Chemistry

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Introduction to Chemistry

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  • In a broad sense, chemistry is the study of matter- its composition, structure, properties, transformation from one form to another, and the energy that accompanies its transformation.The principles of chemistry are needed to understand the nature of matter so that we will be able to deal with it and use it for the improvement of life and environment.More specifically, it is a branch of science pertaining to the following:A: properties of matter.B: composition and structure of matterC: changes that matter undergoesD: energy that accompanies these changes E: laws and principles which governs such changes.
  • Chemistry is the central science. As a “Central Science” chemistry is necessary to understand other sciences. Chemistry is also the central to improvement of quality of life, economic development, production of consumer products, and a mutually beneficial relationship to mother Earth. Chemistry in Biology:(The study of Life)The growth of plants and animals, as well as reproduction can be explained in terms of chemical reactions going on in organism.Chemistry explains the symbiosis between the animals and the plants illustrated by oxygen-carbon dioxide cycle.Chemistry in Physics: (The science that deals with motion, force and energy).Motion and force of an object depend on the amount of matter; that is chemistry related. Energy is transferred through different media of matter and particles of matter account for the speed of energy transmission. Another thing is that, at times, energy is emitted as a result of chemical change. Chemistry in Geology: (The study of the features of the Earth).Geologist understand the origin and composition of the earth and its life as recorded in rock history.Chemistry in Meteorology: ( The study of weather).Atmospheric phenomena can also be explained by the composition and behavior of gases in the air. Chemistry in Oceanology: (The study of oceans)The behavior and composition of ocean water are likewise explained in chemistry.Chemistry in Astronomy: (The study of heavenly bodies)Considers the knowledge of hot gaseous elements and nuclear reactions occurring as stars emit light.Chemistry in Nursing and Medicine:New drugs for healing where developed. These include sulfa drugs, anesthetics, steroids, antibiotics, and synthetic vitamins. These are as important as the development of new surgical procedures in medicine.Chemistry in Nutrition:The lack of adequate food and nourishment is serious especially in Third World countries such as in Africa. Chemistry in Psychology: Chemistry plays an important role in specialized programs for mental health and rehabilitation of drug dependents.
  • BRANCHES OF CHEMISTRY:Chemistry may be categorized into five major branches, which include the following:1: Organic Chemistry:It is concerned with the study of most carbon-based compounds. Since majority of the compounds in living organisms are organic compounds, organic chemistry is a very important field of study. The petrochemical, pharmaceutical, and textile industries deal almost exclusively with organic chemistry.2: Inorganic Chemistry:It deals with all substances which are not considered to organic, which may contain any of over 100 elements (including carbon). All metallic and non metallic elements are inorganic, as are the naturally occurring minerals and metal ores from which these are obtained. 3: Physical Chemistry:It deals with the application of physical laws to chemical change and chemical systems. It gives the theoretical basis of the behavior of chemical substances.4: Biochemistry:It concerned mainly with the various techniques and laboratory methods to determine the composition of matter. 5: Analytical Chemistry:It concerned mainly with the various techniques and laboratory methods to determine the composition of matter.
  • BRANCHES OF CHEMISTRY:Chemistry may be categorized into five major branches, which include the following:1: Organic Chemistry:It is concerned with the study of most carbon-based compounds. Since majority of the compounds in living organisms are organic compounds, organic chemistry is a very important field of study. The petrochemical, pharmaceutical, and textile industries deal almost exclusively with organic chemistry.2: Inorganic Chemistry:It deals with all substances which are not considered to organic, which may contain any of over 100 elements (including carbon). All metallic and non metallic elements are inorganic, as are the naturally occurring minerals and metal ores from which these are obtained. 3: Physical Chemistry:It deals with the application of physical laws to chemical change and chemical systems. It gives the theoretical basis of the behavior of chemical substances.4: Biochemistry:It concerned mainly with the various techniques and laboratory methods to determine the composition of matter. 5: Analytical Chemistry:It concerned mainly with the various techniques and laboratory methods to determine the composition of matter.
  • BRANCHES OF CHEMISTRY:Chemistry may be categorized into five major branches, which include the following:1: Organic Chemistry:It is concerned with the study of most carbon-based compounds. Since majority of the compounds in living organisms are organic compounds, organic chemistry is a very important field of study. The petrochemical, pharmaceutical, and textile industries deal almost exclusively with organic chemistry.2: Inorganic Chemistry:It deals with all substances which are not considered to organic, which may contain any of over 100 elements (including carbon). All metallic and non metallic elements are inorganic, as are the naturally occurring minerals and metal ores from which these are obtained. 3: Physical Chemistry:It deals with the application of physical laws to chemical change and chemical systems. It gives the theoretical basis of the behavior of chemical substances.4: Biochemistry:It concerned mainly with the various techniques and laboratory methods to determine the composition of matter. 5: Analytical Chemistry:It concerned mainly with the various techniques and laboratory methods to determine the composition of matter.
  • BRANCHES OF CHEMISTRY:Chemistry may be categorized into five major branches, which include the following:1: Organic Chemistry:It is concerned with the study of most carbon-based compounds. Since majority of the compounds in living organisms are organic compounds, organic chemistry is a very important field of study. The petrochemical, pharmaceutical, and textile industries deal almost exclusively with organic chemistry.2: Inorganic Chemistry:It deals with all substances which are not considered to organic, which may contain any of over 100 elements (including carbon). All metallic and non metallic elements are inorganic, as are the naturally occurring minerals and metal ores from which these are obtained. 3: Physical Chemistry:It deals with the application of physical laws to chemical change and chemical systems. It gives the theoretical basis of the behavior of chemical substances.4: Biochemistry:It concerned mainly with the various techniques and laboratory methods to determine the composition of matter. 5: Analytical Chemistry:It concerned mainly with the various techniques and laboratory methods to determine the composition of matter.
  • BRANCHES OF CHEMISTRY:Chemistry may be categorized into five major branches, which include the following:1: Organic Chemistry:It is concerned with the study of most carbon-based compounds. Since majority of the compounds in living organisms are organic compounds, organic chemistry is a very important field of study. The petrochemical, pharmaceutical, and textile industries deal almost exclusively with organic chemistry.2: Inorganic Chemistry:It deals with all substances which are not considered to organic, which may contain any of over 100 elements (including carbon). All metallic and non metallic elements are inorganic, as are the naturally occurring minerals and metal ores from which these are obtained. 3: Physical Chemistry:It deals with the application of physical laws to chemical change and chemical systems. It gives the theoretical basis of the behavior of chemical substances.4: Biochemistry:It concerned mainly with the various techniques and laboratory methods to determine the composition of matter. 5: Analytical Chemistry:It concerned mainly with the various techniques and laboratory methods to determine the composition of matter.
  • BRANCHES OF CHEMISTRY:Chemistry may be categorized into five major branches, which include the following:1: Organic Chemistry:It is concerned with the study of most carbon-based compounds. Since majority of the compounds in living organisms are organic compounds, organic chemistry is a very important field of study. The petrochemical, pharmaceutical, and textile industries deal almost exclusively with organic chemistry.2: Inorganic Chemistry:It deals with all substances which are not considered to organic, which may contain any of over 100 elements (including carbon). All metallic and non metallic elements are inorganic, as are the naturally occurring minerals and metal ores from which these are obtained. 3: Physical Chemistry:It deals with the application of physical laws to chemical change and chemical systems. It gives the theoretical basis of the behavior of chemical substances.4: Biochemistry:It concerned mainly with the various techniques and laboratory methods to determine the composition of matter. 5: Analytical Chemistry:It concerned mainly with the various techniques and laboratory methods to determine the composition of matter.
  • Other branches of chemistry have emphasis on specific areas:1: nanochemistry2: combinatorial chemistry3: astrochemistry4: environmental chemistry5: food chemistry6: solid state chemistry7: material chemistry8: forensic chemistry9: medical chemistry
  • IMPORTANCE OF CHEMISTRYTake a good look at the thing around you. What do you see? Thank about your personal and school things?What have you eaten this breakfast?These and more are products of chemistry. * Knowledge of chemistry guides chemists in the development of new processes or new products, in the design of new compounds and in the improvement of those changes that occur naturally.
  • ROLE OF CHEMISTRY IN SOCIETY AND INDUSTRY:A: Industry depends on chemistry. The application of theories of chemistry brings about industrial materials such as paints, plastics, iron or steel, gasoline, glass, rubber, fabrics, cement, kerosene and motor oil. Farmers enrich the soil with urea or other chemical fertilizers, spray plants with insecticides, and apply chemicals to induce flowering giving rise to out-of-season fruits like mangoes in December or lanzones in May. Fabrics, natural and synthetic drugs, food preservatives, enamel or lacquer that lengthens the life span and enhances the beauty of wood, instant food preparations like noodles that are readily available for busy mothers – all these come from chemical laboratories. Many more costumer products are being prepared and processed by chemists.B: Many professions and occupations need some knowledge of chemistry. The chemistry of fertilizers is very important to a farmer to assure him of a bountiful harvest. A salesman feels more confident and persuasive if he knows the composition and properties of the products he is selling. Chemistry helps mothers decide what food or detergent to buy. An architect or engineers should have a knowledge of chemistry to chemistry to enable him to choose the best construction materials. A lawyer can effectively argue in court if he knows, from a paraffin test, if indeed a person has fired a gun. The same can be said of physicians, pharmacists, biologist, technicians, tailors, plumbers or carpenters who need a knowledge of chemistry in the practice of their professions, or occupations. C: The application of theories in chemistry produces new and better materials. A few years ago, housewives found it inconvenient to use paper bags for marketing. Today, thanks to chemistry, we use more durable and lighter plastic bags. In school canteens, some juices are now packed in non-breakable, handy and light aluminum or plastic containers. However, plastic containers have both advantage and disadvantages. Thus, while they are light aluminum and durable, they do not decay; they are non-biodegradable. Unless properly disposed of burned, they pollute the air.In sports, new materials for clothing for clothing and shoes provide athletes with greater protection from injury. We also have new materials for basketball or football, plastics that are bulletproof, synthetics used as artificial body parts and lightweight materials possessing the strength of steel. Furthermore, we have more effective medicines, biodegradable, pesticides, and better ways of preserving food.D: Everyday experiences at homes and the community are all explained by chemistry. A cool uses a pressure cooker to make the meat tender in a shorter period of time. One may put food in a refrigerator to preserve its freshness. Someone may paint a fence or window iron grill to control rusting. Others may add fertilizers or chemicals to keep their car engine’s temperature down.In washing clothes, one can simply add bleach to whiten the clothes rather than putting them under the sun. Before scrubbing the floor, one can apply wax to make it shiny. There are a host of innumerable applications of chemistry in our daily life.
  • CAREERS in CHEMISTRYSince chemistry is the study of matter (or the stuff of the universe), it has a wide and varied range of career opportunities. Among of these are:Careers in IndustryMany industries are chemical-based like food, petroleum, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, mining, etc. A chemist can work in research and development, production, marketing, management, sales, etc.Career in CommerceA chemistry degree is a good training to acquire skills in mathematics, problem solving, communication, research, self-manage, etc. These skills are needed in the financial world.Careers in Journalism:Science journalist narrow the gap between science, technology, and the public. They have the role of informing, and explaining scientific discoveries and technological inventions/innovations to the public through the different forms of media like television, radio, newsprint, etc.Careers in Law/Forensics:Chemists have an important role in solving crimes that involve forgery, death, arson, paternity, etc.Career in Entrepreneurship:Chemists which technical know-how on preparation, development, and quality assessment of products may be able to establish small and medium industries.Careers in Health/Science Related Professions:Because of their intensive chemical/scientific backgrounds and skills, chemist can easily take on rigorous training to enter health/science –related professions like nursing, dentistry, psychology, and nutrition.
  • CAREERS in CHEMISTRYSince chemistry is the study of matter (or the stuff of the universe), it has a wide and varied range of career opportunities. Among of these are:Careers in IndustryMany industries are chemical-based like food, petroleum, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, mining, etc. A chemist can work in research and development, production, marketing, management, sales, etc.Career in CommerceA chemistry degree is a good training to acquire skills in mathematics, problem solving, communication, research, self-manage, etc. These skills are needed in the financial world.Careers in Journalism:Science journalist narrow the gap between science, technology, and the public. They have the role of informing, and explaining scientific discoveries and technological inventions/innovations to the public through the different forms of media like television, radio, newsprint, etc.Careers in Law/Forensics:Chemists have an important role in solving crimes that involve forgery, death, arson, paternity, etc.Career in Entrepreneurship:Chemists which technical know-how on preparation, development, and quality assessment of products may be able to establish small and medium industries.Careers in Health/Science Related Professions:Because of their intensive chemical/scientific backgrounds and skills, chemist can easily take on rigorous training to enter health/science –related professions like nursing, dentistry, psychology, and nutrition.
  • CAREERS in CHEMISTRYSince chemistry is the study of matter (or the stuff of the universe), it has a wide and varied range of career opportunities. Among of these are:Careers in IndustryMany industries are chemical-based like food, petroleum, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, mining, etc. A chemist can work in research and development, production, marketing, management, sales, etc.Career in CommerceA chemistry degree is a good training to acquire skills in mathematics, problem solving, communication, research, self-manage, etc. These skills are needed in the financial world.Careers in Journalism:Science journalist narrow the gap between science, technology, and the public. They have the role of informing, and explaining scientific discoveries and technological inventions/innovations to the public through the different forms of media like television, radio, newsprint, etc.Careers in Law/Forensics:Chemists have an important role in solving crimes that involve forgery, death, arson, paternity, etc.Career in Entrepreneurship:Chemists which technical know-how on preparation, development, and quality assessment of products may be able to establish small and medium industries.Careers in Health/Science Related Professions:Because of their intensive chemical/scientific backgrounds and skills, chemist can easily take on rigorous training to enter health/science –related professions like nursing, dentistry, psychology, and nutrition.
  • CAREERS in CHEMISTRYSince chemistry is the study of matter (or the stuff of the universe), it has a wide and varied range of career opportunities. Among of these are:Careers in IndustryMany industries are chemical-based like food, petroleum, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, mining, etc. A chemist can work in research and development, production, marketing, management, sales, etc.Career in CommerceA chemistry degree is a good training to acquire skills in mathematics, problem solving, communication, research, self-manage, etc. These skills are needed in the financial world.Careers in Journalism:Science journalist narrow the gap between science, technology, and the public. They have the role of informing, and explaining scientific discoveries and technological inventions/innovations to the public through the different forms of media like television, radio, newsprint, etc.Careers in Law/Forensics:Chemists have an important role in solving crimes that involve forgery, death, arson, paternity, etc.Career in Entrepreneurship:Chemists which technical know-how on preparation, development, and quality assessment of products may be able to establish small and medium industries.Careers in Health/Science Related Professions:Because of their intensive chemical/scientific backgrounds and skills, chemist can easily take on rigorous training to enter health/science –related professions like nursing, dentistry, psychology, and nutrition.
  • CAREERS in CHEMISTRYSince chemistry is the study of matter (or the stuff of the universe), it has a wide and varied range of career opportunities. Among of these are:Careers in IndustryMany industries are chemical-based like food, petroleum, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, mining, etc. A chemist can work in research and development, production, marketing, management, sales, etc.Career in CommerceA chemistry degree is a good training to acquire skills in mathematics, problem solving, communication, research, self-manage, etc. These skills are needed in the financial world.Careers in Journalism:Science journalist narrow the gap between science, technology, and the public. They have the role of informing, and explaining scientific discoveries and technological inventions/innovations to the public through the different forms of media like television, radio, newsprint, etc.Careers in Law/Forensics:Chemists have an important role in solving crimes that involve forgery, death, arson, paternity, etc.Career in Entrepreneurship:Chemists which technical know-how on preparation, development, and quality assessment of products may be able to establish small and medium industries.Careers in Health/Science Related Professions:Because of their intensive chemical/scientific backgrounds and skills, chemist can easily take on rigorous training to enter health/science –related professions like nursing, dentistry, psychology, and nutrition.
  • CAREERS in CHEMISTRYSince chemistry is the study of matter (or the stuff of the universe), it has a wide and varied range of career opportunities. Among of these are:Careers in IndustryMany industries are chemical-based like food, petroleum, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, mining, etc. A chemist can work in research and development, production, marketing, management, sales, etc.Career in CommerceA chemistry degree is a good training to acquire skills in mathematics, problem solving, communication, research, self-manage, etc. These skills are needed in the financial world.Careers in Journalism:Science journalist narrow the gap between science, technology, and the public. They have the role of informing, and explaining scientific discoveries and technological inventions/innovations to the public through the different forms of media like television, radio, newsprint, etc.Careers in Law/Forensics:Chemists have an important role in solving crimes that involve forgery, death, arson, paternity, etc.Career in Entrepreneurship:Chemists which technical know-how on preparation, development, and quality assessment of products may be able to establish small and medium industries.Careers in Health/Science Related Professions:Because of their intensive chemical/scientific backgrounds and skills, chemist can easily take on rigorous training to enter health/science –related professions like nursing, dentistry, psychology, and nutrition.
  • CAREERS in CHEMISTRYSince chemistry is the study of matter (or the stuff of the universe), it has a wide and varied range of career opportunities. Among of these are:Careers in IndustryMany industries are chemical-based like food, petroleum, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, mining, etc. A chemist can work in research and development, production, marketing, management, sales, etc.Career in CommerceA chemistry degree is a good training to acquire skills in mathematics, problem solving, communication, research, self-manage, etc. These skills are needed in the financial world.Careers in Journalism:Science journalist narrow the gap between science, technology, and the public. They have the role of informing, and explaining scientific discoveries and technological inventions/innovations to the public through the different forms of media like television, radio, newsprint, etc.Careers in Law/Forensics:Chemists have an important role in solving crimes that involve forgery, death, arson, paternity, etc.Career in Entrepreneurship:Chemists which technical know-how on preparation, development, and quality assessment of products may be able to establish small and medium industries.Careers in Health/Science Related Professions:Because of their intensive chemical/scientific backgrounds and skills, chemist can easily take on rigorous training to enter health/science –related professions like nursing, dentistry, psychology, and nutrition.
  • CAREERS in CHEMISTRYSince chemistry is the study of matter (or the stuff of the universe), it has a wide and varied range of career opportunities. Among of these are:Careers in IndustryMany industries are chemical-based like food, petroleum, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, mining, etc. A chemist can work in research and development, production, marketing, management, sales, etc.Career in CommerceA chemistry degree is a good training to acquire skills in mathematics, problem solving, communication, research, self-manage, etc. These skills are needed in the financial world.Careers in Journalism:Science journalist narrow the gap between science, technology, and the public. They have the role of informing, and explaining scientific discoveries and technological inventions/innovations to the public through the different forms of media like television, radio, newsprint, etc.Careers in Law/Forensics:Chemists have an important role in solving crimes that involve forgery, death, arson, paternity, etc.Career in Entrepreneurship:Chemists which technical know-how on preparation, development, and quality assessment of products may be able to establish small and medium industries.Careers in Health/Science Related Professions:Because of their intensive chemical/scientific backgrounds and skills, chemist can easily take on rigorous training to enter health/science –related professions like nursing, dentistry, psychology, and nutrition.Careers in Teaching:Chemistry who have effective instructional skills are valuable in educating students about the world of chemistry and its roles in improving life and environment.
  • Chemistry

    1. 1. ChemistryAnd its Role in Everyday Life and Environment
    2. 2. What is chemistry?CHEMISTRY is thestudy of matter- itscomposition,structure,properties,transformation fromone form to another,and the energy thataccompanies itstransformation.
    3. 3. Chemistry as the CENTRAL SCIENCE
    4. 4. BRANCHES OF CHEMISTRY1: Organic Chemistry2: Inorganic Chemistry3: Physical Chemistry4: Biochemistry5: Analytical Chemistry
    5. 5. BRANCHES OF CHEMISTRY1: ORGANIC CHEMISTRY:It is concerned with thestudy of most carbon-based compounds.
    6. 6. BRANCHES OF CHEMISTRY2: INORGANICCHEMISTRY:It deals with all substanceswhich are not consideredto organic, which maycontain any of over 100elements (includingcarbon).
    7. 7. BRANCHES OF CHEMISTRY3: PHYSICALCHEMISTRY:It deals with theapplication ofphysical laws tochemical changeand chemicalsystems.
    8. 8. BRANCHES OF CHEMISTRY4: BIOCHEMISTRY:• It concerned with the chemistry of life processes and living organisms.
    9. 9. BRANCHES OF CHEMISTRY5: ANALYTICALCHEMISTRY:It concerned mainlywith the varioustechniques andlaboratory methodsto determine thecomposition ofmatter.
    10. 10. Other BRANCHES OF CHEMISTRY• 1: nanochemistry• 2: combinatorial chemistry• 3: astrochemistry• 4: environmental chemistry• 5: food chemistry• 6: solid state chemistry• 7: material chemistry• 8: forensic chemistry• 9: medical chemistry
    11. 11. IMPORTANCE OF CHEMISTRY.Take a good look at the thing around you.What do you see?Think about your personal and schoolthings?What have you eaten this breakfast?These and more are products ofchemistry.
    12. 12. ROLE OF CHEMISTRY IN SOCIETY AND INDUSTRYA: Industry depends on chemistry.B: Many professions and occupations need some knowledge of chemistry.C: The application of theories in chemistry produces new and better materials.D: Everyday experiences at homes and the community are all explained by chemistry.
    13. 13. CAREERS in CHEMISTRY
    14. 14. CAREERS in CHEMISTRYCareers in IndustryMany industries arechemical-based likefood, petroleum,cosmetic,pharmaceutical,biotechnology,mining, etc.
    15. 15. CAREERS in CHEMISTRYCareer in CommerceA chemistry degree is agood training to acquireskills in mathematics,problem solving,communication, research,self-manage, etc.
    16. 16. CAREERS in CHEMISTRYCareers inJournalism:Sciencejournalistnarrow the gapbetweenscience,technology, andthe public.
    17. 17. CAREERS in CHEMISTRYCareers inLaw/Forensics:Chemists have animportant role insolving crimes thatinvolve forgery, death,arson, paternity, etc.
    18. 18. CAREERS in CHEMISTRYCareer inEntrepreneurship:Chemists whichtechnical know-howon preparation,development, andquality assessmentof products may beable to establishsmall and mediumindustries.
    19. 19. CAREERS in CHEMISTRYCareers in Health/ScienceRelated Professions:Because of their intensivechemical/scientificbackgrounds and skills,chemist can easily take onrigorous training to enterhealth/science –relatedprofessions like nursing,dentistry, psychology, andnutrition.
    20. 20. CAREERS in CHEMISTRYCareers in Teaching:Chemistry who haveeffective instructionalskills are valuable ineducating studentsabout the world ofchemistry and itsroles in improving lifeand environment.

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