Eu Kids Online II key findings 11 april 2011

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Eu Kids Online II key findings 11 april 2011

  1. 1. Risks and safety on the internet:The perspective of European childrenFull findings from EU Kids Online, January 2011
  2. 2. AimTo enhance knowledge of theexperiences and practices ofEuropean children andparents regarding risky andsafer use of the internet andnew online technologies, inorder to inform the promotionof a safer online environmentfor children.
  3. 3. Classifying risks (exemplars) Content Contact Conduct Child as receiver Child as participant Child as actor (of mass productions) (adult-initiated activity) (perpetrator / victim)Aggressive Violent / gory content Harassment, stalking Bullying, hostile peer activitySexual Pornographic ‘Grooming’, sexual Sexually content abuse or exploitation harassment, ‘sexting’Values Racist / hateful Ideological persuasion Potentially harmful content user-generated contentCommercial Embedded Personal data Gambling, copyright marketing misuse infringement Note: risks in bold are included in the survey
  4. 4. Demographic Harm Risk Usage Activities or factors Psychological coping INDIVIDUAL USER Parents School Peers SOCIAL MEDIATION Child as unit of analysis Socio-economic Regulatory Technological Education Cultural stratification framework infrastructure system valuesNATIONAL CONTEXT Country as unit of analysis
  5. 5. Surveying ‘Europe’  Random stratified sample: ~ 1000 9-16 year old internet users per country  Fieldwork in spring/summer 2010  Total: 25142 internet-users, 25 countries  Interviews at home, face to face  Self-completion for sensitive questions  Indicators of vulnerability and coping  Data from child paired with a parent  Directly comparable across countries  Validation via cognitive/pilot testing  National stakeholders consulted  International advisory panel
  6. 6. How do What do What What children use the children do online factors are the outcomes internet? online? shape their for children? experience?Project focus Opportunities / Benefits / Usage Activities Risks Harms Learn Positive content Where Learning Create User-generated content Self-esteem How Play Sexual content/ Sociality messages Meet people Values Amount Stranger contact In/excluded scope Hang out Bullying Coping/resilience Skills Try new things Personal data ct misuse Bothered/upsetProje Bully others Abuse Etc. Etc. Etc. Etc.
  7. 7. How do children usethe internet?
  8. 8. % Own bedroom a t home % At home but not i n own bedroomUse at home is high NL 56 44 CZ 63 36 NO 66 33 DE 51 48 AT 48 50 87% use at DK CY 62 74 36 24 home BE 33 65 SI 57 41 % Own bedroom a t home 49% have % At home but not i n own bedroom SE 68 29 in bedroom FI 58 39 Girls 47 39 IT 62 35 Privatised Boys 30 50 55 37 EE UK 54 52 42 43 use is 9-10 yrs FR 41 54 growing 11-12 yrs 42 43 BG 61 34 IE 37 56 SES and 13-14 yrs 15-16 yrs 52 67 34 23 PT PL 67 63 27 25 age matter EL 52 35 more than Low SES 41 31 LT 57 29 gender Medium SES 50 40 RO 48 38 ES 42 42 High SES 54 42 National HU 37 44 variation All children 49 38 TR 33 16 ALL 49 38 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100
  9. 9. % Handheld device % Mobile phone but no other handheld deviceMobile access growing EL 12 66 UK 26 33 DE 19 37 CY 16 39 12% via AT IE 15 23 38 29 handheld NO 31 19 devices SI 8 42 % Handheld device SE 22 26 33% via mobile % Mobile phone but no other handheld device Girls 11 22 BG 4 LT 9 41 35 and/or CZ 6 33 handheld Boys 13 22 DK 17 22 device 9-10 yrs 5 14 PL 5 34 EE 7 31 11-12 yrs 8 21 FI 12 24 Flexible access 13-14 yrs 13 25 NL 15 20 is growing PT 7 26 15-16 yrs 19 28 BE 13 17 FR 13 12 Low SES 8 21 Age and SES HU 2 23 Medium SES 11 24 matter RO 2 18 TR 3 10 High SES 17 23 IT 4 5 National All children 12 22 ES 3 5 variation 0 20 40 60 80 100 ALL 12 22 0 20 40 60 80 100
  10. 10. Internet embedded in daily life,users are getting younger 60% use every day or almost daily, Girls 85 93% use at least weekly Boys 91 88 minutes spent online in an 9-10 yrs 58 average day (see graph) 11-12 yrs 74 13-14 yrs 97 SES matters especially for daily use: 15-16 yrs 118 67% high SES vs. 52% low SES Low SES 84 Age matters also for daily use: Medium SES 91 33% 9-10 yrs vs. 80% 15-16 yrs High SES 87 All children 88 Children first go online at 9 yrs old: 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 at 7 for 9-10 yrs, at 11 for 15-16 yrs Minutes per day online
  11. 11. Digital skills growing unevenly 100 90 80 70 64 64 63 56 56 52 60 51 50 40 28 30 20 108 0 Bookmark a Block Find info on Change Compare Delete Block spam Set filter7 website messages safety privacy sites records 5,8 settings6 5,4 5,3 5,1 5,0 5,0 5,0 4,9 4,8 4,7 4,75 4,7 4,7 4,5 4,5 4,4 4,6 4,2 4,0 4,24 3,8 3,7 3,4 3,4 3,33 2,6210 FI SI NL EE CZ SE NO PT LT AT UK BG FR DK PL ES BE DE IE CY EL HU RO IT TR ALL
  12. 12. “I know more about theinternet than my parents” % Not true % A bit true % Very true Girls 34 32 34 Boys 32 31 38 9-10 yrs 63 26 12 11-12 yrs 39 34 28 13-14 yrs 22 34 44 15-16 yrs 13 31 56 Low SES 26 29 46Medium SES 32 32 36 High SES 40 33 28 All children 33 31 36 0 20 40 60 80 100
  13. 13. Some use the internetto excess% who have fairly or very often: Tried unsuccessfully to spend less time on the internet - 13% Spent less time with friends, family or doing schoolwork because of the internet – 13% Caught myself surfing when not really interested – 16% Felt bothered when I cannot be on the internet – 11% Gone without eating or sleeping because of the internet – 5% Graph shows that 30% said yes to one or more of the above across Europe
  14. 14. What do childrendo online?
  15. 15. Multiple opportunities Blog 11 Virtual world 16 Create character/avatar 18 File-sharing 18 Chatroom 23 Post messages 31 Use webcam 31Share photos/music/videos 39 Download music/film 44 Play games (with others) 44 Watch/read news 48 E-mail 61 Use IM 62 Visit SNS 62 Watch video clips 76 Games (alone) 83 Schoolwork 85 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
  16. 16. Positive content“There are lots of things on the internet that are good for children of my age” 44% say “very true”, 46% say “a bit true”, 10% say “not true” Only 34% of 9-10 year olds say “very true” % Very true % A bit true % Not true100 4 4 4 6 7 5 5 9 6 6 6 7 9 5 6 8 6 11 10 14 13 1090 19 20 20 2680 33 33 37 37 39 40 42 39 4370 45 46 45 50 42 46 50 48 54 46 48 40 46 5360 47 4950 504030 63 61 59 56 56 56 54 52 52 49 49 48 47 46 4520 44 44 42 41 40 40 44 34 34 3210 24 0 LT EL BG HU CZ UK AT CY PT PL RO SI DK NL DE IE EE ES BE FI IT FR TR SE NO All
  17. 17. Social networking
  18. 18. Online communication
  19. 19. What online factorsshape children’sexperiences?
  20. 20. % Seen sexual images on any w ebsites % Seen sexual images at all, online or offlineSexual images off/online NO 34 46 EE 29 37 FI 29 37 DK 28 42 28 “In the past year, you will have seen lots of different CZ 45 SE 26 images – pictures, photos, videos. Sometimes, these 41 LT 25 might be obviously sexual – for example, showing 42 SI 25 people naked or having sex. Have you seen anything 35 NL 22 of this kind?” 20 39 BG 33 FR 20 30 23% have seen sexual images online or offline RO 19 28 BE 17 33 Who? More older than younger children AT PL 17 15 24 28 Teenage boys 13-16 most likely to see sexual images EL 14 29 online – 24% PT 13 24 TR 13 17 Where did they see this? 14% online, 12% on CY UK 12 11 24 24 television/film/video, 7% in magazines IE 11 23 Most often seen via accidental pop-ups HU 11 17 ES 11 14 What did they see (11+)? 11% - nudity, 8% - someone IT DE 4 7 12 10 having sex, 8% - genitals, 2% - violent sex 14 ALL 23 0 20 40 60 80 100
  21. 21. % Been bullied on the internet % Been bullied at all, online or offline Bullying off/online EE 14 43 RO 13 41 DK 12 25 SE 11 28 “Sometimes children or teenagers say or do hurtful or NO 8 31 nasty things to someone and this can often be quite a UK 8 21 few times on different days over a period of time. It can CZ 8 26 include teasing someone in a way the person does not AT 7 28 like; hitting, kicking or pushing someone around; FR 7 26 leaving someone out of things. HU 6 20 Has someone acted in this kind of hurtful or nasty way BE 6 19 to you in the past 12 months?/ Have you been treated in BG 6 21 a hurtful or nasty way on the internet?” PL 6 19 19% have had someone act in this way, online or offline FI 5 5 18 LT 19 Who? Few differences by age, gender or social class DE 5 16 CY 5 Teenage girls 13-16 most experience this online – 9% 15 ES 4 16 How? 13% had this happen in person face to face, 6% SI 4 20 had this happen online, 3% by mobile phone calls/texts IE 4 23 4 Most often happens online via SNS or IM NL 14 EL 4 17 What (11+)? 4% - nasty/hurtful messages, 2% - TR 3 11 messages passed around about them, 1% threatened PT 2 9 online IT 2 11 12% have bullied others at all, 3% online ALL 0 6 20 19 40 60 80 100
  22. 22. % Sent or posted sexual messagesSending/receiving sexual RO 3 % Seen or received sexual messagesmessages online (11+yrs) 22 CZ 10 21 NO 2 20 FR 3 19 “People do all kinds of things on the internet. EE 3 19 Sometimes they may send sexual messages or LT 4 19 12 images. By this, we mean talk about having sex or SE 18 FI 3 images of people naked or having sex. 18 BE 4 18 Have you seen/sent/received/posted a sexual message SI 3 17 (words, pictures or video) of any kind on the AT 4 17 internet?” PL 2 17 2 DE 16 1 15% have seen/received sexual messages online DK 16 NL 1 15 3 3% have sent/posted sexual messages online PT 15 BG 1 14 TR 4 Who? More older (22% 15-16 yrs) than younger teens 14 UK 4 12 CY 3 How? Occurs more by ‘pop up’, IM or SNS 11 EL 2 11 What? 5% saw other people perform sexual acts, 2% IE ES 3 1 9 11 were asked to talk about sexual acts online, 2% were HU 1 8 asked for photo/video of genitals IT 1 4 ALL 3 15 0 20 40 60 80 100
  23. 23. % Ever gone on to meet anyone face to face that you first met on the internetMeeting new people % Ever had contact w ith someone you have not met face to face before EE 25 54 LT 23 52 SE 18 54 16 “Have you ever had contact on the internet with AT 45 15 someone you have not met face to face before? CZ 46 NO 15 49 Have you ever gone on to meet anyone face to face RO 13 that you first met on the internet in this way?” 32 SI 13 34 BE 12 30 30% have contact(s) they met online FR 12 32 13% of 9-10 year olds up to 46% of 15-16 year olds FI 12 49 DK 12 42 9% have met an online contact offline DE BG 11 9 31 38 2% of 9-10 year olds up to 16% of 15-16 year olds ES 9 21 8 HU 26 8 More online contacts - more offline meetings PL 25 NL 6 32 55% who went to a meeting met one or two people this CY EL 6 6 14 20 way; 23% met 5+ UK 5 28 PT 5 16 57% of those who went to a meeting met friend of a IE 4 28 friend/family; 48% met a new person IT 4 27 TR 3 18 Contact first made usually via SNS or IM ALL 0 9 20 30 40 60 80 100
  24. 24. Parental awarenessAmong those children who have encountered the particular risk online … Seeing sexual images online: 40% of parents are not aware of this, 26% say they don’t know Parents are least aware when daughters (46%) and younger children (54% 9-10 and 11-12 year olds) have seen sexual images online Being bullied online: 56% of parents are not aware of this, 15% say they don’t know Parents are less aware when this involves their 9-10 year olds (65%) Receiving sexual message online: 52% of parents are not aware of this; 27% say they don’t know Parents of younger children, and in higher SES homes, are least aware Meeting an online contact offline: 61% of parents are not aware of this, 11% say they don’t know Parents of younger children, of boys, and in higher SES homes, are less aware
  25. 25. What are theoutcomes forchildren?
  26. 26. From risk to harm? Seen sexual images on the internet Bothered after seeing such imagesSexual images Bothered out of just those that had seen such images 12 Girls 5 39 16 14% have seen sexual images online Boys 4 26 5 9-10 yrs 3 Only 4% (32% of those who saw sexual 8 56 images online) were bothered by this 11-12 yrs 3 42 16 Girls and younger children less likely to 13-14 yrs 5 32 25 see such images but more likely to be 15-16 yrs 6 24 bothered/upset 12 Low SES 5 Among those who were bothered, 13 39 Medium SES 4 41% a bit upset, 28% fairly upset, 16% very 30 upset 18 High SES 5 Still, most got over it straight away All children 4 14 30 32 0 20 40 60 80 100
  27. 27. From risk to harm?Online bullying % Very upset % Fairly upset Among the 6% who have been % A bit upset % Not at all upset bullied online, on the last time Girls 37 24 26 13 this happened: Boys 23 23 36 18 30% were a bit upset, 24% fairly 9-10 yrs 30 17 40 12 upset, 31% very upset 11-12 yrs 32 22 32 14 Who was more upset? 13-14 yrs 27 30 29 13 Younger, girls, low SES homes 15-16 yrs 34 22 27 17 How long did this last? Low SES 42 20 28 10 Most (62%) got over it straight Medium SES 32 25 28 15 away, 31% still upset a few days later and 6% still upset a few High SES 22 23 36 19 weeks later All children 31 24 30 15 0 20 40 60 80 100
  28. 28. Seen or received sexual messages on the internet From risk to harm? Bothered after seeing or receiving such messages Sexual messages Bothered out of just those that had seen or received such messages 13 Girls 4 33 15% have seen/received sexual 16 messages images online. Boys 3 But only 4% (25% of those who saw sexual 7 17 messages) were bothered by this 11-12 yrs 3 41a 13 13-14 yrs 3 Girls are more likely than boys to be 25 bothered/upset 22 15-16 yrs 4 Teens more likely to receive such messages 20 but younger children more upset 14 Low SES 5 33 Among those who were bothered, 14 Medium SES 3 47% were a bit upset the last time this 23 happened, 30% were fairly upset, 17 High SES 4 15% were very upset. 21 15 All children 4 25 Still, half got over it straight away 0 20 40 60 80 100
  29. 29. Ever gone on to meet anyone face to face that you first metFrom risk to harm? on the internet Bothered in past 12 months after meeting new peopleMeeting contacts offline Bothered out of just those that had met new people in past 12 months 8 Girls 1 9% have met an online contact offline, Boys 1 9 9 but only 1% were bothered by this 13 2 Or, 11% of those who met an online 9-10 yrs 1 31 contact offline were bothered or upset 4 11-12 yrs 1 Of those who were bothered in some 13-14 yrs 1 9 19 way, half were ‘very’ or ‘fairly’ upset 10 16 15-16 yrs 1 9 9-10 year olds were more likely to be 6 bothered/upset (31% of those Low SES 1 14 who went to such a meeting) 10 Medium SES 1 12 Among those bothered by such a meeting, High SES 1 9 8 - 30% met someone older (8% met an adult) 9 All children 1 - 22% had had hurtful things said to them 11 - few said they were hurt physically/sexually 0 20 40 60 80 100
  30. 30. Other risks 21% exposed to potentially harmful user-generated content 9% experienced personal data misuse Ways of committing suicide 5 Lost money by 1 being cheated Talk about or share their 7 experiences of taking drugs Personal information Ways of physically harming or 4 7 used in a way I hurting themselves didnt like Ways to be very thin (such as Password used 10 being anorexic or bulimic) to access 7 informationHate messages that attack certain 12 groups or individuals One or more Has seen such material at all on type of data 9 21 misuse any websites 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100
  31. 31. Overall subjective % My child has been bothered by something online (parent) % I have been bothered by something online (child) harm % There are things online that bother children my age (child) 10 Girls 13 57 “By bothered, we mean, made you feel 7 Boys 11 uncomfortable, upset, or feel that you 53 shouldn’t have seen it” 6 9-10 yrs 9 40 55% think there are things online that bother 11-12 yrs 9 11 people their age 57 9 13-14 yrs 12 12% have been bothered themselves 9 62 15-16 yrs 15 8% parents say their child has been bothered Low SES 7 11 59 55 9-10 year olds less likely to be bothered Medium SES 8 12 53 More children have been bothered in DK, EE, High SES 11 13 60 NO, SE, RO 8 All children 12 Fewest say this in IT, PT, DE, FR, CY 0 20 40 55 60 80 100
  32. 32. Coping strategies Just those who encountered the risk and were bothered by it Who did they tell? What did they do? Online help?Sexual 53% told someone 26% hoped it would go away 26% deletedimages 33% friend 25% parent 22% tried to fix it messages 9% sibling 3% teacher 9% felt guilty 25% stopped using the internetBullying 77% told someone 24% hoped it would go away 46% blocked person 50% friend 40% parent 36% tried to fix it 41% deleted 12% felt guilty messages 13% sibling 7% teacherSexual 60% told someone 22% hoped it would go away 40% blocked personmessages 37% friend 29% parent 27% tried to fix it 38% deleted 6% felt guilty messages 8% sibling 2% teacherMeeting 70% told s/one first 30% hoped it would go away 37% deletedcontacts 18% tried to fix it messages 52% went with s/oneoffline 12% felt guilty 34% blocked person 62% told s/one after
  33. 33. More opportunities, more risks 70 % Experienced one or more risk factor Average for EE NO all children LT SE 60 DK FI CZ SI NL 50 AT RO BG BE FR DE 40 UK IE PL ES IT HU TR EL PT CY 30 5 6 7 8 9 Average number of online activities
  34. 34. What mediateschildren’s onlineexperiences?
  35. 35. Parental mediationof use and safety
  36. 36. Parental restrictions
  37. 37. Who suggests ways to use theinternet safely?
  38. 38. Sources of advice(children, parents)
  39. 39. Policy implications Government Industry Civil society Children Schools Parents
  40. 40. Specific recommendations Parents - awareness-raising to alert them to the risks their children may encounter online whilst encouraging parent/child dialogue and understanding. Parents’ preferred sources of information on internet safety are the child’s school, so greater efforts should be undertaken by the education sector. Schools - digital skills training needs continued emphasis and updating to ensure all children reach a minimum standard and to promote creative uses. Government (and others) – target resources and guidance where particularly needed: on ever younger children/newer users and those who are vulnerable. Industry - efforts are needed to support awareness, usability and take up of internet safety tools to support blocking, reporting and filtering. Industry - under half 9-16 year olds are very satisfied with online provision, fewer among young children, more age-appropriate positive content is needed. Children, civil society - encourage children to be responsible for their online behaviour/ safety if possible, promoting empowerment and digital citizenship.
  41. 41. Thank youMore at www.eukidsonline.net

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