and a varying blend of "energizing" extras that include vitamins and amino acids and herbal supplements. But despite the eye-catching cans and slick marketing, the main ingredient responsible for that mojo is good old-fashioned sugar. "Calories are energy, plain and simple," says Katherine Zeratsky, RD, a dietitian at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. "It's what your body uses for fuel. Any food, whether it's a turkey sandwich, a can of soda, or an apple, has energy. Energy drinks should be thought of as calorie drinks." They can pack a lot of them, too: A 16-ounce can of Red Bull Energy Drink has 220 calories, and a 24- ounce can of Rockstar Energy Drink has a whopping 420, almost as much as a double cheeseburger. Unlike most foods, however, most of the calories in energy beverages come from simple sugars. Devoid of fiber, fat, and protein, three nutrients that slow digestion, the sugar hits the bloodstream quickly, giving you the superfast rush you crave. Sadly, it's short-lived. "Your body wants only so much sugar in the blood at a time," Zeratsky says. "When it receives a big load, the pancreas shoots out any additional insulin to push sugar it doesn't currently need into fat cells." In the long run, having too many energy drinks, like consuming too much soda, can cause weight gain. In the short term, you are faced with the infamous energy-drink crash. Either way, you're left tired and still looking for a lift. Hoping to skip the sugar and save calories, some women opt for the sugar-free versions of their favorite energy drinks, relying on the high caffeine content to give them a boost. "Caffeine is widely studied and well-known for making you feel more alert," says Matthew Ganio, PhD, a researcher at the Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine at Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital in Dallas. "But its effects come from being a stimulant, meaning it makes you feel energetic by offsetting the mental and physical fatigue that occurs throughout the day, especially during exercise." Currently, the FDA doesn't limit the amount of caffeine in energy drinks, so manufacturers often pack from 50 to 200-plus milligrams into a 16-ounce serving (the average cup of coffee contains anywhere from 40 to 180 milligrams). Check the label, however, because some drinks go way beyond that range: A 16-ounce can of Wired X 344, for instance, has 344 milligrams. "More isn't always better with caffeine," says John Higgins, MD, director of exercise physiology at Memorial Hermann Sports Medicine Institute in Houston. In some people, more than 200 milligrams can cause insomnia, nervousness, headache, and nausea. As for the effectiveness of the brand-specific blend of supplements and amino acids, it's debatable. "These ingredients are mainly about smart marketing," says Kevin Clauson, associate professor at Nova Southeastern University College of Pharmacy in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. "Some have studies backing the beneficial claims, but most of these ingredients are in quantities far below the amounts needed for any actual benefit." If you'd prefer a low-tech boost, go for a glass of milk, a cup of yogurt with fruit, or an apple with a little peanut butter. The mix of carbohydrate, protein, and fat will ultimately slow digestion, thus preventing the spike and subsequent roller-coaster drop in blood sugar. "Your energy will last longer, and you'll get a nice dose of nutrients along with the calories," Zeratsky says. ( MISCONCEPTIONS OF ENERGY DRINKS Several people wake up every day and the first thing they go to grab is an energy drink. Even more so I’ve seen several people over the years in the gym that use these drinks to get a quick perk up before their workout to only be let down with a harsh caffeine and sugar mix crash. So the reasoning for writing this article is that I want people to be aware of how unhealthy these energy drinks really are. Personally every morning I’ll have 1-2 cups of black coffee to get my day started and for a pre-workout boost I’ll have 200-300mg of caffeine anhydrous (you can get this either in pill or powder form). I did some research of the top 5 best selling energy drinks to break down the nutrition facts and to open your eyes to just how much sugar you are taking in and slowing your progress. Also, you might not have known why you feel lethargic after the buzz of these wear off.
  7. 7. Red Bull (*Est. $2.20 for 8.3 ounces) introduced the energy drink craze to the U.S.; it's still the best-selling energy drink in America, and the energy drink by which all others are measured. Interestingly enough, Red Bull is made in Austria and then shipped around the world. Red Bull contains 27g sugars, a measley 80 mg of caffeine (for the 8.3-ounce size), taurine and B vitamins, but no added herbal stimulants. My opinion is to completely stay away from these! Red Bull also makes Red Bull Sugar Free (*Est. $2.20 for 8.3 ounces). If you decide to drink the sugar free still be aware of the artificial sweet-ners (which I’m not a fan of at all) and keep these to a minimum. Monster Energy (*Est. $2 for 16 oz.) is one of the best-selling energy drinks in the U.S. Several reviewers mention it as the energy drink to try after Red Bull because the taste and energy boost are similar to Red Bull, yet it comes in a can that is twice the size for about the same price. Monster Energy has 54 grams of sugars, 160 mg of caffeine and 2,000 mg of taurine. The Energy Drink Ratings blog says that this sweet-tasting citrus drink has a good kick and gives you good taste for the money. Monster also makes a variety of other flavors. I remember when I didn’t know anything about nutrition etc. Monster was my pre-workout boost of choice. I never understood why I felt so bad afterwards. It was the whopping 54 grams of sugar that was spiking my blood sugar levels and then the crash came...and it would come hard! No Fear is a brand of clothing (I used to wear these t-shirts also had the stickers on my baseball batting helmet growing up) that partnered with Pepsi to create an energy drink originally known as SoBe No Fear. In 2008, the SoBe name was dropped. No Fear Regular (*est. $2.30 for 16 ounces), gets mixed reviews for taste and energy. No Fear contains 66 grams of sugars, 174 mg of caffeine and 2,000 mg of taurine per 16-ounce can. 5-Hour Energy (*Est. $2.50 for 2 ounces) scores well with reviewers for energy kick. The Energy Drink Ratings blog and rank 5-Hour Energy highly, and it has more than 400 user ratings at Screaming Energy. 5-Hour Energy is packaged in 2-ounce shots, packing in an estimated 100 mg of caffeine per shot, or the equivalent of a cup of coffee, plus 2,000 percent of the daily value for vitamin B6 and 8,333 percent of the daily value of vitamin B12. 5- Hour Energy is sweetened with sucralose and contains zero net carbohydrates. 5-Hour Energy is not made with additional herbal stimulants, but it does contain amino acids and includes taurine. One reviewer calls 5-Hour Energy "little more than a shot of vitamins B6 and B12, amino acids, with a caffeine chaser." But unlike most energy drinks, 5-Hour Energy is a low- calorie drink (four calories). It comes in three flavors: berry, lemon-lime and orange.Nutritionally these are the best (along with Rockstar Sugar free and Rockstar Zero Carb) but honestly with 5-hour energy I’ve had these and I could fall asleep after drinking this if I was in need of a quick wake-up. Among the top-selling brands, Rockstar (*est. $2.20 for 16 ounces) One 16-ounce can contains 160 mg of caffeine and 1,000 mg of taurine, as well as 62 grams of sugars, with guarana, ginseng and other herbal extracts as stimulants. The company has expanded from the original formula to offer other energy drinks including Rockstar Sugar Free (*Est. $2.30 for 16 ounces), Rockstar Zero Carb Bottom line is that I do not advise these drinks. First off, the regular ones that are packed with sugar shouldn’t even be a question of should I have this or not. Secondly, the sugar free and zero carb ones are still packed with artificial flavoring agents. Which that will be up to you if you want that in your body or not. Personally I don’t use them. Like I said previously I use 200- 300mg of caffeine anhydrous and I never have the dreaded crash afterwards. (
  8. 8. TRUTHS OF ENERGY DRINKS According to market researcher Packaged Facts, the US energy drink/shot market was worth $12.5 billion in 2012 and is predicted to be worth $21.5 billion by 2017.1 However, Packaged Facts also state that energy drinks and shots account for only 3% of nonalcoholic beverage sales,1 and according to, manufacturers are looking for ways to boost sales by increasing consumption among existing users and attracting new consumers.2 Surveys have found that 30% to 50% of adolescents and young adults consume energy drinks.3 Energy drink manufacturers that sponsor events often highlight extreme or thrill-seeking sports that appeal to teens and young adults. Red Bull sponsors a competition for the longest rally car jump, while Monster Energy supports the AMA Motorcycle Supercross.4 The long-term safety of the unique combinations of ingredients found in increasingly popular energy drinks is unknown. As the popularity of these products has grown, so have concerns about their safety. Most reports of negative effects are believed to be due to excessive consumption of the caffeine these products contain. This continuing education course explores the increasing presence of energy drinks and shots in the marketplace; the potential consequences of overconsumption, especially in combination with alcohol; labeling issues; and the misconceptions about these products’ function and efficacy. ( The truth about energy drinks: • They have a lot of sugar and calories and are low in nutritional value. • They contain large amounts of caffeine. Depending on the serving size and the type of energy drink, the caffeine per serving ranges from 33 mg to a whopping 141 mg! • Caffeine can cause dehydration, upset stomach, nervousness, heart palpitations, headaches, and sleep problems. • They contain ingredients (herbs and amino acids) whose safety and effectiveness have not been tested. Any claims regarding herbal ingredients do not have to be proven and are unregulated. (