Daniel Greene, Phoenix College IPP205, September 18, 2012
Demand–Control Schema
… because “it depends” isn’t good enough.
Necessity is the mother of invention:
Our historical lack of sufficient schema
✤ Methods of Instruction:!
✤ Focus on langu...
Origins of Demand–Control Schema
✤ Job Demand–Control Theory (Karasek,
1979; Karasek & Theorell, 1990)!
✤ “No job is inher...
Job demands, job decision latitude, and mental
strain: Implications for job redesign (Karasek, 1979)
Low Demands + Low Con...
Demands & Controls signed “D” and “C”
Image source: https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/UEET/StudentSite/dynamicsofflight.html
Demands vs. Controls
Challenges Resources
“What is the job asking of me?” “How am I responding?”
What needs handling Decis...
Categorizing Interpreting Demands: EIePIa
Eee–Eye–Pee–Eye Oh!
✤ Environmental: That which is specific to the setting; e.g.,...
Constellation of
Concurrent Demands
& the Main Demand
The pressing problem in a cluster of circumstances
Main
Demand
Concu...
Constellation of Demands vs. Main Demand:
Which one do you think is the main demand?
✤ Four people in the doctor’s office:!...
Controls
Pre-assignment During assignment Post-assignment
education!
experience!
research!
role-playing
acknowledgments!
s...
Ethical & Effective Controls (Dean & Pollard)
Too Liberal
(therefore ineffective
or unethical)
Ethical & Effective
Decisio...
“D C C± RD” Sequence (Dean & Pollard)
Demand Control Consequence
(positive/negative)
Resulting Demand
Citation: Dean, R. K...
Deontological vs.
Teleological Ethics
✤ Duty-bound ethics vs. Goal-oriented ethics!
✤ Deont- (Gr.) “being necessary” + -lo...
What can working interpreters do?
✤ Predict/respond better to job demands!
✤ Identify job demands immediately and more con...
What can interpreting students do?
✤ Ask instructor to further define or name the “it depends” factor(s).!
✤ Critique work ...
Remember: DC–S is a “best practice” process
for ethical decision–making (Dean & Pollard).
Citation: Dean, R. K. & Pollard,...
The interpreter’s “real” (hidden) introduction:
✤ I will need to change the words you have chosen.!
✤ I will need to add a...
Technical Professions vs. Practice Professions
Professions such as Laboratory Science
and Engineering
Professions such as ...
References
✤ Dean, R. K. & Pollard, R. Q. (2011). Context-based ethical reasoning in interpreting: A demand
control schema...
References
✤ Dean, R. K. & Pollard, R. Q. (2006). From best practice to best practice process: Shifting ethical thinking
a...
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Demand Control Schema presentation

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References

Dean, R. K. & Pollard, R. Q. (2011). Context-based ethical reasoning in interpreting: A demand control schema perspective. Interpreter and Translator Trainer, 5(1), 155-182.

Dean, R. K. (2011). Beyond deontology: Exploring the values of interpreting. Lecture presented to the 1st cohort of the Master of Arts in Interpreting Studies, Western Oregon University, Monmouth, OR.

Dean, R. K. & Pollard, R. Q. (2010). Teleological vs. deontological approaches to ethical decision making. Workshop presented at the Conference of Interpreter Trainers, San Antonio, TX.

Dean, R. K. & Pollard, R. Q. (2006). From best practice to best practice process: Shifting ethical thinking and teaching. In E. M. Maroney (Ed.), A new chapter in interpreter education: Accreditation, research and technology: Proceedings of the 16th National Convention — Conference of Interpreter Trainers (pp. 119-131.) Monmouth, OR: Conference of Interpreter Trainers.

Dean, R. K. & Pollard, R. Q. (2005). Consumers and service effectiveness in interpreting work: A practice profession perspective’, in M. Marschark, R. Peterson, and E. Winston (Eds.) Interpreting and Interpreter Education: Directions for Research and Practice. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 270.

Dean, R. K. & Pollard, R. Q. (2004, October). A practice-profession model of ethical reasoning. Views 21(9), 1, 29-29. Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf.

Dean, R. K. & Pollard, R. Q. (2001). Application of demand-control theory to sign language interpreting: Implications for stress and interpreter training. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 6(1), 1-14.

Karasek, R., & Theorell, T. (1990). Healthy work. New York: Basic Books.

I created this slideshow for an Introduction to Interpreting class at Phoenix College in Phoenix, Arizona. Intro to Interpreting is the last course many of these students will take before they enter the ASL/English interpreter preparation program (IPP).

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Demand Control Schema presentation

  1. 1. Daniel Greene, Phoenix College IPP205, September 18, 2012 Demand–Control Schema … because “it depends” isn’t good enough.
  2. 2. Necessity is the mother of invention: Our historical lack of sufficient schema ✤ Methods of Instruction:! ✤ Focus on language and culture! ✤ “It all depends...” insufficiencies! ✤ Rhetoric vs. de facto practice (what you say vs. what you do)! ✤ Perception of interpreting:! ✤ by deaf and hearing consumers! ✤ by novice and experienced interpreters Citation: Dean, R. K. & Pollard, R. Q (2011). Context-based ethical reasoning in interpreting: A demand control schema perspective. Interpreter and Translator Trainer, 5(1), 155-182.
  3. 3. Origins of Demand–Control Schema ✤ Job Demand–Control Theory (Karasek, 1979; Karasek & Theorell, 1990)! ✤ “No job is inherently stressful.”! ✤ Jobs entail “demands” and “controls”! ✤ Demands = job challenges faced by worker! ✤ Controls = resources available to that worker! ✤ Demand–Control Schema for Interpreting (Dean & Pollard, 2001)! ✤ Developed in response to interpreter:! ✤ Stress! ✤ Injury! ✤ Attrition Citation: Dean, R. K. & Pollard, R. Q (2011). Context-based ethical reasoning in interpreting: A demand control schema perspective. Interpreter and Translator Trainer, 5(1), 155-182.
  4. 4. Job demands, job decision latitude, and mental strain: Implications for job redesign (Karasek, 1979) Low Demands + Low Control = “Passive” Job High Demands + Low Control = “High Strain” Job Low Demands + High Control = “Low Strain” Job High Demands + High Control = “Active” Job Job
 Demand Job Control (job decision latitude) Citation: Karasek, R., & Theorell, T. (1990). Healthy work. New York: Basic Books.
  5. 5. Demands & Controls signed “D” and “C” Image source: https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/UEET/StudentSite/dynamicsofflight.html
  6. 6. Demands vs. Controls Challenges Resources “What is the job asking of me?” “How am I responding?” What needs handling Decision Latitude Job Interpreter Citation: Dean, R. K. & Pollard, R. Q (2011). Context-based ethical reasoning in interpreting: A demand control schema perspective. Interpreter and Translator Trainer, 5(1), 155-182.
  7. 7. Categorizing Interpreting Demands: EIePIa Eee–Eye–Pee–Eye Oh! ✤ Environmental: That which is specific to the setting; e.g., physical surroundings, terminology, personnel/clientele, goal! ✤ Interpersonal: That which is specific to the interaction of the consumers and interpreter; e.g., culture, goals, fund of information (FOI)! ✤ Paralinguistic: That which is specific to the expressive skills of the deaf/ hearing consumers; e.g., style, pace, volume, speech impediments! ✤ Intrapersonal: That which is specific to the interpreter; e.g., thoughts, feelings, physical reactions Citation: Dean, R. K. & Pollard, R. Q (2011). Context-based ethical reasoning in interpreting: A demand control schema perspective. Interpreter and Translator Trainer, 5(1), 155-182.
  8. 8. Constellation of Concurrent Demands & the Main Demand The pressing problem in a cluster of circumstances Main Demand Concurrent Demands Citation: Dean, R. K. & Pollard, R. Q (2011). Context-based ethical reasoning in interpreting: A demand control schema perspective. Interpreter and Translator Trainer, 5(1), 155-182.
  9. 9. Constellation of Demands vs. Main Demand: Which one do you think is the main demand? ✤ Four people in the doctor’s office:! ✤ Doctor! ✤ Deaf mother! ✤ Deaf baby! ✤ Me (interpreter)! ✤ Baby is screaming.! ✤ I can’t hear the doctor.! ✤ Fluorescent lights! ✤ Linoleum tile floors! ✤ Sterilized instruments! ✤ Doctor is 45 years old.! ✤ Doctor is from India.! ✤ Baby has colic.! ✤ I am hungry.
  10. 10. Controls Pre-assignment During assignment Post-assignment education! experience! research! role-playing acknowledgments! self-talk! interventions! adjusted translations! prior relationships! CPC! role metaphors supervision! debriefing/venting! follow-up! self-care Citation: Dean, R. K. & Pollard, R. Q (2011). Context-based ethical reasoning in interpreting: A demand control schema perspective. Interpreter and Translator Trainer, 5(1), 155-182.
  11. 11. Ethical & Effective Controls (Dean & Pollard) Too Liberal (therefore ineffective or unethical) Ethical & Effective Decisions & Actions Too Conservative (therefore ineffective or unethical) ! Liberal Conservative Citation: Dean, R. K. & Pollard, R. Q. (2005). Consumers and service effectiveness in interpreting work: A practice profession perspective’, in
 M. Marschark, R. Peterson, and E. Winston (Eds.) Interpreting and Interpreter Education: Directions for Research and Practice. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 270.!
  12. 12. “D C C± RD” Sequence (Dean & Pollard) Demand Control Consequence (positive/negative) Resulting Demand Citation: Dean, R. K. & Pollard, R. Q (2011). Context-based ethical reasoning in interpreting: A demand control schema perspective. Interpreter and Translator Trainer, 5(1), 155-182.
  13. 13. Deontological vs. Teleological Ethics ✤ Duty-bound ethics vs. Goal-oriented ethics! ✤ Deont- (Gr.) “being necessary” + -logy (the study of). The study of duty & obligation.! ✤ Telos- (Gr.) “end” + -logy (the study of). The explanation of phenomena by the purposes they serve rather than by postulated* causes.! ✤ Values guide the means that serve the end.! ✤ *taken for granted, assumed to exist, assumed to be a fact, assumed to be true. Photos courtesy of Bill Vicars, LifePrint.com SERVE GOAL DUTY OBLIGATION
  14. 14. What can working interpreters do? ✤ Predict/respond better to job demands! ✤ Identify job demands immediately and more confidently apply control options! ✤ Communicate to consumers what you need on the job and why! ✤ Self-supervise: critique work before, during, and after; refine control options! ✤ Engage in formal supervision with colleagues! ✤ Get additional (safe) training opportunities
  15. 15. What can interpreting students do? ✤ Ask instructor to further define or name the “it depends” factor(s).! ✤ Critique work of self, classmates, and instructor on control options/consequences.! ✤ Make your learning purposeful, not happenstance.! ✤ Learn more about settings in unique and more effective ways (independent study).! ✤ Ask mentors “what were you responding to?” if they don’t tell you why they did what they did.
  16. 16. Remember: DC–S is a “best practice” process for ethical decision–making (Dean & Pollard). Citation: Dean, R. K. & Pollard, R. Q (2011). Context-based ethical reasoning in interpreting: A demand control schema perspective. Interpreter and Translator Trainer, 5(1), 155-182.
  17. 17. The interpreter’s “real” (hidden) introduction: ✤ I will need to change the words you have chosen.! ✤ I will need to add and delete information in translation.! ✤ You and the deaf person respond to my translation choices, not the original comments, which leads and influences both of you and the resulting dialogue.! ✤ I will add my own judgment to what you mean and what the deaf person means.! ✤ My very presence and my needs will influence the flow of the interaction and your relationship. Citation: Dean, R. K. & Pollard, R. Q (2011). Context-based ethical reasoning in interpreting: A demand control schema perspective. Interpreter and Translator Trainer, 5(1), 155-182.
  18. 18. Technical Professions vs. Practice Professions Professions such as Laboratory Science and Engineering Professions such as Medicine, Teaching, and Law Enforcement Removed from
 Social Interaction with Consumers Dynamic, Interactive Social Conext Rote Memorization Ethical Decisionmaking Predictable Unpredictable Citation: Dean, R. K. & Pollard, R. Q (2011). Context-based ethical reasoning in interpreting: A demand control schema perspective. Interpreter and Translator Trainer, 5(1), 155-182.
  19. 19. References ✤ Dean, R. K. & Pollard, R. Q. (2011). Context-based ethical reasoning in interpreting: A demand control schema perspective. Interpreter and Translator Trainer, 5(1), 155-182. ! ✤ Dean, R. K. (2011). Beyond deontology: Exploring the values of interpreting. Lecture presented to the 1st cohort of the Master of Arts in Interpreting Studies, Western Oregon University, Monmouth, OR.! ✤ Dean, R. K. & Pollard, R. Q. (2010). Teleological vs. deontological approaches to ethical decision making. Workshop presented at the Conference of Interpreter Trainers, San Antonio, TX.
  20. 20. References ✤ Dean, R. K. & Pollard, R. Q. (2006). From best practice to best practice process: Shifting ethical thinking and teaching. In E. M. Maroney (Ed.), A new chapter in interpreter education: Accreditation, research and technology: Proceedings of the 16th National Convention — Conference of Interpreter Trainers (pp. 119-131.) Monmouth, OR: Conference of Interpreter Trainers.! ✤ Dean, R. K. & Pollard, R. Q. (2005). Consumers and service effectiveness in interpreting work: A practice profession perspective’, in M. Marschark, R. Peterson, and E. Winston (Eds.) Interpreting and Interpreter Education: Directions for Research and Practice. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 270.! ✤ Dean, R. K. & Pollard, R. Q. (2004, October). A practice-profession model of ethical reasoning. Views 21(9), 1, 29-29. Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf.! ✤ Dean, R. K. & Pollard, R. Q. (2001). Application of demand-control theory to sign language interpreting: Implications for stress and interpreter training. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 6(1), 1-14.

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