Italyandenergy

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Italyandenergy

  1. 1. FONDERIA OXFORDPOLITICHE PER L’ITALIA ITALY  AND  ENERGY   Where  we  are,  and  where  we  are  going   Simone  Falco   15  May  2011  
  2. 2. We will talk about:•  How Italy produces energy•  How other countries produce energy•  Kyoto protocol•  Blue Map Scenario•  Classic energy sources•  Alternative energy sources•  The real green energy! Italy and Energy 15 May 2011 Page 2
  3. 3. Before startingUnless is explicitly indicated all the data and the graphs inthe presentation refer only to electric energy!The other kind of energies – mostly heating and transport –are not considered because of the different mechanismsand issues involved. Nevertheless they are massivelyinvolved in the global warming and the CO2 production. Italy and Energy 15 May 2011 Page 3
  4. 4. How Italy produces energy Electricity production in Italy (2009) Other Import* renewables 14% 6% Gas 44% Solid fuelHydroelectric 12% 14% Other fuels 5% Oil 5% Font: Terna* The graph does not take in account of the energy exported, i.e. the net energy imported is lower (11%) Italy and Energy 15 May 2011 Page 4
  5. 5. How other countries produce energy ITALY FRANCE SPAIN ThermalTOT=319.1 TWh TOT=574.0 TWh TOT=313.4 TWh Idric EolicGERMANY UK EU 27 Photovoltaic Geothermal NuclearTOT=633.2 TWh TOT=390.0 TWh TOT=3359.8 TWh Font: Terna Italy and Energy 15 May 2011 Page 5
  6. 6. Kyoto protocolKyoto protocol commit the countries that have signed thetreaty (USA does not) to reduce – within 2012 – theircollective greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2% from the 1990level.Obviously this target pass through the production of greenerelectric energy, but is not the only process involved, so it isbetter to refer on a plan focused only on electric energyproduction.Just to knowFor Italy that means a reduction of 6.5%Italy was fined by €555 Million in 2010, that can become 840in 2012 because is not in line with the reductions!!! Italy and Energy 15 May 2011 Page 6
  7. 7. Blue Map Scenario (1/2)The IEA (in 2009) created the so-called “Blue Map Scenario”with the goal to reduce the global greenhouse gas emissionsby 50% within 2050. According with this scenario Europeancountries have to reduce the emission by 75% Font: IEA – ETP (2010) Italy and Energy 15 May 2011 Page 7
  8. 8. Blue Map Scenario (2/2) Font: IEA – ETP (2010) Italy and Energy 15 May 2011 Page 8
  9. 9. Blue Map Scenario Italy: ENEA calculation Fuel Switch (Final users) 2020 2050 Efficiency (final users) 4% 4% Less enenergivorous behaviour 10% 25% Nuclear 11% 25% CCS 9% 50%16% 11% Renewables 5% 30% Efficiency and fuel switch (Elect. generation) Italy and Energy 15 May 2011 Page 9
  10. 10. How Italy produces energy Electricity production in Italy (2009) Other Import* renewables 14% 6% Gas 44% Solid fuelHydroelectric 12% 14% Other fuels 5% Oil 5% Font: Terna* The graph does not take in account of the energy exported, i.e. the net energy imported is lower (11%) Italy and Energy 15 May 2011 Page 10
  11. 11. Classic energy source Font: Assorcarboni (from IEA) Italy and Energy 15 May 2011 Page 11
  12. 12. Classic energy sources: Natural gas (1/2) Natural Gas in Italy (2008) 100% Norway 6% 90% Produced 9% Algeria 80% OtherNertherland 31% 10% 70% 60% Electricity production Libia 50% 13% Civil 40% Russia 30% 31% Industry 20% 10% 0% Font: Terna Italy and Energy 15 May 2011 Page 12
  13. 13. Classic energy sources: Natural gas (2/2)•  For the same energy produced: Ø  Emits less CO2 (about 25%) than other fossil fuels Ø  Emits 1800 times less PM than coal•  There could be underwater field than could be exploited as the deepwater mining technology improves•  Gas reserves are concentrated in few - and politically instable – countries (Algeria, Russia, Libia)•  Transport and storage are complex•  It will finish in less than 100 years (63 according to BP statistics) Italy and Energy 15 May 2011 Page 13
  14. 14. Classic energy sources: Coal•  Is the safer fossil fuel: nonflammable, not-explosive•  Is not ground or water pollutant•  Easy to transport and store•  More than 100 countries can supply coal•  Is the cheaper and more labor intensive fossil energy source Ø  (If Italy used as carbon as the rest of EU energy would cost 10% less, and would occupy 3 times more people in energy production)•  It will finish in less than 200 years (160 according to BP statistics)•  Emits higher quantities of PM and CO2 than natural gas Italy and Energy 15 May 2011 Page 14
  15. 15. Imported Energy (1/2)More than half of the imported energy is from Switzerland, 70% of which isfrom renewable fonts (even if about a third has not “Origin warranty”, sotheoretically it could come from hydroelectric pumped during the night withnuclear energy).The few energy imported by Austria is almost entirely from renewablesfonts.Considering that Slovenia has a mix with 38% of nuclear, it can be assumedItaly import 1800 GWh produced in nuclear plants.Finally we can assume all the energy imported by France – mostly duringthe night – is from nuclear, while the exported one (around 10%) is almostentirely used to supply the peaks of the electric system, not much flexiblebecause of the age of the plants. Italy and Energy 15 May 2011 Page 15
  16. 16. Imported Energy (2/2)Considering also the import, the electric energy in Italy in 2009 wasproduced mainly by fossil fuels (72%), than by renewables sources (22%)and finally only a small amount by nuclear (6%).The French nuclear energy imported in 2009 was only the 4,8% of the total!Moreover Italy does not really need to import energy from France, butFrench nuclear plants cannot module the produced energy, so for Italy ismore convenient to buy this energy during the night turning off the lessefficient plants!!! Italy and Energy 15 May 2011 Page 16
  17. 17. Eolic Energy•  High energy yield ratio (80)•  Amortization in 6-8 years•  NIMBY politics (is noisy and disfigures the scenery)•  Energy production variable and not manageable•  Has not the same incentives of the photovoltaic energy (at the moment) Italy and Energy 15 May 2011 Page 17
  18. 18. Photovoltaic energy•  Possibility to build small domestic plants•  Low maintenance and no noise because there are not any moving part•  Low voltage electricity (not suitable for industries)•  Low energy yield ratio (4-7)•  Low efficiency (10-20%)•  Energy production extremely variable and not manageable•  The “green certificate” system is being changed Ø  Energy was paid up to 4 time the usual price for 20 years: highest incentives in the world!!! Italy and Energy 15 May 2011 Page 18
  19. 19. Combined power plant (1/2)In Germany it was realized a combined power plant that consist of 3 windparks (12,6 MW), 20 solar power plants (5,5 MW), 4 biogas systems (4,0MW) and a pump storage (1060 MW, 80h).With this pilot project the participatingparties impressively showed thatrenewable energy can cover 100 % ofelectricity demand.The fluctuation in the production of windturbine and solar cells are controlled bysupplying extra energy from the biogassystems, or storing the energy surpluswith the pump. Italy and Energy 15 May 2011 Page 19
  20. 20. Combined power plant (2/2) Italy and Energy 15 May 2011 Page 20
  21. 21. The real green energyDavid JC MacKay* showed how in UK the sum of allthe ideal energy deliverable by renewable sources isnot enough to provide for the current energy request.Moreover even the renewable sources are notcompletely “green” for various reasons (manufacturingprocesses, disposal, environmental impact, etc…), sothe only way to produce a completely “green” MWh is todo not use it!!!It can sound naive, but it is the only way to build asustainable system without fossil and nuclear energy!* Professor in the department of Physics at Cambridge University and chief scientific adviserto the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) Italy and Energy 15 May 2011 Page 21
  22. 22. Italy and Energy 15 May 2011 Page 22

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