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The Many Types Of FogA PowerPoint PresentationBy: xxxx
xxxxxxxxMeteorology 170Section 6980Professor Dennis
WhitfordNovember 19, 2007
This is an example of an excellent submission. I have shortened
the file. If there are differences between what is in this
presentation and what is stated in our directions, use the
directions. This example is provided only to give you a “feel”
for what the presentation should look like. Prof. Whitford
your name
Fog
Good morning (afternoon) everyone. My name is xxxx xxxx
and today I will be talking to you about something that you
have most likely seen and experienced at one time or another--
fog. If asked to define fog, most people would probably say
that it is an annoying weather occurrence that ties up traffic and
creates other travel troubles. While this is true, fog can wreak
havoc on the highways and skyways, such a definition really
only provides a small piece of the much bigger fog picture. Fog
is actually a fascinating weather phenomenon that comes in
many different varieties. That is right; there are different types
of fog. And believe it or not, fog is not all bad. In fact, it can
be quite beneficial.
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What is Fog?Fog is a cloud that forms at the groundFog is
composed of visible water droplets or ice crystalsFog impedes
visibility, reducing it to less than 3,000 feet
In order to gain a better understanding of fog, we will take a
look at the different types of fog, how and where they typically
form, their characteristics, as well as the hazards and benefits
associated with them. Before we start exploring the different
types of fog that form, though, we need to first understand what
fog is. By definition, fog is a cloud, composed of visible water
droplets or ice crystals, that forms at the ground, impeding
visibility (Ahrens, 2007, p. 110; Wood, 2001, p. 265). In order
for the visible water droplets or ice crystals to be considered
fog, visibility has to be reduced to less than .62 miles (about
3,000 feet) (Ahrens, 2007, p. 110; Pretor-Pinney, 2006, p. 81).
Fog is defined as dense when visibility is reduced to less than a
quarter mile (about 1,300 feet) (Ahrens, 2007, p. 110). When
visibility is greater than 3,000 feet, visible water droplets in the
air are defined as mist (Pretor-Pinney, 2006, p. 81).
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Radiation FogRadiation fog forms at night when the earth’s
surface releases the heat it has absorbed during the day
One of the most common types of fog that forms when air is
cooled is radiation fog. Radiation fog forms at night when the
earth’s surface releases the heat it has absorbed during the day
(NOAA, 2007, para. 1). This process is known as radiational
cooling. As the ground cools through radiational cooling, so
does the air directly above it (Ahrens, 2007, p. 111). If this air
is moist, it will become saturated as it cools, condensation will
occur and fog will form (NOAA, 2007, para. 1). Because this
type of fog forms from the ground up, it is also known as
ground fog (Ahrens, 2007, p. 111). Radiation fog is only found
over land (water surfaces do not radiate heat like land surfaces
do), and can range anywhere from three to 1,000 feet in depth
(Wood, 2001, p. 265; NOAA, 2007, para. 1).
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Ideal Conditions For
Radiation Fog FormationRadiation fog forms on clear nights
when the winds are calm to mild (less than 5 knots)
In order for radiation fog to form, it must be a clear and
relatively calm night (Ahrens, 2007, p. 111). When the night is
clear, the earth’s surface cools quickly, setting the stage for fog
formation (Pretor-Pinney, 2006, p. 84). However, when clouds
are present, they re-radiate heat back towards the earth’s
surface, inhibiting the formation of fog (Pretor-Pinney, 2006, p.
84). In addition to clear skies, winds need to be calm or very
mild in order for radiation fog to form. Calm conditions are
important because the absence of winds allows the moist air to
remain in contact with the surface, but mild winds (less than 5
knots) actually help promote the formation of radiation fog by
stirring the air (Ahrens, 2007, p. 111; Wood, 2001, p. 265).
This stirring enhances the interaction between the cool air and
the moist air, spreading the cooling through the moist air
(Reynolds, 2005, p. 85). It also causes more of the moist air to
come into contact with the surface, enabling cooling to occur
more quickly (Ahrens, 2007, p. 111). When winds are stronger
than five knots, however, radiation fog usually does not form
because the winds mix the moist air with drier air above,
keeping the moist air from becoming saturated.
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Valley FogRadiation fog that forms in low-lying areas is called
valley fog
In addition to clear and relatively calm conditions, there are
some other factors that influence the formation of radiation fog.
Radiation fog tends to form more easily on long nights, when
there is more time for the air to cool (Ahrens, 2007, p. 111).
Therefore, it is more often seen in the fall and winter when the
nights are longer and cooler (Reynolds, 2005, p. 86). It is also
more likely to form in low-lying areas (Ahrens, 2007, p. 111).
In fact, radiation fog that forms in low-lying areas such as
valleys has its own name. Appropriately, it is called valley fog
(Ahrens, 2007, p. 111). Fog often forms in valleys because
nighttime cooling causes air found at the tops of mountains and
hills to sink into the valleys below, adding more fuel (cold air)
to promote the formation of fog (Ahrens, 2007, p.111). The
Central Valley area of California is extremely susceptible to
this type of fog (Ahrens, 2007, p. 112).
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Advection Fog
Vs.
Radiation Fog
Advection FogHorizontal movementForms day or nightCan form
in winds up to 15 knots
Radiation FogStationaryForms at nightCan form in winds up to
5 knots
As previously mentioned, advection fog looks similar to
radiation fog. However, because advection fog involves moving
air, it can be distinguished from radiation fog by noting its
horizontal movement (NOAA, 2007, para 3). Advection fog
also differs from radiation fog in that it can form at anytime of
the day, unlike radiation fog, which only forms at night (Wood,
2001, p. 265). Additionally, advection fog can form even when
winds are stronger (up to 15 knots) (Wood, 2001, p. 265). Like
radiation fog, though, advection fog tends to burn off as the day
progresses. Typically, this happens as the wind carries the
advection fog over warmer land (Ahrens, 2007, p. 112).
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Sea FogAdvection fog is common in coastal areas, as well as at
seaAdvection fog that forms over the oceans is called sea fog
Another difference between radiation fog and advection fog is
that advection fog is most often seen in coastal areas or at sea
(Wood, 2001, p. 265). When advection fog forms at sea it is
called sea fog (Wood, 2001, p. 265). Advection fog often forms
over the oceans because winds move warmer sea air over colder
portions of water (Ahrens, 2007, p. 112). When that happens,
the warm air is cooled, reaches saturation and fog develops.
Areas where the ocean waters are always cooler tend to see
much more advection fog than other areas (Reynolds, 2005, p.
87). This is the case along the Pacific Coast of the United
States.
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Areas Prone To Advection FogAdvection fog is common along
the Pacific Coast of the United StatesAdvection fog is also
common in the Grand Banks where, during the summer, two out
every three days are foggy
Advection fog is frequently seen along the Pacific Coast
because sea surface temperatures are much cooler by the coast
than they are further out to sea (Ahrens, 2007, p. 112). Because
of that, when the winds carry the warmer ocean air over the
coastal waters, fog forms. Another common place to find
advection fog is in the Grand Banks area off the coast of
Newfoundland. The Grand Banks is an area where the cold
Labrador Current flows next to the much warmer Gulf Stream
(Reynolds, 2005, p.87; Ahrens, 2007, p. 112). As the warmer
air above the Gulf Stream is carried over the colder waters of
the Labrador Current, advection fog forms (Ahrens, 2007, p.
112). During the summer months this occurs frequently,
resulting in two out of every three days being foggy (Ahrens,
2007, p. 112).
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Fog HarvestingAdvection fog can be beneficialSome countries
harvest the fog for its water content
Advection fog, while hazardous, especially to marine vessels,
can be extremely beneficial. In fact, there are some countries
that actually welcome the fog, harvesting it for its water content
(Oman, 2005, p. 71). Here is how it works—Large nylon nets
are set up in areas where the fog is driven inland by the winds
(United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP], 1997, para.
1). When the fog hits the nets, the water droplets that make up
the fog collect on the nets (UNEP, 1997, para. 3). Once enough
water droplets have collected, they form larger droplets that fall
into a collection system below the nets (UNEP, 1997, para. 4).
Through this process, about thirty percent of the water content
in fog can be collected (Oman, 2005, p. 74). One place this is
occurring is in Chungungo, Chile. This coastal village is
extremely dry, and for much of its existence had to have water
trucked in in order to sustain its population (Oman, 2005, p.
71). However, since implementing a fog harvesting program in
1987, the village has become self-sufficient, relying only on the
fog to produce the water that the community needs (Oman,
2005, p. 71).
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Upslope FogUpslope fog forms when moist air is gently pushed
up a sloped area by mild winds
While advection fog is common near the coast, upslope fog is
seen in hilly or mountainous areas (Ahrens, 2007, p. 112).
Upslope fog, like radiation and advection fog, forms when air is
cooled. However, the air associated with upslope fog has its
own way of cooling. Upslope fog forms when moist air is
gently pushed up a sloped area (e.g., mountain or hillside) by
mild winds (NOAA, 2007, para. 6). As the moist air is moved
upwards, it expands and cools (Ahrens, 2007, p. 113). As the
air cools, it becomes saturated, condensation occurs and fog
forms.
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Areas Prone To Upslope Fog Upslope fog can occur in any hilly
or mountainous areaOne area where upslope fog is very common
is the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains
Upslope fog typically covers a large area, sometimes extending
for hundreds of miles, and can be quite dense (Burroughs, 1996,
p. 183; Wood, 2001, p. 265). It can also last for several days,
clearing only when the winds pushing the moist air upwards end
(Ahrens, 2007, p. 113; Wood, 2001, p. 265). Upslope fog can
occur in any hilly or mountainous area but is most common
during the winter and spring along the eastern side of the Rocky
Mountains (Ahrens, 2007, p. 112, NOAA, 2007, para 6).
During those times, cold, moist air, moving east to west,
encounters the Rocky Mountains and is pushed upwards. As the
air is forced up, it expands and cools, eventually reaching
saturation. At that point, upslope fog forms. This same process
is seen in Australia where moist sea is pushed up the Great
Dividing Range, resulting in extensive areas of upslope fog
(Burroughs, W. J., Crowder, B, Robertson, T., Vallier-Talbot,
E. & Whitaker, R., 1996, p. 183).
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Frontal FogFrontal fog , also known as precipitation fog, forms
when warm raindrops fall through colder air masses
Frontal fog, also known as precipitation fog, forms when warm
raindrops pass through colder air masses, causing the raindrops
to evaporate into the colder air (Ahrens, 2007, p. 116). When
this happens, the colder air becomes saturated, condensation
takes place and frontal fog forms. Frontal fog is usually
associated with warm fronts (Wood, 2001, p. 265). The warm
precipitation associated with the warm front falls into the colder
air just ahead of the front, resulting in fog formation (Ahrens,
2007, p. 116). While this type of fog is usually associated with
warm fronts, it can also develop behind a cold front or along a
stationary front (Ahrens, 2007, p. 116; Wood, 2001, p. 265).
When frontal fog does form it tends to be quite dense and
generally covers a large area (Wood, 2001, p. 265). It may also
last for an extended period of time (Wood, 2001, p. 265).
Because of its density, size and duration, frontal fog is often
responsible for the closure of airports (Wood, 2001, p. 265).
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Fog StratusFog stratus is the term used to describe the layer of
fog left when fog does not completely lift
When fog disperses, it usually clears from the ground up
(Ahrens, 2007, p. 111). Sometimes, though, fog does not
completely clear. Instead it may only lift from the ground up to
about 500 feet, leaving a layer of fog above (Ahrens, 2007, p.
112). When this happens, the remaining fog is called fog
stratus or high inversion fog (Burroughs, W. J., Crowder, B,
Robertson, T., Vallier-Talbot, E. & Whitaker, R., 1996, p. 184;
Ahrens, 2007, p. 112). When fog stratus forms, it typically
clears by late-morning but, in some cases, when the fog stratus
is especially dense, it can trigger a viscous cycle of fog
formation that can last for days or even weeks (Burroughs, W.
J., Crowder, B, Robertson, T., Vallier-Talbot, E. & Whitaker,
R., 1996, p. 184; Ahrens, 2007, p. 112). When this happens, the
fog, due to radiational cooling, forms again at ground level
during the night (Ahrens, 2007, p.112). During the day, the
ground level fog once again clears, leaving just the fog stratus.
As mentioned previously, this process can go on for days or
even weeks (Ahrens, 2007, p. 112).
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Text References
Ahrens, C.D. (2007). Meteorology today: An introduction to
weather, climate, and the
environment (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Burroughs, W. J., Crowder, B, Robertson, T., Vallier-Talbot, E.
& Whitaker, R. (1996).
Weather. Sydney, Australia: Weldon Owen.
Ellrod, G. P. & Lindstrom, S. (n.d.). Performance of satellite
fog detection techniques
with major, fog-related highways accidents. Retrieved October
19, 2007 from http://www.nwas.org/ej/pdf/2006-EJ3.pdf
Gajananda, K., Dutta, H. N. & Lagun, V. E. (2007). An episode
of coastal advection fog
over east Antarctica. Current Science, 93 (5), 654-685.
Retrieved October 15, 2007 from
http://64.233.169.104/search?q=cache:JzzwljUBXuEJ:www.ias.
ac.in/
currsci/sep102007/654.pdf+fog+provides+moisture+to+plants+-
site:.com&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=9&gl=us
National Snow and Ice Data Center [NSIDC]. (n.d.). Ice fog.
Retrieved October 15, 2007
from http://nsidc.org/cgi-bin/words/word.pl?ice%20fog
NOAA. (n.d.). Supercooled water. Retrieved October 22, 2007
from
http://www.nssl.noaa.gov/primer/defs/supercool.html
NOAA. (2007). Types of fog. Retrieved October 2, 2007, from
http://www.crh.noaa.gov/jkl/?n=fog_types
Oman, A. H. (2005). Weather: Nature in motion. Washington,
D.C.: National Geographic
Society.
Phillips, D. (1996). Ice fog: The frigid veil of winter. Canadian
Geographic, 116 (2), 18.
Retrieved October 15, 2007 from Academic Search Premier
database.
Pretor-Pinney, G. (2006). The cloudspotter’s guide: The
science, history and culture of
clouds. New York, NY: Penguin Group.
Reynolds, R. (2005). Guide to weather. Buffalo, NY: Firefly
Books.
Rozell, N. (1997). Ice fog a product of temperature, topography,
dogs. Retrieved October
15, 2007 from
http://www.gi.alaska.edu/ScienceForum/ASF13/1319.html
United Nations Environment Programme. (1997). Fog
harvesting. Retrieved October 22,
2007 from http://www.oas.org/dsd/publications/Unit/oea59e/
ch12.htm#1.3%20fog%20harvesting
Wagner, R. L. & Adler, B. (1997). The weather sourcebook (2nd
ed.). Old Saybrook, CT:
The Globe Pequot Press.
Williams, J. (1992). The weather book: An easy-to-understand
guide to the USA’s
weather. New York: Vintage Books.
Wood, R. A. (Ed.). 2001. The weather almanac (10th ed.).
Detroit: Gale Group.
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Image References
Slide Two- Fog
The Royal Meteorological Society. (1968). “Radiation fog over
Bute Park, Cardiff,
Wales” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from
http://www.rmets.org/cloudbank/detail.php?ID=42
NOAA. (n.d.). “The Golden Gate Bridge shrouded in advection
fog” [online image].
Retrieved November 1, 2007 from
http://www.crh.noaa.gov/jkl/?n=fog_types
Tardif, R. (2004). “Cars in fog” [online image]. Retrieved
November 1, 2007 from
http://www.rap.ucar.edu/staff/tardif/Documents/CUprojects/AT
OC5600/fog_characteristics.htm
BBC. (2006). “Airplane on runway in fog” [online image].
Retrieved November 1, 2007
from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/6202349.stm
Slide 3- What is fog?
Choi, A. (2005). “Morning fog” [online image]. Retrieved
November 1, 2007 from
http://www.trekearth.com/gallery/North_America/United_States
/Midwest/Ohio/Cincinnati/photo161398.htm
Slide 4- Water Vapor
Understanding relative humidity. (n.d.). “Water vapor and air
temperature” [online
image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://www.warren-
wilson.edu/~physics/PhysSci/humidity_Pressure/Understanding
RH.html
Slide 5- How Fog Forms
Plymouth State Weather Center. (n.d.). “Condensation nuclei”
[online image]. Retrieved
November 1, 2007 from http://vortex.plymouth.edu/precip/
Slide 6- The Different Types of Fog
Von Weber, W. (2007). “Mysterious fog” [online image].
Retrieved November 1, 2007
from http://www.trekearth.com/gallery/photo687225.htm
Slide 7- Radiation Fog
Bleath, D. (n.d.). “Radiation fog near Ellsmere Wharf” [online
image]. Retrieved
November 1, 2007 from
http://www.bbc.co.uk/shropshire/features/
2005/01/calendar_weather_gallery_32.shtml
Rogers, K. (n.d.). “How radiation fog forms” [online image].
Retrieved November 1,
2007 from http://keithrogershome.com/Chap7CldsPcpnFog.html
Slide 8- Ideal Conditions for Radiation Fog Formation
Wood, E. (2005). “Fog at night” [online image]. Retrieved
November 1, 2007 from
http://emiliewood.com/index.php?cat=5
Slide 9- Valley Fog
Fogged. (2006). “Valley fog” [online image]. Retrieved
November 1, 2007 from
http://www.flickr.com/photos/jensenl/124543675/
Heidorn, K. C. (2002). “How valley fog forms” [online image].
Retrieved November 1,
2007 from
http://www.islandnet.com/~see/weather/almanac/arc2002/alm02
sep.htm
Slide 10- The Hazards of Radiation Fog
BBC. (2005). “Twenty-one injured in fog crash” [online image].
Retrieved November 1,
2007 from
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/kent/4564439.stm
Slide 11- How Radiation Fog “Burns Off”
Finken, R. (n.d.). “Fog lifting over autumn foliage” [online
image]. Retrieved November
1, 2007 from http://www.jupiterimages.com/
popup2.aspx?navigationSubType=itemdetails&itemID=2282027
5
Slide 12- Advection Fog
Miller, B. (2005). “Advection fog at night” [online image].
Retrieved November 1, 2007
from http://www.rjma.com/flight/airwaves/vol2-19t.htm
Rogers, K. (n.d.). “How advection fog forms” [online image].
Retrieved November 1,
2007 from http://keithrogershome.com/Chap7CldsPcpnFog.html
Slide 13- Advection Fog vs. Radiation Fog
No image
Slide 14- Sea Fog
Bright fog. (2006). “Sea fog” [online image]. Retrieved
November 1, 2007 from
http://www.flickr.com/photos/oneeighteen/144574712/
Slide 15- Areas Prone to Advection Fog
NOAA. (n.d.). “Grand Banks advection fog” [online image].
Retrieved November 1,
2007 from http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/700s/wea03113.jpg
Slide 16- Advection Fog Over Inland Areas
NASA. (n.d.) “Gulf Coast advection fog” [online image].
Retrieved November 1, 2007
from
http://virtualskies.arc.nasa.gov/weather/tutorial/tutorial4.html
Slide 17- Fog Harvesting
LaCroix, P. (1998). “Fog harvesting nets” [online image].
Retrieved November 1, 2007
from http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-5077-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html
Fog-harvesting for water. (2003). “More fog harvesting nets”
[online image]. Retrieved
November 1, 2007 from
http://www.scienceinafrica.co.za/2003/march/fog.htm
Slide 18- Environmental Benefits
Luong, Q. T. (n.d.). “Redwood trees in fog” [online image].
Retrieved November 8, 2007
from http://www.terragalleria.com/parks/np-image-
lf.redw4283.html
Slide 19- Upslope Fog
NOAA. (n.d.). “Upslope fog” [online image]. Retrieved
November 8, 2007 from
http://www.crh.noaa.gov/jkl/?n=fog_types
Rogers, K. (n.d.). “How upslope fog forms” [online image].
Retrieved November 1, 2007
from http://keithrogershome.com/Chap7CldsPcpnFog.html
Slide 20- Areas Prone to Upslope Fog
Ritter, M. (n.d.). “Upslope fog in the Rocky Mountains” [online
image]. Retrieved
November 8, 2007 from
http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ritter/glossary/s_u/upslope_fo
g.html
Slide 21- Evaporation-Mixing Fog
NOAA. (n.d.). “Steam fog” [online image]. Retrieved November
1, 2007 from
http://www.crh.noaa.gov/jkl/?n=fog_types
NOAA. (n.d.). “Frontal fog” [online image]. Retrieved
November 1, 2007 from
http://www.crh.noaa.gov/jkl/?n=fog_types
Slide 22- Steam Fog
NOAA. (n.d.). “Steam fog on lake” [online image]. Retrieved
November 1, 2007 from
http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/700s/wea02057.jpg
NASA. (2006). “How steam fog forms” [online image].
Retrieved November 1, 2007
from http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/SCOOL/layer.html
Slide 23- Frontal Fog
Heidorn, K. C.. (2002). “Precipitation fog” [online image].
Retrieved November 1, 2007
from
http://www.islandnet.com/~see/weather/almanac/arc2002/alm02
sep.htm
Slide 24- Fog Dispersal Systems
NOAA. (n.d.). “Fog at Salt Lake City airport” [online image].
Retrieved November 1,
2007 from http://newweb.wrh.noaa.gov/slc/aviation/
Slide 25- Clearing Fog With Dry Ice
North American Interstate Weather Modification Council.
(n.d.). “Dry ice seeding”
[online image]. Retrieved November 14, 2007 from
http://www.naiwmc.org/4dcgi/GetContentRecord/PB-893
Slide 26- Ice Fog
NOAA. (n.d.). “Ice fog” [online image]. Retrieved November 1,
2007 from
http://www.crh.noaa.gov/jkl/?n=fog_types
Slide 27- Ice Fog: A Man-Made Problem?
Seaward’s ice box. (n.d.). “Ice fog formed by power plants”
[online image]. Retrieved
November 1, 2007
fromhttp://www.geocities.com/abaccola/winter.html
Seaward’s icebox. (n.d.). “Ice fog formed by cars” [online
image]. Retrieved November
1, 2007 from http://www.geocities.com/abaccola/winter.html
Slide 28- The Beauty of Ice Fog
Robock, A. (2004). “Halo in ice fog” [online image]. Retrieved
November 1, 2007 from
http://climate.envsci.rutgers.edu/Antarctica/Halo9.28.04.JPG
Slide 29- Freezing Fog
NOAA. (n.d.). “Freezing fog” [online image]. Retrieved
November 1, 2007 from
http://www.crh.noaa.gov/jkl/?n=fog_types
Slide 30- Freezing Fog And Rime
Journal. (2007). “Freezing fog and rime” [online image].
Retrieved November 14, 2007
from http://www.disciplesnw.org/yakama/journal.html
Shafer, J. (n.d.). “Elongated rime” [online image]. Retrieved
November 14, 2007 from
http://www.met.utah.edu/galleries/home_page_images/rimecolor
_mwn.JPG/photo_view
Slide 31- Frog Stratus
Fog, dew and frost. (2005). “Fog stratus” [online image].
Retrieved November 14, 2007
from
http://www.theairlinepilots.com/met/fog.htm#Fog%20Stratus
Slide 32- Feeling Foggy (Closing Slide)
Fog. (2005). “Person in fog” [online image]. Retrieved
November 14, 2007 from
http://www.flickr.com/photos/t_dawg/67980941/
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Text Content
Good morning (afternoon) everyone. My name is xxx xxxxxx
and today I will be talking to you about something that you
have most likely seen and experienced at one time or another--
fog. If asked to define fog, most people would probably say
that it is an annoying weather occurrence that ties up traffic and
creates other travel troubles. While this is true, fog can wreak
havoc on the highways and skyways, such a definition really
only provides a small piece of the much bigger fog picture. Fog
is actually a fascinating weather phenomenon that comes in
many different varieties. That is right; there are different types
of fog. And believe it or not, fog is not all bad. In fact, it can
be quite beneficial.
In order to gain a better understanding of fog, we will take a
look at the different types of fog, how and where they typically
form, their characteristics, as well as the hazards and benefits
associated with them. Before we start exploring the different
types of fog that form, though, we need to first understand what
fog is. By definition, fog is a cloud, composed of visible water
droplets or ice crystals, that forms at the ground, impeding
visibility (Ahrens, 2007, p. 110; Wood, 2001, p. 265). In order
for the visible water droplets or ice crystals to be considered
fog, visibility has to be reduced to less than .62 miles (about
3,000 feet) (Ahrens, 2007, p. 110; Pretor-Pinney, 2006, p. 81).
Fog is defined as dense when visibility is reduced to less than a
quarter mile (about 1,300 feet) (Ahrens, 2007, p. 110). When
visibility is greater than 3,000 feet, visible water droplets in the
air are defined as mist (Pretor-Pinney, 2006, p. 81).
In addition to understanding what fog is, it is also important to
understand the general principles behind its formation. In order
to do this, we must first review the relationship between water
vapor and air temperature and pressure. An important
component of our air is water vapor, the gaseous form of water
(Ahrens, 2007, p. 3). However, exactly how much water vapor
is in the air is dependent on the temperature and pressure of that
air. That is because air can only contain a certain amount of
water vapor at any given temperature and pressure level before
it reaches saturation, the maximum level of water vapor it can
hold (Ahrens, 2007, p. G-12). The colder the air is, the less
water vapor it can hold, meaning that saturation occurs more
easily in colder air (Ahrens, 2007, p. 87). So how does all this
relate to the formation of fog?
Most fog forms when air is cooled. As we just learned, cold air
cannot hold as much water vapor as warm air. Therefore, as air
is cooled, it may become saturated because the cooler air cannot
maintain the same level of water vapor as it did when it was
warmer (Ahrens, 2007, p. 87). As air begins to reach its
saturation level, water vapor begins to condense (change to a
liquid state) on what are known as condensation nuclei
(particles such as dirt, salt and combustion by-product found in
the air), forming water droplets (Ahrens, 2007, p. 109-110;
Wood, 2001, p. 261). And the closer the air is to saturation, the
more condensation that takes places. With fog, so much
condensation is occurring that the water droplets become large
and highly concentrated (Ahrens, 2007, p. 110). Because of
that we can actually see fog. To review, then, most fog forms
when air is cooled to the point of saturation, causing water
vapor to condense and form large, visible water droplets
(Ahrens, 2007, p. 110).
I have deleted most of these notes to keep the file small. Prof.
Whitford
Develop a company and determine what it will produce and sell.
The requirement for this company is that it be a high-end,
special-order type of manufactured product. Complete the
following in a Word document of 1,750 words:
· Develop a list of inputs along with their associated costs, such
as labor, materials, and overhead. You can research this
information, make it up, or do a combination of both. Be
specific as to costs.
· You are to determine the selling price. Show your
calculations, and discuss why you have determined this to be a
good sale price.
· How many items of your product will you need to produce to
meet this sale price? How did you calculate this?
· Determine which of the costing systems discussed in this class
will work best for your company. Explain why.
· Explain why those not chosen were not a good fit for your
company.
· You must explain "why not chosen" for a minimum of 3
costing methods.
· Please devote at least 1 paragraph to the ethical considerations
of costing methods.
Assignment Guidelines:
· Add a section to your paper, outlining how you would
implement capital budgeting in your company.
· Prepare an example of a decision that you would make using
either the IRR or Payback method of analysis. Why would you
use this for your business?

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Types Of Fog PowerPoint

  • 1. your name The Many Types Of FogA PowerPoint PresentationBy: xxxx xxxxxxxxMeteorology 170Section 6980Professor Dennis WhitfordNovember 19, 2007 This is an example of an excellent submission. I have shortened the file. If there are differences between what is in this presentation and what is stated in our directions, use the directions. This example is provided only to give you a “feel” for what the presentation should look like. Prof. Whitford your name Fog Good morning (afternoon) everyone. My name is xxxx xxxx and today I will be talking to you about something that you have most likely seen and experienced at one time or another-- fog. If asked to define fog, most people would probably say that it is an annoying weather occurrence that ties up traffic and creates other travel troubles. While this is true, fog can wreak havoc on the highways and skyways, such a definition really only provides a small piece of the much bigger fog picture. Fog is actually a fascinating weather phenomenon that comes in many different varieties. That is right; there are different types of fog. And believe it or not, fog is not all bad. In fact, it can be quite beneficial.
  • 2. your name What is Fog?Fog is a cloud that forms at the groundFog is composed of visible water droplets or ice crystalsFog impedes visibility, reducing it to less than 3,000 feet In order to gain a better understanding of fog, we will take a look at the different types of fog, how and where they typically form, their characteristics, as well as the hazards and benefits associated with them. Before we start exploring the different types of fog that form, though, we need to first understand what fog is. By definition, fog is a cloud, composed of visible water droplets or ice crystals, that forms at the ground, impeding visibility (Ahrens, 2007, p. 110; Wood, 2001, p. 265). In order for the visible water droplets or ice crystals to be considered fog, visibility has to be reduced to less than .62 miles (about 3,000 feet) (Ahrens, 2007, p. 110; Pretor-Pinney, 2006, p. 81). Fog is defined as dense when visibility is reduced to less than a quarter mile (about 1,300 feet) (Ahrens, 2007, p. 110). When visibility is greater than 3,000 feet, visible water droplets in the air are defined as mist (Pretor-Pinney, 2006, p. 81). your name Radiation FogRadiation fog forms at night when the earth’s surface releases the heat it has absorbed during the day One of the most common types of fog that forms when air is cooled is radiation fog. Radiation fog forms at night when the earth’s surface releases the heat it has absorbed during the day (NOAA, 2007, para. 1). This process is known as radiational
  • 3. cooling. As the ground cools through radiational cooling, so does the air directly above it (Ahrens, 2007, p. 111). If this air is moist, it will become saturated as it cools, condensation will occur and fog will form (NOAA, 2007, para. 1). Because this type of fog forms from the ground up, it is also known as ground fog (Ahrens, 2007, p. 111). Radiation fog is only found over land (water surfaces do not radiate heat like land surfaces do), and can range anywhere from three to 1,000 feet in depth (Wood, 2001, p. 265; NOAA, 2007, para. 1). your name Ideal Conditions For Radiation Fog FormationRadiation fog forms on clear nights when the winds are calm to mild (less than 5 knots) In order for radiation fog to form, it must be a clear and relatively calm night (Ahrens, 2007, p. 111). When the night is clear, the earth’s surface cools quickly, setting the stage for fog formation (Pretor-Pinney, 2006, p. 84). However, when clouds are present, they re-radiate heat back towards the earth’s surface, inhibiting the formation of fog (Pretor-Pinney, 2006, p. 84). In addition to clear skies, winds need to be calm or very mild in order for radiation fog to form. Calm conditions are important because the absence of winds allows the moist air to remain in contact with the surface, but mild winds (less than 5 knots) actually help promote the formation of radiation fog by stirring the air (Ahrens, 2007, p. 111; Wood, 2001, p. 265). This stirring enhances the interaction between the cool air and the moist air, spreading the cooling through the moist air (Reynolds, 2005, p. 85). It also causes more of the moist air to come into contact with the surface, enabling cooling to occur more quickly (Ahrens, 2007, p. 111). When winds are stronger
  • 4. than five knots, however, radiation fog usually does not form because the winds mix the moist air with drier air above, keeping the moist air from becoming saturated. your name Valley FogRadiation fog that forms in low-lying areas is called valley fog In addition to clear and relatively calm conditions, there are some other factors that influence the formation of radiation fog. Radiation fog tends to form more easily on long nights, when there is more time for the air to cool (Ahrens, 2007, p. 111). Therefore, it is more often seen in the fall and winter when the nights are longer and cooler (Reynolds, 2005, p. 86). It is also more likely to form in low-lying areas (Ahrens, 2007, p. 111). In fact, radiation fog that forms in low-lying areas such as valleys has its own name. Appropriately, it is called valley fog (Ahrens, 2007, p. 111). Fog often forms in valleys because nighttime cooling causes air found at the tops of mountains and hills to sink into the valleys below, adding more fuel (cold air) to promote the formation of fog (Ahrens, 2007, p.111). The Central Valley area of California is extremely susceptible to this type of fog (Ahrens, 2007, p. 112). your name Advection Fog Vs. Radiation Fog Advection FogHorizontal movementForms day or nightCan form
  • 5. in winds up to 15 knots Radiation FogStationaryForms at nightCan form in winds up to 5 knots As previously mentioned, advection fog looks similar to radiation fog. However, because advection fog involves moving air, it can be distinguished from radiation fog by noting its horizontal movement (NOAA, 2007, para 3). Advection fog also differs from radiation fog in that it can form at anytime of the day, unlike radiation fog, which only forms at night (Wood, 2001, p. 265). Additionally, advection fog can form even when winds are stronger (up to 15 knots) (Wood, 2001, p. 265). Like radiation fog, though, advection fog tends to burn off as the day progresses. Typically, this happens as the wind carries the advection fog over warmer land (Ahrens, 2007, p. 112). your name Sea FogAdvection fog is common in coastal areas, as well as at seaAdvection fog that forms over the oceans is called sea fog Another difference between radiation fog and advection fog is that advection fog is most often seen in coastal areas or at sea (Wood, 2001, p. 265). When advection fog forms at sea it is called sea fog (Wood, 2001, p. 265). Advection fog often forms over the oceans because winds move warmer sea air over colder portions of water (Ahrens, 2007, p. 112). When that happens, the warm air is cooled, reaches saturation and fog develops. Areas where the ocean waters are always cooler tend to see much more advection fog than other areas (Reynolds, 2005, p. 87). This is the case along the Pacific Coast of the United States.
  • 6. your name Areas Prone To Advection FogAdvection fog is common along the Pacific Coast of the United StatesAdvection fog is also common in the Grand Banks where, during the summer, two out every three days are foggy Advection fog is frequently seen along the Pacific Coast because sea surface temperatures are much cooler by the coast than they are further out to sea (Ahrens, 2007, p. 112). Because of that, when the winds carry the warmer ocean air over the coastal waters, fog forms. Another common place to find advection fog is in the Grand Banks area off the coast of Newfoundland. The Grand Banks is an area where the cold Labrador Current flows next to the much warmer Gulf Stream (Reynolds, 2005, p.87; Ahrens, 2007, p. 112). As the warmer air above the Gulf Stream is carried over the colder waters of the Labrador Current, advection fog forms (Ahrens, 2007, p. 112). During the summer months this occurs frequently, resulting in two out of every three days being foggy (Ahrens, 2007, p. 112). your name Fog HarvestingAdvection fog can be beneficialSome countries harvest the fog for its water content Advection fog, while hazardous, especially to marine vessels, can be extremely beneficial. In fact, there are some countries that actually welcome the fog, harvesting it for its water content (Oman, 2005, p. 71). Here is how it works—Large nylon nets
  • 7. are set up in areas where the fog is driven inland by the winds (United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP], 1997, para. 1). When the fog hits the nets, the water droplets that make up the fog collect on the nets (UNEP, 1997, para. 3). Once enough water droplets have collected, they form larger droplets that fall into a collection system below the nets (UNEP, 1997, para. 4). Through this process, about thirty percent of the water content in fog can be collected (Oman, 2005, p. 74). One place this is occurring is in Chungungo, Chile. This coastal village is extremely dry, and for much of its existence had to have water trucked in in order to sustain its population (Oman, 2005, p. 71). However, since implementing a fog harvesting program in 1987, the village has become self-sufficient, relying only on the fog to produce the water that the community needs (Oman, 2005, p. 71). your name Upslope FogUpslope fog forms when moist air is gently pushed up a sloped area by mild winds While advection fog is common near the coast, upslope fog is seen in hilly or mountainous areas (Ahrens, 2007, p. 112). Upslope fog, like radiation and advection fog, forms when air is cooled. However, the air associated with upslope fog has its own way of cooling. Upslope fog forms when moist air is gently pushed up a sloped area (e.g., mountain or hillside) by mild winds (NOAA, 2007, para. 6). As the moist air is moved upwards, it expands and cools (Ahrens, 2007, p. 113). As the air cools, it becomes saturated, condensation occurs and fog forms. your name
  • 8. Areas Prone To Upslope Fog Upslope fog can occur in any hilly or mountainous areaOne area where upslope fog is very common is the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains Upslope fog typically covers a large area, sometimes extending for hundreds of miles, and can be quite dense (Burroughs, 1996, p. 183; Wood, 2001, p. 265). It can also last for several days, clearing only when the winds pushing the moist air upwards end (Ahrens, 2007, p. 113; Wood, 2001, p. 265). Upslope fog can occur in any hilly or mountainous area but is most common during the winter and spring along the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains (Ahrens, 2007, p. 112, NOAA, 2007, para 6). During those times, cold, moist air, moving east to west, encounters the Rocky Mountains and is pushed upwards. As the air is forced up, it expands and cools, eventually reaching saturation. At that point, upslope fog forms. This same process is seen in Australia where moist sea is pushed up the Great Dividing Range, resulting in extensive areas of upslope fog (Burroughs, W. J., Crowder, B, Robertson, T., Vallier-Talbot, E. & Whitaker, R., 1996, p. 183). your name Frontal FogFrontal fog , also known as precipitation fog, forms when warm raindrops fall through colder air masses Frontal fog, also known as precipitation fog, forms when warm raindrops pass through colder air masses, causing the raindrops to evaporate into the colder air (Ahrens, 2007, p. 116). When this happens, the colder air becomes saturated, condensation takes place and frontal fog forms. Frontal fog is usually associated with warm fronts (Wood, 2001, p. 265). The warm
  • 9. precipitation associated with the warm front falls into the colder air just ahead of the front, resulting in fog formation (Ahrens, 2007, p. 116). While this type of fog is usually associated with warm fronts, it can also develop behind a cold front or along a stationary front (Ahrens, 2007, p. 116; Wood, 2001, p. 265). When frontal fog does form it tends to be quite dense and generally covers a large area (Wood, 2001, p. 265). It may also last for an extended period of time (Wood, 2001, p. 265). Because of its density, size and duration, frontal fog is often responsible for the closure of airports (Wood, 2001, p. 265). your name Fog StratusFog stratus is the term used to describe the layer of fog left when fog does not completely lift When fog disperses, it usually clears from the ground up (Ahrens, 2007, p. 111). Sometimes, though, fog does not completely clear. Instead it may only lift from the ground up to about 500 feet, leaving a layer of fog above (Ahrens, 2007, p. 112). When this happens, the remaining fog is called fog stratus or high inversion fog (Burroughs, W. J., Crowder, B, Robertson, T., Vallier-Talbot, E. & Whitaker, R., 1996, p. 184; Ahrens, 2007, p. 112). When fog stratus forms, it typically clears by late-morning but, in some cases, when the fog stratus is especially dense, it can trigger a viscous cycle of fog formation that can last for days or even weeks (Burroughs, W. J., Crowder, B, Robertson, T., Vallier-Talbot, E. & Whitaker, R., 1996, p. 184; Ahrens, 2007, p. 112). When this happens, the fog, due to radiational cooling, forms again at ground level during the night (Ahrens, 2007, p.112). During the day, the ground level fog once again clears, leaving just the fog stratus. As mentioned previously, this process can go on for days or even weeks (Ahrens, 2007, p. 112).
  • 10. your name Text References Ahrens, C.D. (2007). Meteorology today: An introduction to weather, climate, and the environment (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole. Burroughs, W. J., Crowder, B, Robertson, T., Vallier-Talbot, E. & Whitaker, R. (1996). Weather. Sydney, Australia: Weldon Owen. Ellrod, G. P. & Lindstrom, S. (n.d.). Performance of satellite fog detection techniques with major, fog-related highways accidents. Retrieved October 19, 2007 from http://www.nwas.org/ej/pdf/2006-EJ3.pdf Gajananda, K., Dutta, H. N. & Lagun, V. E. (2007). An episode of coastal advection fog over east Antarctica. Current Science, 93 (5), 654-685. Retrieved October 15, 2007 from http://64.233.169.104/search?q=cache:JzzwljUBXuEJ:www.ias. ac.in/ currsci/sep102007/654.pdf+fog+provides+moisture+to+plants+- site:.com&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=9&gl=us National Snow and Ice Data Center [NSIDC]. (n.d.). Ice fog. Retrieved October 15, 2007 from http://nsidc.org/cgi-bin/words/word.pl?ice%20fog NOAA. (n.d.). Supercooled water. Retrieved October 22, 2007 from
  • 11. http://www.nssl.noaa.gov/primer/defs/supercool.html NOAA. (2007). Types of fog. Retrieved October 2, 2007, from http://www.crh.noaa.gov/jkl/?n=fog_types Oman, A. H. (2005). Weather: Nature in motion. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society. Phillips, D. (1996). Ice fog: The frigid veil of winter. Canadian Geographic, 116 (2), 18. Retrieved October 15, 2007 from Academic Search Premier database. Pretor-Pinney, G. (2006). The cloudspotter’s guide: The science, history and culture of clouds. New York, NY: Penguin Group. Reynolds, R. (2005). Guide to weather. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books. Rozell, N. (1997). Ice fog a product of temperature, topography, dogs. Retrieved October 15, 2007 from http://www.gi.alaska.edu/ScienceForum/ASF13/1319.html United Nations Environment Programme. (1997). Fog harvesting. Retrieved October 22, 2007 from http://www.oas.org/dsd/publications/Unit/oea59e/ ch12.htm#1.3%20fog%20harvesting Wagner, R. L. & Adler, B. (1997). The weather sourcebook (2nd ed.). Old Saybrook, CT: The Globe Pequot Press.
  • 12. Williams, J. (1992). The weather book: An easy-to-understand guide to the USA’s weather. New York: Vintage Books. Wood, R. A. (Ed.). 2001. The weather almanac (10th ed.). Detroit: Gale Group. your name Image References Slide Two- Fog The Royal Meteorological Society. (1968). “Radiation fog over Bute Park, Cardiff, Wales” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://www.rmets.org/cloudbank/detail.php?ID=42 NOAA. (n.d.). “The Golden Gate Bridge shrouded in advection fog” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://www.crh.noaa.gov/jkl/?n=fog_types Tardif, R. (2004). “Cars in fog” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://www.rap.ucar.edu/staff/tardif/Documents/CUprojects/AT OC5600/fog_characteristics.htm BBC. (2006). “Airplane on runway in fog” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/6202349.stm Slide 3- What is fog? Choi, A. (2005). “Morning fog” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from
  • 13. http://www.trekearth.com/gallery/North_America/United_States /Midwest/Ohio/Cincinnati/photo161398.htm Slide 4- Water Vapor Understanding relative humidity. (n.d.). “Water vapor and air temperature” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://www.warren- wilson.edu/~physics/PhysSci/humidity_Pressure/Understanding RH.html Slide 5- How Fog Forms Plymouth State Weather Center. (n.d.). “Condensation nuclei” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://vortex.plymouth.edu/precip/ Slide 6- The Different Types of Fog Von Weber, W. (2007). “Mysterious fog” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://www.trekearth.com/gallery/photo687225.htm Slide 7- Radiation Fog Bleath, D. (n.d.). “Radiation fog near Ellsmere Wharf” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/shropshire/features/ 2005/01/calendar_weather_gallery_32.shtml Rogers, K. (n.d.). “How radiation fog forms” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://keithrogershome.com/Chap7CldsPcpnFog.html Slide 8- Ideal Conditions for Radiation Fog Formation Wood, E. (2005). “Fog at night” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://emiliewood.com/index.php?cat=5
  • 14. Slide 9- Valley Fog Fogged. (2006). “Valley fog” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://www.flickr.com/photos/jensenl/124543675/ Heidorn, K. C. (2002). “How valley fog forms” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://www.islandnet.com/~see/weather/almanac/arc2002/alm02 sep.htm Slide 10- The Hazards of Radiation Fog BBC. (2005). “Twenty-one injured in fog crash” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/kent/4564439.stm Slide 11- How Radiation Fog “Burns Off” Finken, R. (n.d.). “Fog lifting over autumn foliage” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://www.jupiterimages.com/ popup2.aspx?navigationSubType=itemdetails&itemID=2282027 5 Slide 12- Advection Fog Miller, B. (2005). “Advection fog at night” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://www.rjma.com/flight/airwaves/vol2-19t.htm Rogers, K. (n.d.). “How advection fog forms” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://keithrogershome.com/Chap7CldsPcpnFog.html Slide 13- Advection Fog vs. Radiation Fog No image
  • 15. Slide 14- Sea Fog Bright fog. (2006). “Sea fog” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://www.flickr.com/photos/oneeighteen/144574712/ Slide 15- Areas Prone to Advection Fog NOAA. (n.d.). “Grand Banks advection fog” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/700s/wea03113.jpg Slide 16- Advection Fog Over Inland Areas NASA. (n.d.) “Gulf Coast advection fog” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://virtualskies.arc.nasa.gov/weather/tutorial/tutorial4.html Slide 17- Fog Harvesting LaCroix, P. (1998). “Fog harvesting nets” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-5077-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html Fog-harvesting for water. (2003). “More fog harvesting nets” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://www.scienceinafrica.co.za/2003/march/fog.htm Slide 18- Environmental Benefits Luong, Q. T. (n.d.). “Redwood trees in fog” [online image]. Retrieved November 8, 2007 from http://www.terragalleria.com/parks/np-image- lf.redw4283.html Slide 19- Upslope Fog NOAA. (n.d.). “Upslope fog” [online image]. Retrieved November 8, 2007 from
  • 16. http://www.crh.noaa.gov/jkl/?n=fog_types Rogers, K. (n.d.). “How upslope fog forms” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://keithrogershome.com/Chap7CldsPcpnFog.html Slide 20- Areas Prone to Upslope Fog Ritter, M. (n.d.). “Upslope fog in the Rocky Mountains” [online image]. Retrieved November 8, 2007 from http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ritter/glossary/s_u/upslope_fo g.html Slide 21- Evaporation-Mixing Fog NOAA. (n.d.). “Steam fog” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://www.crh.noaa.gov/jkl/?n=fog_types NOAA. (n.d.). “Frontal fog” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://www.crh.noaa.gov/jkl/?n=fog_types Slide 22- Steam Fog NOAA. (n.d.). “Steam fog on lake” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/700s/wea02057.jpg NASA. (2006). “How steam fog forms” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/SCOOL/layer.html Slide 23- Frontal Fog Heidorn, K. C.. (2002). “Precipitation fog” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://www.islandnet.com/~see/weather/almanac/arc2002/alm02
  • 17. sep.htm Slide 24- Fog Dispersal Systems NOAA. (n.d.). “Fog at Salt Lake City airport” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://newweb.wrh.noaa.gov/slc/aviation/ Slide 25- Clearing Fog With Dry Ice North American Interstate Weather Modification Council. (n.d.). “Dry ice seeding” [online image]. Retrieved November 14, 2007 from http://www.naiwmc.org/4dcgi/GetContentRecord/PB-893 Slide 26- Ice Fog NOAA. (n.d.). “Ice fog” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://www.crh.noaa.gov/jkl/?n=fog_types Slide 27- Ice Fog: A Man-Made Problem? Seaward’s ice box. (n.d.). “Ice fog formed by power plants” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 fromhttp://www.geocities.com/abaccola/winter.html Seaward’s icebox. (n.d.). “Ice fog formed by cars” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://www.geocities.com/abaccola/winter.html Slide 28- The Beauty of Ice Fog Robock, A. (2004). “Halo in ice fog” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from http://climate.envsci.rutgers.edu/Antarctica/Halo9.28.04.JPG Slide 29- Freezing Fog NOAA. (n.d.). “Freezing fog” [online image]. Retrieved November 1, 2007 from
  • 18. http://www.crh.noaa.gov/jkl/?n=fog_types Slide 30- Freezing Fog And Rime Journal. (2007). “Freezing fog and rime” [online image]. Retrieved November 14, 2007 from http://www.disciplesnw.org/yakama/journal.html Shafer, J. (n.d.). “Elongated rime” [online image]. Retrieved November 14, 2007 from http://www.met.utah.edu/galleries/home_page_images/rimecolor _mwn.JPG/photo_view Slide 31- Frog Stratus Fog, dew and frost. (2005). “Fog stratus” [online image]. Retrieved November 14, 2007 from http://www.theairlinepilots.com/met/fog.htm#Fog%20Stratus Slide 32- Feeling Foggy (Closing Slide) Fog. (2005). “Person in fog” [online image]. Retrieved November 14, 2007 from http://www.flickr.com/photos/t_dawg/67980941/ your name Text Content Good morning (afternoon) everyone. My name is xxx xxxxxx and today I will be talking to you about something that you have most likely seen and experienced at one time or another-- fog. If asked to define fog, most people would probably say that it is an annoying weather occurrence that ties up traffic and creates other travel troubles. While this is true, fog can wreak havoc on the highways and skyways, such a definition really
  • 19. only provides a small piece of the much bigger fog picture. Fog is actually a fascinating weather phenomenon that comes in many different varieties. That is right; there are different types of fog. And believe it or not, fog is not all bad. In fact, it can be quite beneficial. In order to gain a better understanding of fog, we will take a look at the different types of fog, how and where they typically form, their characteristics, as well as the hazards and benefits associated with them. Before we start exploring the different types of fog that form, though, we need to first understand what fog is. By definition, fog is a cloud, composed of visible water droplets or ice crystals, that forms at the ground, impeding visibility (Ahrens, 2007, p. 110; Wood, 2001, p. 265). In order for the visible water droplets or ice crystals to be considered fog, visibility has to be reduced to less than .62 miles (about 3,000 feet) (Ahrens, 2007, p. 110; Pretor-Pinney, 2006, p. 81). Fog is defined as dense when visibility is reduced to less than a quarter mile (about 1,300 feet) (Ahrens, 2007, p. 110). When visibility is greater than 3,000 feet, visible water droplets in the air are defined as mist (Pretor-Pinney, 2006, p. 81). In addition to understanding what fog is, it is also important to understand the general principles behind its formation. In order to do this, we must first review the relationship between water vapor and air temperature and pressure. An important component of our air is water vapor, the gaseous form of water (Ahrens, 2007, p. 3). However, exactly how much water vapor is in the air is dependent on the temperature and pressure of that air. That is because air can only contain a certain amount of water vapor at any given temperature and pressure level before it reaches saturation, the maximum level of water vapor it can hold (Ahrens, 2007, p. G-12). The colder the air is, the less water vapor it can hold, meaning that saturation occurs more easily in colder air (Ahrens, 2007, p. 87). So how does all this relate to the formation of fog?
  • 20. Most fog forms when air is cooled. As we just learned, cold air cannot hold as much water vapor as warm air. Therefore, as air is cooled, it may become saturated because the cooler air cannot maintain the same level of water vapor as it did when it was warmer (Ahrens, 2007, p. 87). As air begins to reach its saturation level, water vapor begins to condense (change to a liquid state) on what are known as condensation nuclei (particles such as dirt, salt and combustion by-product found in the air), forming water droplets (Ahrens, 2007, p. 109-110; Wood, 2001, p. 261). And the closer the air is to saturation, the more condensation that takes places. With fog, so much condensation is occurring that the water droplets become large and highly concentrated (Ahrens, 2007, p. 110). Because of that we can actually see fog. To review, then, most fog forms when air is cooled to the point of saturation, causing water vapor to condense and form large, visible water droplets (Ahrens, 2007, p. 110). I have deleted most of these notes to keep the file small. Prof. Whitford Develop a company and determine what it will produce and sell. The requirement for this company is that it be a high-end, special-order type of manufactured product. Complete the following in a Word document of 1,750 words: · Develop a list of inputs along with their associated costs, such as labor, materials, and overhead. You can research this information, make it up, or do a combination of both. Be specific as to costs. · You are to determine the selling price. Show your calculations, and discuss why you have determined this to be a good sale price. · How many items of your product will you need to produce to meet this sale price? How did you calculate this? · Determine which of the costing systems discussed in this class
  • 21. will work best for your company. Explain why. · Explain why those not chosen were not a good fit for your company. · You must explain "why not chosen" for a minimum of 3 costing methods. · Please devote at least 1 paragraph to the ethical considerations of costing methods. Assignment Guidelines: · Add a section to your paper, outlining how you would implement capital budgeting in your company. · Prepare an example of a decision that you would make using either the IRR or Payback method of analysis. Why would you use this for your business?