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Las primeras civilizaciones

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Un recorrido por las primeras civilizaciones, Mesopotamia y Egipto

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Las primeras civilizaciones

  1. 1. LAS PRIMERASCIVILIZACIONES URBANAS Mesopotamia y Egipto Daniel Gómez Valle
  2. 2. ¿POR QUÉ HABLAMOS DE CIVILIZACIONES URBANAS? Porque fueron las primeras en las que se desarrollaron ciudades y las actividadeseconómicas que se realizan dentro de ella, es decir, la artesanía y el comercio.
  3. 3. ¿CUÁLES FUERON ESTAS PRIMERAS CIVILIZACIONES URBANAS?Aparecieron sobre todo en África y Asia, entorno a los grandes ríos, por lo que tambiénlas llamamos civilizaciones fluviales. Las másimportantes se dieron en la India (río Indo), China (ríos Amarillo y Azul), Mesopotamia (ríos Tigris y Éufrates) y Egipto (río Nilo).
  4. 4. CARACTERÍSTICAS COMUNES DE LASCIVILIZACIONES URBANAS/FLUVIALESAparecieron hace unos 5.000 años en las orillas de los grandes ríos, desarrollándose por vez primera las ciudades. En la ciudad aparecen nuevos oficios (artesanía), mientras en el campo una agricultura más perfeccionada permite la aparición de excedentes. Los excedentes permiten la aparición del comercio, que afectará también a los productos artesanales.Estos mismos excedentes provocan la emergencia de amplias diferencias sociales.
  5. 5. CARACTERÍSTICAS COMUNES DE LASCIVILIZACIONES URBANAS/FLUVIALES Aparecen así los Estados para controlar y proteger la actividad económica, asegurando la propiedad de los poderosos y la explotación de los trabajadores. Para demostrar su fuerza, estos Estados construyen obras de arte monumentales. Y como ejemplo de estos grandes cambios se producen importantes inventos (escritura, matemáticas,…).
  6. 6. artesanía Incremento de la comercio actividad EN LOS VALLES económicaDE LOS GRANDES rueda RÍOS DEL MUNDOPerfeccionamiento agrícola EXCEDENTES INVENTOS escritura matemáticas leyes ESTADO regula poderosos explotados
  7. 7. rus Mar Caspio nte s Tau Mo M Rí R es o ío Éu T fr ig op Mar Mediterráneo at ri e s s M ot on te sZ am ag ro s ia G ol foEgipto Pé Desierto de Arabia rs ic o Ma Rí oN rR oj o ilo Mapa de Mesopotamia y Egipto
  8. 8. uru s Mar Caspio t es Ta Mon M Rí R es o ío Éu T fr ig op Mar Mediterráneo at ri e s s M ot on te sZ am ag ro s ia G ol foEgipto Pé Desierto de Arabia rs ic o Ma Rí oN rR oj o ilo El Creciente Fértil
  9. 9. ECONOMÍA EXCEDENTESPerfeccionamiento agrícolabasado en la introducción delregadío Incremento de la actividadDivisión del trabajo a partir económicade la aparición de artesanos ycomerciantes artesanía comercioImportante progreso técnico
  10. 10. SOCIEDADDiversificación social apartir de la aparición reyde nuevos oficios sacerdotes y funcionariosJerarquización socialderivada de distintos campesinos, artesanos, comerciantesniveles de riqueza y deacceso al poder esclavos
  11. 11. POLÍTICANacen los Estados comoforma de regulación delas diferencias socialesPara conseguir esteobjetivo precisan emitirleyes Código de Hammurabi
  12. 12. CULTURALas necesidades económicasy políticas llevan a laaparición de la escrituraEn las incipientes bibliotecasse acumulaban obrasliterarias, de matemáticas,sobre astronomía, tratadosde medicina...
  13. 13. ARTELos nuevos Estadosdemuestran su poder apartir de construccionescolosalesEl palacio del gobernante,el templo del sacerdote yla tumba del poderoso sonlos edificios significativos
  14. 14. MESOPOTAMIA
  15. 15. MESOPOTAMIA
  16. 16. Cronología de Mesopotamia 3500 a.C. 2350 a.C. 1800 a.C. 1300 a.C. 600 a.C. periodo periodo imperio imperio dominio sumerio acadio babilónico asirio persa 3200 a.C 1700 a.C invención de la código de escritura 3500 a.C Hammurabiinvención de la rueda
  17. 17. INVENCIÓN DE LA ESCRITURA EN MESOPOTAMIA, HACIA EL 3200 A.C.
  18. 18. PRIMERAS LEYES: EL CÓDIGO DE HAMMURABI EN MESOPOTAMIA, HACIA EL 1700 A.C.
  19. 19. Código de Hammurabi1. Si un señor acusa a otro señor y presenta contra él denuncia de homicidio, pero no lapuede probar su acusador será castigado con la muerte.8. Si un señor roba un buey, un cordero, un asno, un cerdo, o una barca, si lo robadopertenece a la religión o si pertenece al estado, restituirá hasta treinta veces su valor; sipertenece a un subalterno lo restituirá hasta diez veces. Si el ladrón no tiene con qué restituir,será castigado con la muerte.14. Si un señor roba el niño menor de otro señor recibirá la muerte.15. Si un señor ayuda a escapar por la gran puerta de la ciudad a un esclavo estatal o a unaesclava estatal o a un esclavo de un subalterno o a una esclava de un subalterno recibirá lamuerte.53. Si un señor ha sido negligente para reforzar el dique de su campo y si no reforzó su diquey en su dique se abre una brecha, si con ello ha permitido que las aguas devasten las tierrasde laboreo, el señor en cuyo dique se abrió la brecha compensará el grano que ha hechoperder.64. Si un señor dio su huerto a un hortelano para que lo fecundase, el hortelano, mientrasretenga el huerto, entregará al propietario del huerto los dos tercios de la producción delhuerto; él tomará el tercio restante.195. Si un hijo ha golpeado a su padre, se le amputará su mano.196. Si un señor ha reventado el ojo de otro señor, se le reventará su ojo.229. Si un albañil ha edificado una casa para un señor, pero no ha dado solidez a la obra y lacasa que construyó se ha desplomado y ha causado la muerte del propietario de la casa, esealbañil recibirá la muerte.
  20. 20. ARTE MESOPOTÁMICO elementos arquitectura esculturaabobe palacio estatuas arco zigurat relieves bóveda
  21. 21. ARTE MESOPOTÁMICO elementos abobe arco bóveda
  22. 22. ARTE MESOPOTÁMICO arquitectura palacio zigurat
  23. 23. ARTE MESOPOTÁMICO escultura estatuas relieves
  24. 24. EGIPTO
  25. 25. EGIPTO
  26. 26. Cronología de Egipto 30 a.C. Egipto, provincia romana 2040 a.C. 700 a.C. 1550 a.C. imperio imperio imperio nuevo época tardía antiguo medio 2670 a.c. 332 a.C Egipto conquistado por 3000 a.C 2500 a.C Alejandro Magnounificación del Pirámides de Alto y Bajo Gizeh Egipto
  27. 27. LA ESCRITURA JEROGLÍFICA EN MESOPOTAMIA, HACIA EL 3200 A.C.
  28. 28. LAS PIRÁMIDES DE GIZEH EN EGIPTO, HACIA EL 2500 A.C.
  29. 29. LA MOMIFICACIÓN “¡Salve, Osiris, padre mío! He venido a cuidar de ti para que así tú cuides mi cuerpoque aquí está. Estoy intacto como mi padre, eso es, (soy) uno de los que se parecen aaquel que no muere nunca. (...) me has hecho acceder al País de la Eternidad, comohiciste con tu padre Atum, gracias a lo cual su cuerpo no conoció la putrefacción, porqueasí es quien no sufre nunca destrucción. No hice nada que te fuera odioso. (...) (no permitas) que se pudran mis miembroscomo has tolerado (que se pudrieran los de) no importa que dios, ni que diosa, ni quecuadrúpedo o serpiente, que acaban de sucumbir y el alma de los cuales se escapódespués de la muerte, (pero el cuerpo de los cuales) se corrompe después de habermuerto. Estoy bajo tus órdenes, Señor de los dioses. ¡Salve, Osiris, padre mío! Tú tuviste tucuerpo, no te corrompiste, no te dejaste convertir en gusanos, no te pudriste, no oliste,(...). Soy Khepri, tengo mi cuerpo para la Eternidad, no me he corrompido, no me hedescompuesto, no me he podrido, no he sido convertido en gusanos, no he ido hacia elOjo de Shu. Poseo mi ser, estoy bien vivo, estoy firme, me he despertado en paz, no mehe descompuesto, no he sido destruido en mis vísceras, no he sufrido daños, mi ojo nose ha descompuesto, los huesos de mi cráneo no se han disgregado, mis orejas no sehan vuelto sordas, mi cabeza no se ha separado de mi cuello, mi lengua no ha sidoarrancada, no se me ha cortado el pelo, mis cejas no han sido afeitadas, no me haocurrido ningún daño espantoso. Mi cuerpo es duradero, no morirá, no desaparecerá enla tierra, nunca. Libro de los Muertos
  30. 30. LIBRO DE LOS MUERTOS
  31. 31. EL CAUDAL DEL NILO Y LA AGRICULTURA julio agosto sin cultivo septiembre octubre siembra y noviembre crecimiento diciembre enero febrero marzo abril crecimiento y mayo recolección junio
  32. 32. ARTE EGIPCIO elementos arquitectura artes plásticaspiedra templo escultura columna tumba pintura dintel
  33. 33. ARTE EGIPCIO elementos piedra columna dintel
  34. 34. ARTE EGIPCIO arquitectura templo tumba
  35. 35. ARTE EGIPCIO1 mastaba tumba hipogeo 3 2 pirámide
  36. 36. ARTE EGIPCIO artes plásticas escultura pintura

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