Ethical Eating


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Taking a look into animal welfare in our food system. We will be exploring topics on humane treatment, slaughter, environment, vegetarianism, sustainability, and what Campus Dining Services is doing.

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  • Ethical Eating

    1. 1. Ethical Eating … taking a look into animal welfare in our food system
    2. 2. What are we talking about? <ul><li>Conventional Animal Production </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Questions about human health </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Impact </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetarianism and Veganism </li></ul><ul><li>What’s available for you on campus? </li></ul><ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Some definitions <ul><li>Feedlot  where cows go to get fattened up before slaughter </li></ul><ul><li>Castration  removal of testicles </li></ul><ul><li>CAFO  confined animal feed operation </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Slaughter  the killing of animals mostly for human consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock  all animals raised for intent of food production </li></ul><ul><li>Free range  not defined by law, but used by the industry to say that poultry, pigs lived outside of cages/crates </li></ul><ul><li>Pasture-raised  most sustainable way of producing animals for human consumption; animals are able to roam around freely, and do all things naturally </li></ul>
    5. 5. Do Animals Feel Pain? <ul><li>All birds, mammals, fish have a central nervous system… </li></ul><ul><li>All birds, mammals and fish can feel pain. </li></ul><ul><li>Is there emotional pain associated with physical harm? The jury is out on that… </li></ul>
    6. 6. Conventional Animal Production <ul><li>Chickens, poultry </li></ul><ul><li>Pigs </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Fish </li></ul>
    7. 7. Chickens <ul><li>Broiler chickens  meat consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Layer hens  egg consumption, meat consumption </li></ul>
    8. 8. Broilers <ul><li>Bred to grow muscles 2x as fast as in 1940’s </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle growth does not match bone growth </li></ul><ul><li>Deformities </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t walk </li></ul><ul><li>Crowded pens on concrete/slatted floors </li></ul><ul><li>De-beaking </li></ul><ul><li>Disease vector  administer antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Unnatural diets </li></ul>
    9. 9. Layers <ul><li>98% live in crowded cages - 48 sq. in. each – vertical integration </li></ul><ul><li>De-beaking </li></ul><ul><li>Disease vector  administer antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Forced molting through starvation to increase egg production </li></ul><ul><li>Unnatural diets </li></ul><ul><li>Butchered after 2 egg-laying seasons </li></ul><ul><li>By slaughter, 29% suffer broken bones due to neglect and maltreatment </li></ul>
    10. 10. Health Risks and Human Concerns <ul><li>Hormones – increase growth; illegal in US </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotics – promote growth; treat disease </li></ul><ul><li>Arsenic – antimicrobial dug; promotes growth </li></ul><ul><li>Disease vector – E. coli, bird flu, salmonella </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental pollution </li></ul>
    11. 11. What happens at slaughter? <ul><li>Transported by truck to slaughter </li></ul><ul><li>No legal requirement for chickens to be anesthetized for slaughter… they are awake </li></ul><ul><li>Throats cut </li></ul><ul><li>Dipped into tanks of scalding hot water to loosen feathers </li></ul><ul><li>Plucked of feathers by hand or machine </li></ul>
    12. 12. Facts and figures <ul><li>There is no federal law that regulates humane treatment of chickens </li></ul><ul><li>Over 9 billion chickens were slaughtered in the US for their flesh </li></ul><ul><li>245 million hens are raised for eggs </li></ul><ul><li>99% of all chickens raised for food spend their entire lives in confinement </li></ul><ul><li>Due to genetic manipulation (selective breeding) 90% of broiler chickens have trouble walking </li></ul><ul><li>100 million male chicks are ground up alive or suffocated each year </li></ul><ul><li>71% of the farmers who work under contract for Tyson earn below-poverty wages </li></ul>
    13. 13. Poultry’s environmental impact <ul><li>Soy-based high protein feed diet </li></ul><ul><li>Ammonia emissions and water contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Manure lagoons </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrates and phosphates contaminate waterways </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrates  algae blooms  fish kills </li></ul><ul><li>Blue baby syndrome  result of drinking nitrogen-contaminated water </li></ul>
    14. 14. The Industry… <ul><li>“ Is it more profitable to grow the biggest bird and have increased mortality due to heart attacks, ascites, and leg problems, or should birds be grown smaller so that birds are smaller, but have fewer heart, lung, and skeletal problems? </li></ul><ul><li>A large portion of grower’s pay is based on the pound of saleable meat produced, so simple calculations suggest that it is better to get the weight and ignore the mortality …” </li></ul>
    15. 15. Free Range Poultry <ul><li>Guaranteed for all egg laying hens and broilers – Prop 2 by 2012 </li></ul><ul><li>What does free range mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it really free range? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Most free-range birds are still fenced in corrals, though people like to imagine the birds are out roaming the range. They are not out exercising. These birds are raised much like the regular poultry.” – Ralph Ernst, UC Davis Poultry Specialist </li></ul>
    16. 16. Turkeys <ul><li>Killed when they are 5-6 mo. old </li></ul><ul><li>300 million slaughtered ea. year </li></ul><ul><li>No federal legal protection </li></ul><ul><li>Beaks, toes seared off </li></ul><ul><li>Crammed in tight quarters with thousands of other birds </li></ul><ul><li>Slaughtered like chickens </li></ul><ul><li>Too obese to reproduce  artificially inseminated </li></ul>
    17. 17. Turkey treatment <ul><li>Mortalities from organ failure or heart attack before reaching 6 mo. old </li></ul><ul><li>Become to obese to walk </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation to slaughterhouse results in the death of millions of turkeys each year due to heat exhaustion, freezing, transport accidents </li></ul>
    18. 18. Free range turkey? <ul><li>“Consumers can really be fooled. Some farms can qualify for free range, but they raise turkeys in the same conditions as industrial farms” – Mary Pitman from Mary’s Free-Range Turkeys </li></ul>
    19. 19. Pigs <ul><li>Over 100million pigs are killed ea. year for consumption </li></ul><ul><li>97% of the pigs consumed today are raised on factory farms </li></ul><ul><li>Baby pigs have some of their teeth removed, are castrated (males), and have their tails cut off and ears notched </li></ul><ul><li>Gestation crates </li></ul><ul><li>Transport to slaughterhouse results in the death of 1 million pigs ea. year </li></ul>
    20. 20. Treatment of pigs <ul><li>Farrowing crates </li></ul><ul><li>Piglets placed in “battery cages”  similar to vertical integration for layer hens </li></ul><ul><li>Pigs are crammed into small pens with many other pigs until slaughter </li></ul><ul><li>Rampant disease </li></ul><ul><li>Pigs live up to 6 mo. in factory farms… in nature pigs live up to 15 years </li></ul>
    21. 21. Pig Illnesses <ul><li>Genetic manipulation to grow too big too fast </li></ul><ul><li>Arthritis </li></ul><ul><li>Joint problems </li></ul><ul><li>Mange </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumonia – 70% have it before slaughtered </li></ul>
    22. 22. Slaughter of Pigs <ul><li>Transported to slaughterhouses in trucks </li></ul><ul><li>170,000 pigs die each year in transport </li></ul><ul><li>420,000 pigs are crippled during transport ea. year </li></ul><ul><li>Typical slaughterhouse kills up to 1,100 pigs every hour </li></ul><ul><li>Pigs stunned with stun guns, or bolt guns </li></ul><ul><li>Improper firing of stun guns/bolt guns result in live slaughter </li></ul><ul><li>Throats slit to bleed out </li></ul><ul><li>Scalding water bath to remove hair </li></ul>
    23. 23. Health Risks and Human Concerns <ul><li>Antiobiotics in pigs </li></ul><ul><li>Trichinosis – parasites; raw and undercooked pork </li></ul><ul><li>Linked to when pigs were fed garbage </li></ul><ul><li>1997-2001, average of 12 cases per year </li></ul>
    24. 24. Environmental Impact <ul><li>Feral Pigs in North and South America, New Zealand, Australia, Hawaii </li></ul><ul><li>Invasive species – extensive environmental damage </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution from waste </li></ul>
    25. 25. Cows <ul><li>Beef cows </li></ul><ul><li>Dairy cows </li></ul>
    26. 26. Beef Cattle <ul><li>Bread specifically for meat production </li></ul><ul><li>First year spent grazing </li></ul><ul><li>Iron-branding </li></ul><ul><li>Castration </li></ul><ul><li>Horns removed </li></ul><ul><li>After first year  auctioned off </li></ul><ul><li>Shipped to feedlot </li></ul><ul><li>Many arrive at feedlot crippled or dead </li></ul>
    27. 27. Life at the Feedlot <ul><li>Unnatural diet of mostly corn and antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Acidification and bloating of the stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Ulceration and rupturing of the intestines </li></ul><ul><li>Manure overload and manure lagoons </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory problems due to chromic inhalation of the ammonia, methane, and noxious chemicals created by confined environment </li></ul>
    28. 29. Dairy Cows <ul><li>Repeatedly impregnated in order to induce lactation </li></ul><ul><li>Calves taken away from them </li></ul><ul><li>rBGH and rBST – growth hormones used to increase milk production </li></ul><ul><li>Unnatural diet high in fat and protein-rich grains to increase milk production and replace energy lost by producing such large quantities of milk </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotics administered to keep cows healthy </li></ul>
    29. 30. Slaughter <ul><li>When to slaughter - b eef cattle is an “acceptable size”; dairy cows stop producing at an “acceptable” rate </li></ul><ul><li>Fast and messy  the faster they slaughter, the more meat they can produce, and for cheaper </li></ul><ul><li>400 cows slaughtered per day in ea. slaughter house </li></ul><ul><li>Cows are stunned, sometimes not completely </li></ul><ul><li>Throats slit, bleed out </li></ul><ul><li>Slaughtered – specific cuts or ground beef </li></ul>
    30. 31. What’s in the Beef? <ul><li>GROSS </li></ul><ul><li>Fecal contamination </li></ul><ul><li>E. coli 0157:H7 </li></ul><ul><li>Mad Cow Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated Fat </li></ul><ul><li>GOOD </li></ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin B12 </li></ul><ul><li>Iron (heme form) </li></ul>
    31. 32. What is in the milk? <ul><li>GROSS </li></ul><ul><li>Pus </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated Fat </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>Pesticide residues </li></ul><ul><li>Dioxins </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>GOOD </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium </li></ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin B12 </li></ul><ul><li>Added Vitamin D </li></ul>
    32. 33. Got Osteoporosis? <ul><li>A study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2000) looked at all aspects of diet and bone health and found that high consumption of fruits and vegetables positively affected bone health and that dairy consumption did not . </li></ul><ul><li>Such findings do not surprise nutritional researchers: The calcium absorption rate from milk is approximately 30 percent , while figures for broccoli, Brussels sprouts, mustard greens, turnip greens, kale, and some other green leafy vegetables range from 40 percent to 64 percent . </li></ul>
    33. 34. Something’s Fishy <ul><li>Overfishing – 90% of large fish populations have been exterminated in the past 50 years </li></ul><ul><li>Contamination of our waterways </li></ul><ul><li>Factory Farmed Fish (aquaculture) – it takes 5lbs of wild fish to produce 1lb of farmed fish </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of ocean’s ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Bycatch </li></ul>
    34. 35. Health Concerns and Fish <ul><li>Seafood is the #1 cause of food poisoning in the US </li></ul><ul><li>E. coli </li></ul><ul><li>Biomagnification </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy metals : cadmium, mercury, lead, chromium, arsenic </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney damage, nervous system issues, cancer, etc. </li></ul>
    35. 36. What do we do?
    36. 37. “ Sustainable” Proteins <ul><li>Mary’s Turkey – free range </li></ul><ul><li>Mary’s Chicken – free range </li></ul><ul><li>Petaluma Poultry/Rosie’s Chicken – free range </li></ul>
    37. 38. Food Alliance Certified “Animal Welfare Approved” <ul><li>Grass Fed Beef – Fulton Beef </li></ul><ul><li>Pure Country Pork </li></ul>
    38. 39. Healthy, humane animal treatment <ul><li>“ Food Alliance certified producers raise livestock with the </li></ul><ul><li>greatest respect for their needs and comfort . Food Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>producers provide proper nutrition for excellent animal health </li></ul><ul><li>and fitness , without excess fat . Living conditions and space </li></ul><ul><li>allowances provide physical and thermal comfort , afford </li></ul><ul><li>access to natural lighting and vegetated pasture (where </li></ul><ul><li>appropriate), and enhance natural behavior (including social contact </li></ul><ul><li>among animals). Food Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>producers are trained and competent </li></ul><ul><li>handlers , minimizing animal fear and </li></ul><ul><li>stress during handling, transportation </li></ul><ul><li>and slaughter . Use of hormone </li></ul><ul><li>treatments is prohibited . Antibiotic use </li></ul><ul><li>is restricted to treatment of occasional </li></ul><ul><li>illness, and not as a substitute for healthy </li></ul><ul><li>living conditions.” </li></ul>
    39. 40. Monterey Bay Seafood Watch
    40. 41. Milk and dairy products <ul><li>Horizon Organic  organic, but humane? </li></ul><ul><li>Berkeley Farm  rBST free </li></ul><ul><li>Butter  Sysco brand </li></ul><ul><li>Creamers </li></ul><ul><li>Cheeses  Sysco brand </li></ul>
    41. 42. Other options… <ul><li>Vegetarian entrees </li></ul><ul><li>Vegan entrees </li></ul><ul><li>Vegan corner </li></ul><ul><li>Soy milk </li></ul><ul><li>Vegan desserts </li></ul>
    42. 43. Opportunities for the future… <ul><li>Glaum Eggs – cage free – possibly for the Fall of 2009… may be too expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Continue to purchase Food Alliance Certified products as they become available </li></ul><ul><li>Vegan ice cream </li></ul>
    43. 44. What is the barrier? <ul><li>Student demand </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul>
    44. 45. QUESTIONS? ?