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  1. 1. SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING & SCIENCE BUILDING SCIENCE 1 (BLD60803) PROJECT 1: Case Study (Identifying innovative passive design strategies) LOCATION Solaris, Singapore PREPARED BY: Alex Wong 0303228 Chew Wen Lin 1007c10646 Chin Pui Man 0310331 Daniel Yap 0309100 Gan Chin Bong 0313738 Teo Kian Hui 0310165
  2. 2. No Content Page 1 Introduction 1 2 Detailed Information 2 3 Appendix 4 4 Climate Data 8 5 Wind Analysis 11 6 Sun Path Case Studies & Psychometric Chart 13 7 Passive Design Features 15 8 Summary 21 9 Reference List 22 TABLE OF CONTENT
  3. 3. SOLARIS is state-of-the-art facility that forms an integral part of the renowned Fusionnopolis clusters based on the design of Eco-Green mindset with a goal to be certified BCA GREEN MARK PLATINUM which is the highest green certification given by the benchmark of Singapore's Sustainable building. It is a 15 story multi- tenanted structure with has the main function for infocommunicatinons, media, science, research and clean-tech development at One-North. The overall energy consumption for this building is the local precedents consumption with the reduction of 36% which leads to the winning project in JTC competition. In addition, it also introduces plantation that exceeds by 113% from original area site that is 8,000 m2 of landscaping. INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. Project by: Soilbuild Group Holdings Ltd Building Address: Solaris Fusionopolis 2B, One North Architect: TR Hamzah Yeang Gree Photo scource from: Figure 1: Solaris, Singapore Photo scource from: Figure 2: Site plan Detailed Information
  5. 5. n Design Features of the Solaris, Singapore Green desgin features that can be found in the Solaris building are I. Spiral Ramp Design II. Naturally Ventilated Spaces III. Skylight/ Actuated Smoke Vent Louvers IV. Rain Harvesting System V. Climate Responsive Façade System VI. Planter Box Design on Landscape Spiral Ramp VII. Roog Gardens and Corner Sky Terraces
  6. 6. Figure 3: Level 2 floor plan Figure 4: Level 3 Floor plan APPENDIX
  7. 7. Figure 6: Level 10 floor plan Figure 5: Level 6 floor plan
  8. 8. Figure 7: Level 17 floor plan Figure 8: Entrance of Solaris from interior Figure 9: View of interior with skylight
  9. 9. Figure 10: Panaroma view of roof garden Figure 11: Panaroma view of roof garden
  10. 10. Singapore is located on the southern tip of the Malaysia Peninsula in Southeast Asia, between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea. Singapore lies on north of the Equator near Latitude 1.3667ºN and Longitude 103.8ºE. Singapore features a hot, wet climate and tropical rainforests. Singapore's climate is divided into two different seasons, which are the Northeast Monsoon, and the Southeast Monsoon season. These two seasons are separated by two short inter-monsoon periods. Figure 12: Average Daily Maximum and minimum temperature ºC chart The minimum temperature in Singapore is ranged 23ºc to 26ºc and maximum temperature ranged 25ºc to 31ºc throughout the year. From the chart, January and December are the coolest month throughout the year. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Daily Maximum ºC Daily Minimum ºC Climate Data
  11. 11. Figure 13: Average Sunlight and Average Daylight Chart Singapore receives sunlight throughout the year and it is very rare for Singapore to have full day of clear skies. Singapore temperatures are varying less than 3ºc annually. Figure 14: Relative Humidity (%) Chart 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Daylight (Hours) Sunlight (Hours) 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 Daily Maximum (%) Daily Minimum (%)
  12. 12. Relative humidity in Singapore is in the range of 70% -82% throughout the year. Singapore is a country where it has high level of humidity. It differs from 82% in the morning and falls to 60% in the afternoon, when it is not raining. Figure 15: Wet Days chart Singapore is located on the equator, thus the country experiences rainfall throughout the year. As mention in the introduction, Singapore climate is divided into two seasons, which is; A) Northeast Monsoon; which happens on the period of December to March. From the chart, December and January achieved the highest value, which labeled as "wet phase" while February and March has lower value that is labeled as "dry phase" B) Southwest Monsoon; which happens on the period of June to September. From the chart, this period has average number of wet days that usually last for most 2 hours. 17 11 14 15 15 13 13 14 14 16 18 19 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Wet Days Wet Days
  13. 13. Wind Direction Percentage (%) North 18 Northeast 29 East 6 Southeast 5 South 19 Southwest 56 West 10 Northwest 6 Table 1: Wind Direction for year 2013 Month Wind Force (kph) January 15.1 February 9.2 March 5.1 April 3.3 May 4.0 June 8.9 July 9.9 August 8.8 September 10.1 October 9.8 November 6.4 December 10.9 Table 2: Wind Force for year 2013 Wind Analysis
  14. 14. Wind Arrow of Singapore From the wind arrow chart, we can conclude that there is always strong wind at the direction north-east while weaker wind at the direction south-east. The darker blue represent longer hours, while lighter blue represent shorter hour.
  15. 15. Sun Path Analysis in the morning on 8th of May Sun Path Analysis in the afternoon on 8th of May Sun Path Analysis in the evening on 8th of May Sun Path Case Studies
  16. 16. Psychrometric Chart of Malaysia (same as Singapore) From the chart above, we can conclude that to achieve thermal comfort, the temperature and humidity of the place or area should reach within the yellow box value showed above. The values inside the box stat that with the range of temperature from 23 degree Celsius to 27 degree Celsius and the humidity value from 4 to 13 is the thermal comfort zone. With the present data, a green building should have the ability to maintain as a thermal comfort zone. Psychrometric Chart
  17. 17. Throughout this case study, seven (7) passive design features are pointed out from the Solaris, Singapore. Seven passive designs are: I. Spiral Ramp Design The key architecture element would be the undisturbed ecological 1.5km long perimeter landscape Spiral Ramp and Eco-cell at the basement for fluid movement of organisms and plants within the building contributing to the overall health of these ecosystem which will provide an enhancement of biodiversity. With its deep overhangs and large concentrated of vegetations, represents a key element in comprehensive strategy for providing the cooling effect in the building facade. This provides an interactive environment for the worker with the nature while still sustain the inorganic form of the structure with a more organic mass. In addition, Solaris is trying to enhance the existing ecosystem instead of replacing them. Passive Design Features PhotoSource: Figure 17: Section drawing of Solaris
  18. 18. II. Naturally Ventilated Spaces During the hot days, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is stimulated through the atrium led to the actuated skylight louver system that allows stacking ventilation effect. Through the principle of hot air rise and cool air falls, hot air escape from the top of the roof while cool air are being to pull into the building form the lower floor. III. Skylight / Actuated Smoke Vent Louvers Besides allowing the natural light to enter, skylight also serves as another purpose besides the stacking effect. It is also consider as a fail-safe system. When fire is detected (via the building's intelligent management system), the skylight louvers will automatically open and became an exit for the smoke or harmful gas. For safety reason, the louvers will automatically opened even without power supply. With this system, smoke control system is being eliminates which leads to saving cost and power. For extra purposes, it is also a weather shield such as rain by rain detection sensors and direct sunray. Figure 18: Skylight view from the interior
  19. 19. Photo Source: Figure 19: Skylight view from the exterior. IV. Rainwater Harvesting System This building is equip rainwater recycling system which rainwater are collected using siphonic drainage systems then stored beneath the Eco-Cell in the primary holding tank and a small transfer tank on the roof. This building has an integrated fertigation system that able to maintain the organic nutrient level in the entire building through the vegetation cycle from the combined storage that has a capacity of over 400m3. Photo Source: Base-to-Bioclimatic-Eco-Architecture.htm Figure 20: The Eco-cell and the Rain Water Harvesting storage at the basement.
  20. 20. Photo Source: Figure 21: The perspective view of Solaris. V. Climatic Responsive Facade System According to local sun path analysis that sun rise from east in the morning and fall on the west during evening, sunshade louvers has been designed to screen off direct glare and heat from the sun yet allow a gentle light to enter to the interior space. This help to minimize the usage artificial light during daytime. The solar shading also helps to reduce the heat transfer into the building.
  21. 21. Figure 22: The sun shading device around the building VI. Planter Box Design on Landscaped Spiral Ramp The spiral ramp has a minimum width of 3m of landscape. Maintenance of the ramp is achieved through a parallel pathway that allows for servicing the planters. It is also design to serve as a linear park that stretches all the way from the ground plane to the upper roof. The planter boxes on the spiral ramp are being designed to be as shallow as possible so that the building facade is being kept and reduce its bulkiness. Plants are being carefully selected based on their roots structure because of the lacking of deep soil. An elaborate network of drainage trenches and subsoil pipes is to ensure water is evenly discharge in the 800mm planter boxes even when there is a heavy downpour. This step is very important as the landscaped ramp is steeply inclined and rainwater would cascade down at high speed on the surface level if it were not being absorbed by the soil.
  22. 22. Photo Source: Figure 23: The plants along the spiral ramp VII. Roof Gardens and Corner Sky Terraces This area creates a vertical landscaping which acts as a thermal buffer that provides events, relaxation and social activities. In addition, it allows an opportunity for interaction between the people and nature. It is also a good symbol for sky rise greenery design building because it has a total of 95% of landscape is above ground level. Figure 24: Roof garden By doing so, beam sunlight will not strike into the building directly. Also, energy required for interior artificial lighting can be gradually reduced.
  23. 23. After some site visits to Sunway Pinnacle Office Tower, we found out that the building is not fully completed for the wiring and electrician part. Due to that reason, the building manager, Mr Kurma, can allow us to visit some part of the building. Although we were limited from some spaces of the building, we still manage to interview Mr Kurma. From what we were told, the building has a gold standard from the Green Building for a reason. From the outside of the building, it doesn't look much of a standout but when you reach the interior and take a closer look, the building actually has the design and technology to support it as a green building. In addition, this building is one of the first Green Building in Malaysia from what Mr Kurma had said. From the visitation paid to the site, we get to know that this building is a sub-branch from the main building at the side with an addition of Green Technology apply into it. We were expecting the building to be done by the end of last year 2013 but when we got there, it is only 95+% complete. Since then, we are not allow to go up to experience the spaces on top. We suggested that they should provide more shading effect from the main building to the new building because of the weather in Malaysia. In addition, the ventilation for air is not as ventilated as we thought and most of the lighting is not natural lighting but artificial lighting. Conclusion
  24. 24. 1. GuideMeSingapore. (n.d.). GuideMeSingapore. Retrieved April 27, 2014, from 2. Local Climatology. (n.d.). Local Climatology. Retrieved April 27, 2014, from 3. SINGAPORE. (n.d.). Singapore Map / Geography of Singapore / Map of Singapore. Retrieved April 27, 2014, from 4. Robert Pratt, January 2013, Council on Tall Building and Urban Habitat, Solaris, Singapore, (6 May 2014) Retrieved From ive2012/SolarisSingapore/tabid/3854/language/en-GB/Default.aspx 5. SoilBuild Group Holding LTD, N.D. Solaris, Solaris, (6 May 2014) Retrieved From 6. Ken Yeang, 2 April 2012, U*Reka, IN DETAIL: SOLARIS @ONE-NORTH, (6 May 2014) Retrieved From Reference List