Foolproof Assessments

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Foolproof Assessments

  1. 1. MIKE VANDER HEIDEN & DAN PAHLOW NORTHEAST WISCONSIN TECHNICAL COLLEGE LEARNING SUPPORT SERVICES Foolproof Assessments in an Electronic Age
  2. 2. Let’s take a quick survey! <ul><li>Have you ever cheated in an academic setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Have you ever caught or suspected a student of cheating in your class. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you feel comfortable with your knowledge regarding academic dishonesty </li></ul>
  3. 3. Overview <ul><li>What is cheating. </li></ul><ul><li>Why students cheat. </li></ul><ul><li>Who cheats. </li></ul><ul><li>How students cheat. </li></ul><ul><li>Best practices. </li></ul>
  4. 4. HOW DO YOU DEFINE CHEATING? What is Cheating http://www.glasbergen.com/
  5. 5. Cheating or Not Cheating <ul><li>Plagiarism </li></ul><ul><li>Picture of a Test-Cell Phone etc. </li></ul><ul><li>A copy of an old test </li></ul><ul><li>Friend who took the test earlier </li></ul><ul><li>Helping a friend with homework </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase a paper </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Enhancing Drugs </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cheating Defined? <ul><li>According to the Humanities & Communication Department Florida Institute of Technology Melbourne, Florida </li></ul><ul><li>Cheating includes the following: </li></ul><ul><li>giving or receiving information during an exam (&quot;exam&quot; includes tests and quizzes) </li></ul><ul><li>using unauthorized material (like notes) during an exam; unauthorized dissemination or receipt of exams, exam materials, contents, or answer keys </li></ul><ul><li>taking an exam or writing a paper for another student or asking someone to take an exam or write a paper for you (this includes shared work and/or group-produced answers on take-home exams). </li></ul><ul><li>submitting the same paper – or different versions of what is substantially the same paper – for more than one course </li></ul><ul><li>misrepresenting or fabricating written work, sources, research, or results as well as helping another student commit an act of academic dishonesty or lying to protect a student who has committed such an act. </li></ul>
  7. 7. What is your Definition? <ul><li>How do you define Cheating? </li></ul><ul><li>How prevalent is it in your classroom? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you ever Cheated? </li></ul><ul><li>Share your responses to these questions and any other that come to you. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Who Cheats? Picture Source: http://www.sxc.hu/browse.phtml?f=download&id=600704
  9. 9. Who Cheats <ul><li>Even those you don’t expect. </li></ul><ul><li>2005 Duke University study found: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>75% of high schools students cheat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80% of AP students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>65% of athletes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/09/09/CM59RIBI7.DTL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1998 poll of Who’s Who Among American High Schools Students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80% cheated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Source: http://www.glass-castle.com/clients/www-nocheating-org/adcouncil/research/cheatingfactsheet.html </li></ul><ul><li>Again, why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Less than 2% of cheaters get caught” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do all teachers pay attention? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Why Cheat <ul><li>Not prepared </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t study </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t know how to study </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t know what to study </li></ul><ul><li>Low level of interest </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t know how the content applies to them </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure to succeed </li></ul><ul><li>Role models </li></ul><ul><li>Easy access </li></ul>
  11. 11. How do students cheat? Picture Source: http://www.sxc.hu/browse.phtml?f=download&id=600704
  12. 12. Cheating Tactics <ul><li>Cell Phones and PDA’s </li></ul><ul><li>iPods http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iihUEwqZerk&feature=related </li></ul><ul><li>Graphing Calculators </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless Laptops and other devices </li></ul><ul><li>Note Cards </li></ul><ul><li>Water Bottles </li></ul><ul><li>USB Drives </li></ul><ul><li>More Information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wiki-How on Cheating - http://www.wikihow.com/Cheat-on-a-Test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Just do a search on cheating in You Tube or Google and you will be amazed! </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Low Tech Cheating www.theculturebeat.com www.neatorama.com
  14. 14. Low Tech Cheating www.drellis.net
  15. 15. Low Tech Cheating madfoolish.blogspot.com Wikimedia.org www.rajuabju.com
  16. 16. Hi-Tech Cheating Source: http://www.textually.org/textually/archives/2006/03/011883.htm
  17. 17. How do I use Spark Mobile? http://www.sparknotes.com/mobile/
  18. 18. What’s on that iPod? <ul><li>The guides released by SparkNotes and iPREPpress are compatible with most iPods — including the new video-playing model and the iPod Nano, which has a screen about the size of a postage stamp. That could be bad news for professors, who may worry that such small devices could easily become digital cheat sheets in the hands of unscrupulous students. </li></ul><ul><li>http://generoche.net/blog/2005/10/27/more-on-digital-cheating/ </li></ul>
  19. 19. How to cheat with your iPod http://www.gadgetspage.com/audio-video/schools-banning-ipods.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iihUEwqZerk&feature=related
  20. 20. What is plagiarism? <ul><li>“ Simply put, plagiarism is using someone else's words and ideas in a paper and acting as though they were your own .” Source: http://wps.prenhall.com/hss_understand_plagiarism_1/6/1668/427065.cw/index.html </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many students blatantly do it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While others do not consider it cheating. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Take the quiz! http://wps.prenhall.com/hss_understand_plagiarism_1/6/1668/427065.cw/index.html </li></ul>
  21. 21. Is this Plagiarism <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SG471ElM1TY&NR=1 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=taue3mMZUyw </li></ul><ul><li>How does something like this influence how students look at Plagiarism? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Resources – Students Plagiarism <ul><li>Buy a paper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.essaytown.com/ ($39.95) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.masterpapers.com/purchase1_term_paper.htm (money back guarantee) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.termpapergenie.com/ (free) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How to cheat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google it! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.wikihow.com/Cheat-on-a-Test </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. HOW DO YOU STOP STUDENTS FROM CHEATING? Best Practices
  24. 24. Students have a tendency to learn what teachers INSPECT rather than what they EXPECT. Angelo and Cross 1988, p. 156 What are your students learning?
  25. 25. TIPS FOR DISCOURAGING PLAGIARISM <ul><li>Assign narrow and specific research topics. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t allow last-minute changes of topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Require that outlines be submitted three to four weeks prior to the deadline and that drafts be submitted with the final paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Require detailed citations, including page numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>Put your school’s academic integrity policy in your syllabus and clearly explain your expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage students to come to you if they are confused about citation practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Be a good role model. Cite sources in your lectures. </li></ul><ul><li>Talk about academic honesty with your students, and make sure they understand both the reasons and the tools for avoiding plagiarism. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Source: What Can We Do About Student Cheating? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By Sally Cole and Elizabeth Kiss About Campus, May-June 2000 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Resources - Detection <ul><li>Plagiarism Detection Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>turn it in www.turnitin.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SafeAssign www.safeassign.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essay Verification Engine - Eve2 http://www.canexus.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DocCop (free) http://www.doccop.com/ </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Detection <ul><li>Papers submitted to these services are checked against </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Databases such as ProQuest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Papers submitted by other institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Papers submitted by other students </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Safe Assign Source: http://www.safeassign.com/
  29. 30. Lets look at that again!
  30. 31. Creative Assessments <ul><li>Creative Mind Maps </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment Menu-You Choose from an assortment of assessments and attempt a minimum amount. </li></ul><ul><li>Exams as a Learning Experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide access to old exams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct Review sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow a cheat sheet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web Based Assessment-Student Websites or Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Individualizing Assessment Projects to Learning Style </li></ul><ul><li>Lab Practical Experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beyond Tests and Quizzes: Creative Assessments in the College Classroom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. http://guykawasaki.typepad.com/Innovationgraphic.jpg
  32. 34. Matching Assessment to Learning Styles <ul><li>Intrapersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Assessments: </li></ul><ul><li>autobiographical reporting </li></ul><ul><li>personal application scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>complex introspective questions and answers </li></ul><ul><li>concentration tests </li></ul><ul><li>feelings diaries and logs </li></ul><ul><li>personal projection </li></ul><ul><li>self-identification reporting </li></ul><ul><li>personal history correlation </li></ul><ul><li>personal priorities and goals </li></ul>Bodily-Kinesthetic Assessments: • lab experiments • dramatizations • original and classical dance • charades and mimes • impersonations • human tableaux • invention projects • physical exercise routines and games • skill demonstrations Source: http://www.plsweb.com/resources/newsletters/enews_archives/35_mi_assess_menu.pdf
  33. 35. Authentic Assessments <ul><li>When does learning happen? You tell us. </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><li>http://jonathan.mueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/toolbox/whatisit.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.teachervision.fen.com/teaching-methods-and-management/educational-testing/4911.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.uwstout.edu/soe/profdev/assess.shtml </li></ul>
  34. 37. page 1 Electrical Power Field Evaluation Efficiency Form Student:       Instructor: Dan Scheider   Rating Grade Consistently Exceeds Requirements         5 100 * Can perform competency with no supervision 4.8 98 * Demonstrates creativity and innovation 4.6 96 * Proactive and generates new ideas, on how to do it 4.4 95 * Consistently overcomes circumstances in order to exceed     4.2 93 Exceeds Requirements           4 92 * Can perform competency satisfactorily with limited assistance 3.8 90 * Work is of high quality, complete, and on time 3.6 89 * Fully competent performer 3.4 87 * Frequently does more than is required or exceeds on a regular basis 3.2 85 Meets Requirements           3 84 * Can perform competency in a group or crew environment. 2.8 82 * Needs periodic assistance or supervision 2.6 80 * Occasionally does more than expected or exceeds expectations 2.4 78 * Valued, commendable, satisfactory performer     2.2 75 Partially Meets Requirements         2 74 * Can perform this competence at minimal levels with 1.8 72   close assistance and supervision 1.6 70 * Results are not consistently on time, complete, or of the quality that is required 1.4 68 * More experience required to achieve full competency     1.2 67 Unacceptable Performance           1 66 * Competency was presented or demonstrated to learner,     learner did not perform the competency   * Results are poor quality, incomplete and not on time                            
  35. 38. Open Book—Open Web Assessment <ul><li>A study by Edith Cowan University, Perth had the following results: </li></ul><ul><li>The assessment used for the present study consisted of an on-line multiple choice test, comprising 50 questions and worth 30% of the students' overall grades. </li></ul><ul><li>The test consisted of 44 questions equivalent to the Bloom’s Taxonomy level 2 (comprehension-style questions), and 6 questions equivalent to the Bloom’s Taxonomy level 3 (application-style questions). </li></ul>
  36. 39. Open Book – Open Web Assessment cont. <ul><li>Closed Book </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The minimum and maximum scores for the closed book sitting of the test were22% and 88% respectively, with a mean of 55%. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open Book </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The minimum and maximum scores for the open book sitting of the test were30% and 88% respectively, with a mean of 57%. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The time taken by students to complete the open book assessment, over and above the time limit of 60 minutes, was recorded by CourseCompass™. 165 students completed the test within the set time limit, </li></ul></ul>Source: http://www.bioscience.heacademy.ac.uk/journal/vol3/Beej-3-3.pdf
  37. 40. Open Book – Open Web Resources <ul><li>What you will be tested for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>application of knowledge, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evidence of a `trained mind' (e.g. conceptual grasp, critical thinking and analytical ability), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>capacity for autonomous learning (e.g. maturity and independence of thought, potential for knowledge creation and application), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>skills needed for functioning in employment and real-life situations (e.g. OBEs often employ case studies and scenarios). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Source: The Center for Development of Teaching and Development </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cdtl.nus.edu.sg/publications/obe/WhatNot.htm#Top </li></ul>
  38. 41. Online Testing Best Practices <ul><li>Test Pools and Random Blocks </li></ul><ul><li>Application and Synthesis Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Reasonable yet challenging time limits </li></ul><ul><li>Proctored Exams with Passwords </li></ul><ul><li>Practice Tests and Quizzes with Multiple Attempts-Highest Score-Memory Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Use Textbook supplied software to simplify the process </li></ul><ul><li>Restrict Results and Feedback until after everyone has completed the test. </li></ul>
  39. 42. Example <ul><li>NWTC Nursing Assistant Course </li></ul>
  40. 43. <ul><li>50 question Quiz Pools </li></ul><ul><li>100 question Test Pools </li></ul><ul><li>Generated from Examview test generator software </li></ul><ul><li>Software generally available with textbook </li></ul><ul><li>Exported as a Zip File </li></ul><ul><li>Imported into Blackboard </li></ul>Question Pools NWTC Nursing Assistant Course
  41. 44. Random Block Quiz <ul><li>30 Questions from 50 Question Pool </li></ul><ul><li>30 Minute Time Limit </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Attempts with Forced Completion </li></ul><ul><li>Highest Score Accepted </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Feedback </li></ul>
  42. 45. Random Block Test <ul><li>50 Questions from 100 Question Pool </li></ul><ul><li>2 Hour Time Limit </li></ul><ul><li>Proctored </li></ul><ul><li>One Attempt with Forced Completion </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Feedback </li></ul>
  43. 46. Resources - Prevention <ul><li>Browser Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respondus LockDown Browser http://www.respondus.com/products/lockdown.shtml </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionmark Perception http://www.questionmark.com/us/perception/index.aspx </li></ul></ul>
  44. 47. Honor Code <ul><li>Social contract with each student which maintains a high level of academic integrity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An honor code must be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistently applied </li></ul></ul>
  45. 48. Honor Code - Consequences <ul><li>Study by Gire and Williams – Virginia Military Institute James T Gire,  Tyson D Williams. (2007). Dissonance and the Honor System: Extending the Severity of Threat Phenomenon. The Journal of Social Psychology,  147 (5), 501-9.  Retrieved February 27, 2008, from Research Library Core database. (Document ID: 1404411171). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used dissonance theory to explain how an honor code affects the prevalence of cheating. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The more severe the threat of punishment, the less likely the cheating. </li></ul></ul>
  46. 49. Honor Code - examples <ul><li>University of Colorado – Boulder http://www.colorado.edu/policies/honor.html </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be supported by the educational community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honor Code Council </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Student run </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Rice University http://honor.rice.edu/faculty.cfm?doc_id=10357 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No unified honor code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defined by each professor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Question consistency, but has been in place since 1916 </li></ul></ul>
  47. 50. Honor Code - examples <ul><li>Foothill College – good example http://www.foothill.edu/services/honor.html </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear definitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple / concise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied consistently </li></ul></ul>
  48. 51. References & Additional Resources <ul><li>Angelo, Thomas A. and K. Patricia Cross. 1993. Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers 2 nd ed. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco. </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Cheating Fact Sheet. 1999. http://www.glass-castle.com/clients/www-nocheating-org/adcouncil/research/cheatingfactsheet.html </li></ul><ul><li>Brightwell, Dr. Richard I, Ms Janine-Helen Daniel and Dr. Angus Stewart. 2004. Evaluation: is an open book examination easier? School of Biomedical & Sports Science, Edith Cowan University, Perth. </li></ul><ul><li>Cheat at School with Your iPod. 2007. YouTube video. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iihUEwqZerk&feature=related </li></ul><ul><li>Cole, S. and Kiss, E. What Can We Do About Student Cheating? 2000. About Campus, May – June 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>How to Cheat on a Test. 2008. http://www.wikihow.com/Cheat-on-a-Test </li></ul>
  49. 52. References & Additional Resources <ul><li>McMahon, R. 2007. Everybody Does It: Academic cheating is at an all-time high. Can anything be done to stop it? San Francisco Chronicle, September 9, 2007. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/09/09/CM59RIBI7.DTL Mezeske, R. and Mezeske, B. 2007. Beyond Tests and Quizzes: Creative Assessments in the College Classroom. Jossey-Bass: Hoboken, NJ. </li></ul><ul><li>Mueller, Jon. 2008. Authentic Assessment Toolbox February 2008, http://jonathan.mueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/toolbox/whatisit.htm </li></ul><ul><li>More Evidence of Barack Obama Speech Plagiarism - Stand for. 2008. YouTube video. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=taue3mMZUyw </li></ul><ul><li>More on Digital Cheating. 2005. http://generoche.net/blog/2005/10/27/more-on-digital-cheating/ </li></ul><ul><li>Obama 'Plagiarism' Story Makes ET. 2008. YouTube video. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SG471ElM1TY&NR=1 </li></ul><ul><li>Prentice Hall. What is Plagirism? 2008. http://wps.prenhall.com/hss_understand_plagiarism_1/6/1668/427065.cw/index.html </li></ul>
  50. 53. Thank for your attention? <ul><li>Questions or Comments: </li></ul>

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