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Art 216-Teotihuacan


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Art 216- Teotihuacan

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Art 216-Teotihuacan

  2. 2. WHO WERE THE TEOTIHUACANOS• The ancient city of Teotihuacan is one of the most important archaeological sites in Mexico • The world Teotihuacan is a Nahuatl word for “the city of the gods” • The Aztecs believed that the gods created the universe at this site. • It was founded around the year 100 BC with its height in 450 AD and its decline around 800 AD • Even as a ruin, it exerts a powerful influence. The Aztecs incorporated it into their mythology and it became a place of pilgrimage for their rulers. • Teotihuacan is speculated to have had around 150,000-250,000 residents. • At its existence, it was one of the 6th most populated metropolis in the world! • The rise and fall of Teotihuacan is still a mystery. Ooooh! 0_0 Mictlantecuhtli, the Aztec “Lord of the Dead” was worshipped in this form by the people of Teotihuacan in 100BC
  3. 3. WHO WERE THE TEOTIHUACANOS Archaeologist have identified the workshops of around 500 craftsmen, who produced goods that were exported throughout Mexico The city itself was notable for its brightly painted murals and its sculpture, representing religious practices, which revolved around human sacrifice. Teotihuacan is also anthropologically significant for its complex, multi-family residential compounds Teotihuacan exported fine obsidian tools that garnered high prestige and widespread usage throughout Mesoamerica Teotihuacan was the center of a state empire, its influence throughout Mesoamerica is well documented; evidence of Teotihuacano presence can be seen at numerous sites in Veracruz and the Maya region.
  4. 4. PRIMARY GODS AND RELIGIONDue to the arid climate of Teotihuacan, in the Valley of Mexico, there was a lot of worship to deities that could bring produce rain. The main gods of the Teotihuacanos:  Tlaloc: rain and lightening god  Great Water Goddess  Chalchiuhtlicue: god of running water  Feathered Serpent: Creator of man  War Serpent  Teotihuacanos practiced human sacrifice: human bodies and animal sacrifices have been found during excavations of the pyramids at Teotihuacan. Scholars believe that the people offered human sacrifices as part of a dedication when buildings were expanded or constructed.  The victims were probably enemy warriors captured in battle and brought to the city for ritual sacrifice to ensure the city could prosper. Some men were decapitated, some had their hearts removed, others were killed by being hit several times over the head, and some were buried alive.  Animals that were considered sacred and represented
  5. 5. ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS Talud- Tablero Style The vertical Tablero sits on the sloping talud. The exterior is finished with fine plaster and polished. This architectural style would have been used only for sacred architecture. This style is so particular to Teotihuacan that it’s style spread and is even located at a site called Kaminaljuyu (Guatemala)- 700 miles away!! Teotiahucan’s pyramids were colored deep red with molded plaster decorations of gods in blue, green and white.
  6. 6. Avenue of the Dead as seen from the Pyramid of the Moon.
  7. 7. AVENUE OF THE DEAD A long, straight avenue, known as the Way of the Dead, linked its three main buildings- the Pyramids of the Sun, the Pyramid of the Moon and the Temple of the Plumed Serpent. This avenue was evidently used for ritual processions, and was also deliberately aligned towards Cerro Gordo, a mountainous dead volcano.
  8. 8. Pyramid of the Moon
  9. 9. PYRAMID OF THE MOON • Mimics the contours of the mountain Cerro Gordo • A slope in front of the staircase gives access to the Avenue of the Dead, a platform atop the pyramid was used to conduct ceremonies in honor of the Great Goddess of Teotihuacan, the goddess of water, fertility, the earth, and even creation itself. • the pyramid underwent at least six renovations; each new addition was larger and covered the previous structure. • human male sacrificial victims as well as a wolf, jaguar, puma, serpent, bird skeletons, and more than 400 other relics which include a large greenstone and obsidian figurines, ceremonial knives, and spear points
  10. 10. Pyramid of the Sun
  11. 11. PYRAMID OF THE SUN • is the largest building in Teotihuacan and one of the largest in Mesoamerica. • The name Pyramid of the Sun comes from the Aztecs, who visited the city of Teotihuacan centuries after it was abandoned • Third largest pyramid in the world • painted brilliantly colored murals • The paint and plaster have not and are no longer visible. Jaguar heads and paws, stars, and snake rattles are among the few images associated with the pyramids. • The pyramid is oriented slightly northwest of the horizon point of the setting sun on two days a year, August 12 and April 29, which are about one divinatory calendar year apart for the Teotihuacanos • interpreted as possibly the place of Chicomoztoc, the place of human origin according to Nahua legends. More recent excavations have suggested that the space is
  12. 12. CIUDADELA (CITADEL) & TEMPLE OF THE FEATHERED SERPENT• The Ciudadela is a structure with high walls and a large courtyard surrounding the temple. • The Ciudadela’s courtyard is massive enough that it could house the entire adult population of Teotihuacán within its walls.
  13. 13. TEMPLE OF THE FEATHERED SERPENT Temple: 3rd largest pyramid at Teotihuacan • The burials, like the structure, are dated to some time between 150 and 200 AD. • The pyramid takes its name from representations of the Mesoamerican "feathered serpent" deity which covered its sides. • These are some of the earliest- known representations of the feathered serpent, often identified with the much-later Aztec god Quetzalcoatl. • There would have been 260 feathered serpent reliefs around the pyramid suggesting that it worked on the calendar system! • 200 skeleton remains are found surrounding the structure are of war
  14. 14. Detail from the Temple of the Feathered
  15. 15. Restored portion of Teotihucan architecture showing the typical Mesoamerican use of red paint complemented on gold and jade
  16. 16. THE GREAT EARTH-WATER GODDESS OF TEOTIHUACÁN. 100- 700 AD Paradise of Tlaloc, a fresco from Tepantitla complex. The Great Earth-Water Goddess presides over waters that pour down upon earth, and rain springs from her hands. Priests make offerings at his sides. Here, in eternal happiness, live those who have died by water or who were killed by storms and lightning. At Tepantitla the half-body of the Great Earth Goddess rises from a talud-tablero platform ornamented with flowers and feathers. This central symbol emerges from a wavy body of water in which shell fish swim. Its top is an imaginary ground line on which plants such as maize and fruit trees grow. This Great Goddess is an Earth Mother Goddess.
  17. 17. TEOTIHUACAN FRESCOES SHOWING TLALOCAN PARADISE OF RAIN GOD 100-700AD Tlalocan means place of the god Tlaloc. In this mural we see the representation of a subterranean river. All sorts of animals swim in the river. In some way, the city of Teotihuacan is represented as a river emanating from the mountain of substance (Tonacatepetl), in this case the Cerro Gordo. All the people are represented enjoying daily life activities: playing ball, singing, jumping and talking in a context of abundance and fertility.
  18. 18. TEOTIHUACAN FRESCOS Detail of mural shows us a figure playing the Mesoamerican ballgame.
  19. 19. FRESCOED TRIPOD VESSEL WITH SYMBOLS OF TLALOC EARLY CLASSICTripod feet characterize Teotihuacan ceramics Tripod vessel usually would have fitted lids on top with handles. On this vessel a goggled warriors approach mountains or bear weapons.
  20. 20. URN WITH OWLS 100-650 AD CLASSIC PERIOD Other clay objects include polychromed incense burners, built up of mold-made details. The urns show human and animal faces peering out from almost architectural constructions of mass-produced, stamped elements. They may have ben taken apart and reconfigured for different deities. It is believed that a barrio north of the Citadel would have been the place of manufacture. Owls in Mesoamerica are associated with the night and the passage into the underworld.
  21. 21. ONYX OCELOT CUAUHXICALLI 100-700AD Ocelot= jaguar This receptacle is in the shape of a jaguar. It served as a receptacle for the hearts of human sacrifices which were common in Teotihuacan. These kinds of sacrificial receptacles are called cuauhxicallis.
  22. 22. TLALOC 100-700 AD Found in the town of Coatlinchan near Tlaloc Mountain in the State of Mexico and weighing 168 tons, this is the largest existing monolith in the Americas. Tlaloc, the provider, had attributes of the rain. He created and brought down the rain and the hail. He caused the trees, the grasses, the maize to blossom, to sprout, and to grow. Also attributed to Tlaloc was the thunderbolts and the drowning of people.
  23. 23. CHALCHIUHTLICUE 100-700 AD • This colossal statue represents Chalchiuhtlicue, "Her Skirt Is of Jade“ • She was the goddess of running water. She is Tlaloc's elder sister and sometimes regarded as his wife. She was esteemed and feared. • represented the water in both its calm and wild states. • Teotihuacan's sculptures are massive and minimal. • They matched the geometrically shaped massive architecture of their great city of Teotihuacan.
  24. 24. XIPE TOTEC 400-500AD • “Our lord the flayed one” • Was the god of spring, linked primarily with the renewal of crops. • Rituals surrounding his worship were designed to ensure the fertility of the land • During the second month of the year, Tlacaxipehualiztli, “the flaying of men,” the priests scarified their victims by removing their hearts. • The bodies were then flayed and the skins dyed yellow. These “golden clothes” (teocuitlaquemitl) were then worn by young devotees, until they rotted away. • The idea behind this was to mimic the growth of a maize kernel, with the new plant emerging from the husk of an old seed.
  25. 25. MASK 100-700 AD CLASSIC PERIOD There was no tradition of portraiture at Teotihuacan, but masks depicting the human face are abundant in the style associated with the site. With its geometrically rendered horizontal brow, triangular nose, and oval mouth and eyes, this mask depicts the idealized facial type that seems to function as a symbol, similar to other standardized motifs present in the art of Teotihuacan. The depressions of the eyes and the mouth suggest that this mask, like many of its counterparts, might have originally possessed inlaid shell or stone for the depiction of eyes and teeth.
  26. 26. MASK 450 AD This mask is acknowledged as one of the great treasures of pre-Hispanic art in Mesoamerica. Masks were commonly placed over mummy bundles to protect the deceased from the dangers of the afterlife. Made of stone, its surface is covered in bits of turquoise, obsidian, and shell. The tiny glyph on the forehead may record a name. Most of these masks have been found in burials. This mask exemplifies the mastery of the mosaic techniques by the Teotihuacanos.