Interpreting Vague Language: Intermediate

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Interpreting Vague Language: Intermediate

  1. 1. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 A Study in Vague Language - Intermediate Daniel Greene, MA, NIC Master
  2. 2. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Who am I? Recently got my Master of Arts in Interpreting Studies, with an emphasis in Teaching Interpreting, from Western Oregon University, where I wrote my thesis “Keeping it vague: A study of vague language in an American Sign Language corpus and implications for interpreting between English and American Sign language.”
  3. 3. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Who are you? How many K–12 interpreters? How many postsecondary? How many community? How many legal/judicial? How many VRS/VRI? Have you ever encountered vague language in your work?
  4. 4. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 1 fifteen– minute break Agenda 3 CEUs3 hours =
  5. 5. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Questions? Stop me, or Wait-n-see, or Pass me a note, or Email me@danielgreene.com ?
  6. 6. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Workshop Description Participants will explore the forms of vague language (VL) in English and ASL; participants will categorize vague forms into parts of speech and learn how each part of speech fulfills its functions in language; participants will develop a vocabulary of VL in ASL and English.
  7. 7. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Learning Objectives 1.List the parts of speech (POS) vague terms take. 2.Provide various vague signs for given parts of speech (e.g., various vague nouns). 3.Provide various vague words for given parts of speech (e.g., various vague nouns). 4.Demonstrate the use of several vague gestures and vocalizations.
  8. 8. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Essential Questions How do people express vagueness in English and ASL? How can I incorporate vague language into my speaking and signing?
  9. 9. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Categories of Vague Language Approximators Vague Category Markers VCMs) Exaggeration Vague Quantifiers Vague Determiners Clausal Ellipsis Hedges Metonymy Vague Inflection / intonation Detail dismissives / de-emphasis
  10. 10. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Approximators Approximators moderate the accuracy or certainty of words
  11. 11. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague adverbs Vague adverbs broaden the definition of the action or description
  12. 12. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague adjectives Vague adjectives describe things vaguely
  13. 13. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague Category Markers (VCMs) VCMs mark the preceding words as exemplars of a vague category. AKA: general extenders, general list completers, tags, terminal tags, vague category identifiers
  14. 14. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague determiners Precede a noun, refer to indefinite element of its class
  15. 15. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Detail dismissives Vocal intonations speakers use or NMMs signers use to de- emphasize or dismiss details as unimportant, unknown, or so well known that they are taken for granted.
  16. 16. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Ellipsis Speakers sharing knowledge claim in-group membership by omitting it when referring to it in casual conversation. In/exclusive. Examples: “Did you get what I sent you?” “So, shall we do it?” You, the interpreter, don’t usually claim in-group membership.
  17. 17. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Exaggeration Boosting the count for emphasis or humor
  18. 18. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague intonation / inflection Changes in tone of voice, body language, facial expression, sign production
  19. 19. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague quantifiers Vague quantifiers offer vague ideas of quantities
  20. 20. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague numbers Vague clusters or versions of the numbers they are based on
  21. 21. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Hedges Words that indicate a lack of commitment as to the truth of a matter. Hedges are often used for the sake of self-protection and face-saving.
  22. 22. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Metonymy The substitution of the name for the thing meant, for example suit for business executive, or the track for horse racing.
  23. 23. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague English words in various Parts of Speech (POS)
  24. 24. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Approximators About, around, approximately, like, more-or-less, give or take, or so, or thereabout, ball park, estimate, guesstimate
  25. 25. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague category markers or anything/something (like that) and/or stuff/things like that and/or that sort of thing and such and so on and the list goes on
  26. 26. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague determiners This restaurant (as in “we saw this restaurant on the side of the road”) Some guy (as in “there’s some guy at the door for you”) Do you sense a difference between “just a girl” and “just some girl”? Discuss.
  27. 27. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Detail dismissives “Eh, I wouldn’t put too much stock in reviews…” (high pitch, cadence, rising tone) “So I’m doing my morning routine— brushing my teeth... taking a shower... doing my hair... when all of a sudden the lights go out!”
  28. 28. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Exaggeration A fish as big as a whale If I’ve told you once, I’ve told you a thousand time A million trillion dollars
  29. 29. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Hedges Really, actually Maybe, may, might, perhaps, perchance Think, imagine, suppose Like Well… Rising tone, high pitch, ending with a question
  30. 30. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague intonation Rising tone / inflection (eyebrows, head forward) List with pauses rather than the “alternative ‘or’” “Would you like coffee, tea, soda...?” vs. “coffee, tea, or soda?” (rising vs. falling = vague vs. specified) “Would you like chicken or beef on that salad?” Note the difference between rising tone / inflection and falling tone / inflection.
  31. 31. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Metonyms How’s your Chomsky coming? (homework) She ran off and married that suit. (executive) House bid accepted, now to the bank! (financing) I just pulled a Carol! (something Carol would do) They went all KKK on my ass! (police brutality)
  32. 32. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague quantifiers A little bit, some, few, several, a lot, many, enough, and plenty Heaps of, loads of, oodles of, lots of, tons of... Many, plenty, myriad, innumerable, numberless Choke! (Hawaiian Pidgin)
  33. 33. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Mad Libs Game Pair up: responder & scribe. Fill in the blanks as vaguely as possible; e.g., if it asks for a noun, fill in a vague noun.
  34. 34. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Time for… P.O.S. BOOT CAMP
  35. 35. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 POS Boot Camp What are the vaguest words in each POS? Let’s go through them one by one… Verb Pronoun Number Place Occupation Famous Person Part of the Body Color Exclamation Adjective Adverb Animal Noun
  36. 36. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague adjectives considerable, sizable, nothing to sneeze at indistinct, murky, uncertain, undecided, undetermined, unclear, unknown, unremarkable, unspecified, vague certain— actually uncertain (vague), as in “of a certain age,” “a certain someone,” “a certain something,” “a certain time,” etc. -esque, -ish, -like, -oid
  37. 37. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague adverbs about, approximately, give or take, or so sort of, kind of someway, somehow, somewhat, sometimes, somewhere apparently, ostensibly, presumably, supposedly, allegedly, seemingly
  38. 38. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague animals Animal, organism, life form, microbe Invertebrate Mammal Amphibian Pet
  39. 39. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague body parts organ, system appendage, limb upper body, lower body torso, extremities thingy, privates scrabula (UrbanDictionary)
  40. 40. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague colors Pastel Bright Muted Light Dark
  41. 41. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague exclamations/silly words Oh/Huh/Eh? Really?! You don’t say! No shit! Interesting! Whatever! Anyway!
  42. 42. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague nouns (singular) Something, thing, thingie, thingamajig, it, hoodicky, whichamabobber, whosiwhatsis, watsit, truc (Fr), da kine (Hawaiian Pidgin from “that kind”), whatchamacallit, item, bit, article, parcel, package, widget, part, tool, product, garment, file, document, SKU, device, element, container…
  43. 43. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague nouns (plural) Individual: Things, this & that (cosas), odds & ends, loose ends, gizmos, doo dads, widgets Collective: collection, bunch, range, line, class, market, niche, array, assortment, selection, boatload Mass: Stuff, crap, merchandise, stock, inventory, cargo, material (not always fabric!)
  44. 44. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague numbers A hundred, hundreds, a thousand, thousands, a million, millions One or two, a couple, a couple-three, a few, several, some-odd, umpteen, scores, hordes, thousands Douzaine, centaine, millier The other day, weeks, months, years, eons, ages
  45. 45. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague Numbers & Rounding Base 10 rounding: A hundred, hundreds, a thousand, thousands, a million, millions… one or two, a couple-three, Douzaine, centaine, millier Umpteen, Juneteenth quinze-jours, fortnight Scores of, by the score TIME+TIME+SEVEN+FORTY+FIVE, TEN THOUSAND, MILLION
  46. 46. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague occupations “I work on computers.” “I work in science.” “I’m in the import/export business.” “I work in the entertainment industry.” Can you think of other vague occupations?
  47. 47. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague people Someone, guy, gal, kid, old fart, mec (Fr), type, one, individual, troop, entity, party, body, resource Agent, operator, actor, stakeholder Whoever, you–know–who, , what’s–his/her–name You know, that actor from that movie where they… An anonymous source (donor, informant…) Number, suit, skirt, hottie, babe, player, that one
  48. 48. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague places Place, location, rendezvous, spot, venue, space, arena, area, coordinates, intersection, latitude Stepped away, on the other line, in a meeting, in the field, out of the office, indisposed Somewhere, someplace, wherever, who knows where, you-know-where, overseas Can you think of other vague places?
  49. 49. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague pronouns One, one’s They, Them, Their OK to use they/them/their as third person singular when you’re unsure of gender or don’t wish to specify. Shakespeare did this. This helps when interpreting genderless indexing.
  50. 50. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague verbs Go (went, etc.), come (came, etc.), do something/stuff, do a bit of this & that, etc., run errands (DO++), fool around, tool around, futz, fiddle-fart, putter, keep busy, take care of business, take care of some odds & ends, tie up loose ends, get all [my] ducks in a row, engage, take action… Can you think of more vague verbs?
  51. 51. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Mad Libs Reboot Pair up: responder & scribe. Fill in the blanks as vaguely as possible; e.g., if it asks for a noun, fill in a vague noun.
  52. 52. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Critical Incident Questionnaire Stephen Brookfield, Teaching Critical Thinking stephenbrookfield.com
  53. 53. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague ASL signs in various Parts of Speech (POS)
  54. 54. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 National Center for Sign Language and Gesture Resources (NCSLGR) Corpus of ASL videos collected and transcribed by Boston University, Gallaudet University, and University of Texas, Arlington, along with some videos from Dawn Sign Press
  55. 55. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 ASLLRP DAI American Sign Language Linguistics Research Project Database Access Interface to search NCSLGR Corpus
  56. 56. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Utterance & sign videos with glosses From NCSLGR Corpus
  57. 57. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Full gloss of ASL utterance Sample from NCSLGR Corpus
  58. 58. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague adjectives in ASL (From NSCLGR Corpus in order of prominence) OLD OLD+MOST YOUNG SMALL
  59. 59. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague adverbs in ASL (From NSCLGR Corpus in order of prominence) ALL-NIGHT RECENT-PAST EVERYDAY+fs-DAY SOMETIMES SOON AROUND ALL-MORNING GENERATIONS-AGO ALL-AFTERNOON ANY+WHERE GOING-ALONG ONCE-IN-A-WHILE SOME+WHERE
  60. 60. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Approximators in ASL (From NSCLGR Corpus in order of prominence) AROUND LIKE MORE-THAN+LESS-THAN
  61. 61. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague determiners in ASL (From NSCLGR Corpus — only one found) SOMETHING/ONE
  62. 62. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Detail dismissives NMMs: head movement: shake, eye aperture: squinted, and nose: tensed.
  63. 63. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Exaggeration TEN THOUSAND COW THOUSANDS OF PLAYS (football)
  64. 64. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Hedges in ASL (From NSCLGR Corpus in order of prominence) 5"I don't know" MAYBE NOT-KNOW THINK 5"reluctance" SO-SO
  65. 65. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 5"everything in order" Gestures with “5” handshape in NCSLGR Corpus
  66. 66. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 (2h)5"I don't know" Gestures with “5” handshape in NCSLGR Corpus
  67. 67. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 (1h)5"hesitation" Gestures with “5” handshape in NCSLGR Corpus
  68. 68. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 5"hesitation" Gestures with “5” handshape in NCSLGR Corpus
  69. 69. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague nouns in ASL (From NSCLGR Corpus in order of prominence) THING AREA ANY+THING EVERYTHING EVERY+THING FINGERSPELL [As K-something] LCL:5"area of state"
  70. 70. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague numbers in ASL (p. 1 of 3) (From NSCLGR Corpus in order of prominence) FIFTEEN [rounding] 80[+ degrees Fahrenheit] 70+ [degrees Fahrenheit] 100 110 DEGREE 45 50 fs-MPH 50s [decade] 60s [decade] 75+ [degrees Fahrenheit] 75++ DEGREE 80 90 fs-MPH 85 88 90 fs-MPH 85+ [degrees Fahrenheit] AGE-FOUR AGE-FIVE AGE-THREE HALF AGE-FOUR
  71. 71. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague numbers in ASL (p. 2 of 3) (From NSCLGR Corpus in order of prominence) EIGHT [as approximation] FOUR-DAY THREE-DAY FOUR- DAY FOUR-THIRTY FIVE [as "4:30-5"] MILLION [as "millions"] NINETY [as approximation] NOONISH [technically an adverb] ONE #OR TWO ONE TWO 5"I don't know" FEW HOUR ONE-DOLLAR FIFTY TWO- DOLLARS ONE-THOUSAND fs-PLAYS ONE+HUNDRED 150 (flat-O) DOLLAR
  72. 72. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague numbers in ASL (p. 3 of 3) (From NSCLGR Corpus in order of prominence) SIX SEVEN MORNING TEN FIFTEEN DEGREE TEN THOUSAND [rounding] THREE-DAY FOUR-DAY THREE-DOLLARS FOUR- DOLLARS TIME THREE FOUR MORNING TIME+FIVE [as approximation] TIME+NINE [as approximation] TIME+NINE+THIRTY [rounding] TIME+SEVEN+FORTY-FIVE [rounding]
  73. 73. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague pronouns in ASL (From NSCLGR Corpus in order of prominence) SOMETHING/ONE ANY+ONE (indexing is vague, too, if it’s not topicalized)
  74. 74. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague quantifiers in ASL (From NSCLGR Corpus in order of prominence) MANY SOME LITTLE-BIT A-LOT FEW ANY [ENOUGH & PLENTY are vague quantifiers, but did not appear in NCSLGR]
  75. 75. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague Category Markers VCMs in ASL (From NSCLGR Corpus in order of prominence) ETC [like TIME-PASSING] FALL-INTO-PLACE VARIOUS EVERYTHING [like INCLUDE] COUNT-ON-FINGERS LONG-LIST THAT [as "and that"]
  76. 76. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Vague verbs in ASL (From NSCLGR Corpus in order of prominence) #DO DO STAY-AWAKE-ALL-NIGHT TIME-PASSING
  77. 77. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 “Immigrants” NCSLGR Corpus Steven McCullough
  78. 78. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 “Accident” NCSLGR Corpus Michael Schlang
  79. 79. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Wrinkled vs. Tensed Nose From NCSLGR Corpus
  80. 80. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Politeness in ASL
  81. 81. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 It’s Not What You Sign, It’s How You Sign It Politeness in American Sign Language (Hoza, 2007)
  82. 82. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Requests and denials in ASL Varied risk to face, rank of request difficulty, and power differential
  83. 83. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Activity Sign responding to prompts Hoza assigned participants.
  84. 84. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Polite Pucker (pp) Figures from the book It’s Not What You Sign, It’s How You Sign It: Politeness in American Sign Language. Hoza, J. (2007). Washington, D.C. Gallaudet University Press. Photographer: Jack Hoza. Model: Carol Zurek, native deaf signer. Used with permission from Jack Hoza and Gallaudet University Press.
  85. 85. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Polite Grimace (pg) Figures from the book It’s Not What You Sign, It’s How You Sign It: Politeness in American Sign Language. Hoza, J. (2007). Washington, D.C. Gallaudet University Press. Photographer: Jack Hoza. Model: Carol Zurek, native deaf signer. Used with permission from Jack Hoza and Gallaudet University Press.
  86. 86. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 DON’T MIND/pp Figures from the book It’s Not What You Sign, It’s How You Sign It: Politeness in American Sign Language. Hoza, J. (2007). Washington, D.C. Gallaudet University Press. Photographer: Jack Hoza. Model: Carol Zurek, native deaf signer. Used with permission from Jack Hoza and Gallaudet University Press.
  87. 87. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 DON’T MIND/tight lips Figures from the book It’s Not What You Sign, It’s How You Sign It: Politeness in American Sign Language. Hoza, J. (2007). Washington, D.C. Gallaudet University Press. Photographer: Jack Hoza. Model: Carol Zurek, native deaf signer. Used with permission from Jack Hoza and Gallaudet University Press.
  88. 88. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 DON’T MIND/pg Figures from the book It’s Not What You Sign, It’s How You Sign It: Politeness in American Sign Language. Hoza, J. (2007). Washington, D.C. Gallaudet University Press. Photographer: Jack Hoza. Model: Carol Zurek, native deaf signer. Used with permission from Jack Hoza and Gallaudet University Press.
  89. 89. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 DON’T MIND/pg.-frown Figures from the book It’s Not What You Sign, It’s How You Sign It: Politeness in American Sign Language. Hoza, J. (2007). Washington, D.C. Gallaudet University Press. Photographer: Jack Hoza. Model: Carol Zurek, native deaf signer. Used with permission from Jack Hoza and Gallaudet University Press.
  90. 90. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Body/head teeter (bt) Figures from the book It’s Not What You Sign, It’s How You Sign It: Politeness in American Sign Language. Hoza, J. (2007). Washington, D.C. Gallaudet University Press. Photographer: Jack Hoza. Model: Carol Zurek, native deaf signer. Used with permission from Jack Hoza and Gallaudet University Press.
  91. 91. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 “WELL”/q Figures from the book It’s Not What You Sign, It’s How You Sign It: Politeness in American Sign Language. Hoza, J. (2007). Washington, D.C. Gallaudet University Press. Photographer: Jack Hoza. Model: Carol Zurek, native deaf signer. Used with permission from Jack Hoza and Gallaudet University Press.
  92. 92. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 “WELL” is not always “well” “WELL”(one-hand; circular movement), FEEL A-LITTLE/pg-frown AWKWARD, I/tight lips, “WELL”/pg-frown. REALLY I TIGHT-BUDGET/pg. DON’T-MIND I BORROW FIFTY DOLLAR, “WELL”(two hands; circular movement)/pg-frown,q. #IF/cond, CHECK NEXT WEEK/t, I WILL PAY-YOU NEXT-WEEK, WILL, I/nod. [translation: Well, um. This feels a little awkward, really. My budget’s really tight. Would you mind letting me borrow 50 dollars? Is there any way you could do that? If you can, I’ll pay you back on payday next week, really I will.] (Hoza, 2007, p. 177 [original emphasis])
  93. 93. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 “well/what/,” part:indef, 5HPU, WELL Four different terms for the same vague gesture that can occur with hedges, vague determiners, or as vague category markers (VCMs). “/well-what/” (Emmorey, 1999) Part:indef = “indefinite particle” (Conlin, Hagstrom, & Neidle, 2003) 5HPU = “‘5’ Hand Palm Up” (Roush, 2007) WELL (Hoza, 2007)
  94. 94. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 SOMETHING/ONE (2h)part:indef BOAT SINK NEAR CAPECOD (2h)part:indef ‘Some boat or other sank near Cape Cod (I think).’ Conlin, Hagstrom, & Needle, 2003, p. 9, example 25. Deaf signer: Norma Bowers- Tourangeau.
  95. 95. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Example of 5HPU in Polite ASL Courtesy of Danny Roush. Deaf actor: Anthony Natale.
  96. 96. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 WELL (one-hand, movement forward)/ browraise Roush reports that the first type, 5HPU(1), is used to convey, “I’m done. Go ahead” or “The floor is yours,” and the second type, 5HPU(2), conveys that the speaker should “Keep talking” (Roush, 2007, as cited in Hoza, 2011).
  97. 97. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 “…or anything” as a VCM “NHS Nurse: Er. any intense headache or mental confusion or anything?” “In the first example given above, the patient is directed to understand this as a category of ‘symptoms of ill health relating to the head or mental awareness.’” (Adolphs, Atkins, & Harvey, 2007)
  98. 98. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Incorporating part:indef into ASL interpretations of English VCMs “NHS Nurse: ‘Er. any intense headache or mental confusion or anything?’” (Adolphs, Atkins, & Harvey, 2007) Interpreter: part:indef HEADACHE, CONFUSE, part:indef? (Greene, 2013) Interpreter: part:indef HEADACHE, CONFUSE, OTHER part:indef?
  99. 99. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Activity: Sign translations of questions quoted in Adolphs, Atkins, & Harvey NHS Nurse: Er. any intense headache or mental confusion or anything? NHS Nurse: No shortness of breath or gasping for breath or anything? NHS Nurse: …so there’s no swelling anywhere near your face or anything?
  100. 100. Created by Daniel Greene in 2013 Contact me @ DanielGreene.com me@danielgreene.com

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