Lecture Slides 11 24 08


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Lecture Slides 11 24 08

  1. 1. ITM 309 Systems Development Dr. Frederick Rodammer Michigan State University Eli Broad College of Business Rodammer@bus.msu.edu November 24, 2008 1 FAR 3/18/04
  2. 2. Today’s Learning Objectives • Identify the business benefits and business challenges associated with systems development • Describe the seven phases of the systems development life cycle • Discuss and Understand the H-P Case • Understand Use of Prototyping 2 FAR 3/18/04
  3. 3. OPENING CASE Hewlett Packard • Which of the seven phases of the systems development life cycle is most important to HP? • Explain what might happen if HP used the waterfall methodology to develop its ERP system • Identify the primary reasons for software project failure and explain which ones HP experienced on its ERP build 3 FAR 3/18/04
  4. 4. DEPLOYING SOFTWARE • Software that is built correctly can transform as the organization and its business transforms • Software that effectively meets employee needs will help an organization become more productive and enhance decision making • Software that does not meet employee needs may have a damaging effect on productivity and can even cause a business to fail 4 FAR 3/18/04
  5. 5. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT • As organizations’ reliance on software grows, so do the business-related consequences of software successes and failures including: – Increase or decrease revenue – Repair or damage to brand reputation – Prevent or incur liabilities – Increase or decrease productivity 5 FAR 3/18/04
  6. 6. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (SDLC) • Systems development life cycle (SDLC) – the overall process for developing information systems from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenance 6 FAR 3/18/04
  7. 7. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (SDLC) 1. Planning phase – involves establishing a high-level plan of the intended project and determining project goals 3. Analysis phase – involves analyzing end- user business requirements and refining project goals into defined functions and operations of the intended system • Business requirement – detailed set of business requests that the system must meet in order to be successful 7 FAR 3/18/04
  8. 8. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (SDLC) 1. Design phase – involves describing the desired features and operations of the system including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams, pseudo code, and other documentation 3. Development phase – involves taking all of the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforming them into the actual system 8 FAR 3/18/04
  9. 9. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (SDLC) 1. Testing phase – involves bringing all the project pieces together into a special testing environment to test for errors, bugs, and interoperability and verify that the system meets all of the business requirements defined in the analysis phase 3. Implementation phase – involves placing the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations with the system 9 FAR 3/18/04
  10. 10. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (SDLC) 1. Maintenance phase – involves performing changes, corrections, additions, and upgrades to ensure the system continues to meet the business goals 10 FAR 3/18/04
  11. 11. Waterfall Methodology • Waterfall methodology – a sequential, activity-based process in which each phase in the SDLC is performed sequentially from planning through implementation 11 FAR 3/18/04 and maintenance
  12. 12. Systems Development Challenges • Systems development is difficult and risky. • Many projects are never finished. • Some projects finish 200 or 300 percent over budget. • Some projects finish on schedule and within budget but do not meet their goals. 12 FAR 3/18/04
  13. 13. SOFTWARE PROBLEMS ARE BUSINESS PROBLEMS • Primary reasons for project failure include – Unclear or missing business requirements – Skipping SDLC phases – Failure to manage project scope • Scope creep – occurs when the scope increases • Feature creep – occurs when extra features are added – Failure to manage project plan – Changing technology 13 FAR 3/18/04
  14. 14. SOFTWARE PROBLEMS ARE BUSINESS PROBLEMS • Find errors early: the later in the SDLC an error is found - the more expensive it is to fix 14 FAR 3/18/04
  15. 15. Problems with the SDLC • Systems development seldom works so smooth. • There is sometimes a need to crawl back up the waterfall. • Difficulty of documenting requirements in a usable way. • Scheduling and budgeting is difficult especially for large projects with large SDLC phases. 15 FAR 3/18/04
  16. 16. Rapid Application Development Methodology (RAD) • Rapid application development methodology (RAD) – emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system to accelerate the systems development process • The prototype is an essential part of the analysis phase when using a RAD methodology – Prototype – a smaller-scale representation or working model of the users’ requirements or a proposed design for an information system 16 FAR 3/18/04
  17. 17. Prototyping • The rapid development and testing of working models of new applications in an interactive, iterative process. • Sometimes called rapid application design (RAD). • Simplifies and accelerates systems design. 17 FAR 3/18/04
  18. 18. The Prototyping Process 18 FAR 3/18/04
  19. 19. ITM 309 Homework • Keep Up: Baltzan Readings and Slides 19 FAR 3/18/04