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QKS520 (PW) Session 3


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QKS520 (PW) Session 3

  1. 1. KS Project Work <br />Session 3<br />Group Dynamics <br />Team Selection & Management<br />
  2. 2. Objectives <br />Understanding of group development and dynamics<br />Acquisition of group management skills<br />Provision of basic training for group leaders<br />
  3. 3. Group development<br />Tuckman’s (1965) five stages of group progression:<br />
  4. 4. Stage characteristics<br />
  5. 5. Facilitator’s role during stages<br />
  6. 6. Group Activity 1 [30 min]<br />This activity enables you to explore the ways in which as a teacher-facilitator, you can assist students as they progress through Tuckman’s stages of group development.<br />Form groups of 5 members.<br />Read through the scenario that you have been provided.<br />Discuss with your group members how best to manage the situation presented.<br />Write down your views on the flip-chart.<br />Present your ideas to the class<br />
  7. 7. Scenario 1<br />
  8. 8. Scenario 2<br />
  9. 9. Scenario 3<br />
  10. 10. Scenario 4<br />
  11. 11. Scenario 5<br />
  12. 12. Members’ individual characteristics <br />Vernelle (1994) suggests that individual group members will take on roles that affect the way they behave and respond in the group.<br />Factors influencing the roles are:<br />Personal characteristics (e.g. age, gender, race)<br />Social factors (e.g. culture, status)<br />Self-esteem and confidence<br />Past experiences<br />Learning needs<br />
  13. 13. Negative Group Roles <br />Adapted from Redl (1972) and Vernelle (1994)<br />Tyrant – dominant & at times, bullying<br />Monopolizer – attention seeking<br />Trivializer – cynical about what the group does and tends to downplay things<br />Silent critic – shows disagreement through non-participation<br />Fixer – attempts to make everything ‘right’<br />Distracter – disrupts and destabilizes<br />Scapegoat – target of all bullying and blaming<br />
  14. 14. Positive Group roles<br />Leader – sets direction and coordinates group<br />Listener – pays a listening ear and shows empathy<br />Peace-maker – exerts a calming influence<br />Motivator - inspires others and spurs the group forward<br />
  15. 15. Group Activity 2 [30 min]Relating group roles to the factors influencing their development<br />In your groups, discuss how the various factors may have affected the emergence of the different group roles proposed by Redl and Vernelle. [15 min.]<br />Write down your findings on the chart provided.<br />Share with the rest of the class. [15 min.]<br />
  16. 16.
  17. 17. Group activity 3 [30 min]<br />Each group is provided with a classroom scenario.<br />With the help of the group members, identify the various group roles adopted by the protagonists. [15 min.]<br />Discuss how, as a teacher-facilitator, you could promote the positive roles, while deterring the negative ones. [15 min.]<br />
  18. 18. Choosing & Developing group leaders<br />Leadership Theories<br />Leadership traits<br />Leadership skills<br />
  19. 19. Leadership theories<br />(Adapted from Kong et al., 2007)<br />
  20. 20. 9 Traits of effective leaders<br />(Adapted from Kong et al., 2007)<br />
  21. 21. Activity 4 [10 min.]: Identifying potential group leaders<br />At the start of PW, you can identify potential group leaders using the ‘Assessing potential leaders’ instrument. Note that the tool only assesses potential leaders, not actual leadership qualities. <br />Work through the instrument to assess your own leadership potential.<br />
  22. 22. Identifying Leadership roles<br />Mintzberg’s (1973) managerial roles organized in 3 categories:<br />
  23. 23. Interpersonal role<br />
  24. 24. Informational role<br />
  25. 25. Decisional role<br />
  26. 26. Cultivating Leadership skills<br />The three C’s of leadership skills:<br />
  27. 27. Communicating<br />Message delivery process:<br />(Adapted from Kong et al., 2007)<br />
  28. 28. Communicating<br />Message-receiving process:<br />(Adapted from Kong et al., 2007)<br />
  29. 29. Coaching<br />Coaching is giving feedback to group members to motivate, maintain and improve performance.<br />Success in PW is to a large extent dependent on the kind of feedback given by teacher facilitators and group leaders.<br />
  30. 30. Guidelines for coaching<br />Cultivate a supportive relationship between group members<br />Praise and give due recognition<br />Avoid blaming, criticism and embarrassment<br />Focus on the behaviour, not the person, e.g. instead of ‘don’t talk all the time’, say ‘can we hear what others have to say?’<br />Give coaching feedback, i.e. focus on how to improve rather than on the mistakes.<br />(Adapted from Kong et al., 2007)<br />
  31. 31. Conflict management<br />Conflict arises when:<br /><ul><li>We don’t make our expectations known explicitly to others
  32. 32. We don’t know the expectations of others
  33. 33. We assume that others have the same expectations as ours</li></li></ul><li>Conflict management styles<br />Negotiating conflict style<br />Assertive <br />You win some, <br />I win some<br />(Adapted from Kong et al., 2007)<br />
  34. 34. The BCF model<br />The BCF model describes a conflict in terms of Behaviour (B), Consequences (C) and Feelings (F).<br />Example: when you do B, C happens and I feel F. <br />
  35. 35. Levels of Conflict<br />
  36. 36. Level of Conflict Exercise<br />
  37. 37. Level 1<br />
  38. 38. Level 2<br />
  39. 39. Level 3<br />
  40. 40. Level 4<br />
  41. 41. Level 5<br />
  42. 42. CRISIS<br />危机<br />Danger + Opportunity<br />[wēijī]<br />
  43. 43. Exercise: Landing the UFO<br />
  44. 44.
  45. 45. Conflict Management Style Exercise<br />
  46. 46. Specific Strategies to Resolving Conflicts<br />
  47. 47.
  48. 48. Avoiding Turtle: No winners, no losers<br />
  49. 49. Avoiding Turtle: No winners, no losers<br />
  50. 50. The Avoiding Turtle <br />
  51. 51. The Avoiding Turtle <br />
  52. 52. Accommodating Teddy Bear: I lose, you win<br />
  53. 53. Accommodating Teddy Bear: I lose, you win<br />
  54. 54. The Accommodating Teddy Bear<br />
  55. 55. The Accommodating Teddy Bear<br />
  56. 56. Competing Shark: I win, you lose<br />
  57. 57. Competing Shark: I win, you lose<br />
  58. 58. The Competing Shark<br />
  59. 59. The Competing Shark<br />
  60. 60. Compromising Fox: You bend, I bend<br />
  61. 61. Compromising Fox: You bend, I bend<br />
  62. 62. The Compromising Fox<br />
  63. 63. The Compromising Fox<br />
  64. 64. Collaborating: I win, you win <br />
  65. 65. Collaborating: I win, you win <br />
  66. 66. The Collaborating Owl<br />
  67. 67. The Collaborating Owl<br />
  68. 68. High Cooperation<br />Low Assertion<br />High Assertion<br />Low Cooperation<br />
  69. 69. Initiating Conflict Resolution<br />
  70. 70.
  71. 71. Team grouping<br />Homogeneous grouping is the placement of students of similar characteristics (abilities, gender, race) into one group.<br />Heterogeneous grouping is when groups are made up of members of diverse characteristics, i.e. they differ in terms of academic ability, gender, character, race etc.<br />Heterogeneous grouping is required for JC project work.<br />
  72. 72. Heterogeneous Grouping for mixed-ability classes<br />Know your students’ profile –ability, gender <br />Group size: 4 – 6<br />Separate the girls and boys into 2 groups<br />For each gender, rank your students from highest to lowest in terms of academic ability.<br />To form five groups ( 1 to 5), assign the first five girls to each of these groups, i.e. first girl to group 1, second to group 2 etc..<br /> Repeat the process for the next five girls, until all the girls have been distributed.<br />Repeat the whole procedure with the boys, but in the reverse order, i.e. assign the last five boys to the five groups first.<br />
  73. 73. Heterogeneous Grouping for homogeneous classes<br />Four six groups of five students each, prepare the number (6) types of tokens as of number of groups.<br />For each type of token, prepare the require number (5) as of students in each group.<br />Mix up the tokens and ask the students to randomly pick one each.<br />All students with the same type of tokens are to be in the same group.<br />
  74. 74. Team buildingGroup Activity 4<br />With the help of your group members, organize an ‘ice-breaking’ activity that you could use to build rapport between PW team members. [15 min.]<br />Share or implement your activity with the rest of the class. [20 min.]<br />
  75. 75. References<br />Kong, Y. P., Lussier, R. N., & Achua, C. F. (2007). Leadership and teambuilding. Singapore: Thomson Learning.<br />Mintzberg, H. (1973). The nature of managerial work. New York: Longman.<br />Tuckman, B. W. (1965). Developmental sequence in small groups. Psychological Bulletin, 63: 384-399.<br />Vernelle, B. (1994).Understanding and using groups. London: Whiting & Birch.<br />Redl, F. (1972). When we deal with children: selected writings. New York: The Free Press.<br />