Notecard Topics for Year 10 Ancient/ Roman Middle Ages Renaissance Industrial Rev. Modern Surgery Factors/misc
Hippocrates Greek Doctor (pre Roman) Developed Theory of Four Humours Wanted non- supernatural explanation for medicine Clinical Observation – watch the patient before treatment Relates to: Galen Roman Medicine Influenced Roman medicine Hippocratic Oath – doctors trained agreed to protect patients Used bloodletting
Galen 200 A.D. - Roman doctor to Gladiators Never did dissections but saw plenty of wounds, limbs, injuries Over 600 writings – influence lasted until 18th century (1700’s) Advocated bloodletting to balance Four Humours Embraced by the Church because he saw the body as a machine put together by perfectly by God. Relates to: Hippocrates Church in MA Roman Medicine Four Humours Many wrong ideas – blood made in liver / liver has lobes / septum has two parts / Humours Theory of Opposites - eat and drink things that represent opposite of Humour (cucumber – chillies) Church controlled medical training and universities until 1500’s – Galen taught extensively
Roman Public Health Understood connection between Hygiene and Health Clean Water from aqueducts – for general population Hospitals for soldiers – healthy army = strong empire Public Baths – kept people clean Relates to – Galen Public Health MA Did not understand cause of disease – believed in Miasma, Astrology, Charms, Spells, Humours Public Toilets and Sewers kept large cities cleaner by disposing of waste Roman roads – helped communications knowledge of medicine spread.
Public Health in the Middle Ages No public sewers – human and animal excrement ran everywhere / water supply Laws were passed during epidemics to improve Hygiene but had little effect. Some clean water from lead pipes, but often hard to find – many people drank ale instead Rich people had tubs, privies, and primitive sewers Relates to – Roman Public Health MA Doctors Government understood that filth = more diseases but made little effort to fix problems. Public toilets existed in London, but few other places. Large cities (London, Bristol, Southhampton) had clean water for the wealthy and a few baths. Church condemned.
Medicine and Treatment in Middle Ages Britain No big change in treatment from Roman times Still using 4 Humours and Theory of Opposites Treatment included supernatural aspects – prayer, pilgrimage, astrology Books of herbal remedies included the Leechbook of Bald Relates to – Doctors in the MA Renaissance Medicine Galen Bloodletting – bleeding bowl and leeches Used Herbal cures that worked like honey – even though they did not know WHY they worked. Purging used to balance Humours
Medical Training from Roman Britain to c.1350 Ancient doctors trained by Hippocratic books No organisation established to train doctors or follow up on complaints When Romans left in the 400’s, most doctors followed medical understanding. Universities and medical schools became independent of church in 16 th century (1500’s) Relates to – MA Public Health Doctors and Nurses in 20 th century Monasteries and Convents had most books – became centres of learning. Anyone could set up a business being a doctor Most doctors learned medicine through books and observing other doctors (apprentice)
Hospitals in the Middle Ages Hospitals were rare in MA. Often small. Aim was to care for the sick, not to cure them. Almshouses set up in 14 th century (1300’s) for deserving poor. Sickness often seen as punishment for sins. Relates to – Public Health in MA MA Doctors Fresh fruit and veg grown by hospitals. Often run by monks and nuns – Christian charity. Positive effect of religion in MA Religious symbols everywhere (Jesus, cross, Heaven) to remind patients of afterlife.