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Anatomy and physiology


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Anatomy and physiology

  2. 2. KOLEJ ANTARABANGSA TEKNOLOGI & PROFESIONAL PERLISHYPERTENSION Hypertension or high blood pressure or sometime called arterial hypertension is one of the most common worldwide disease among humans. It also the major risk factor for coronary heart disease, stroke, congestive heart failure, end-stage renal disease and peripheral vascular disease. Hypertension can be classified into two groups:  Primary hypertension  Secondary hypertension
  3. 3. KOLEJ ANTARABANGSA TEKNOLOGI & PROFESIONAL PERLISHOW IT HAPPEN? As blood flow inside the arteries it pushes a pressure against the arteries wall. The higher the pressure of blood exerted on the arteries wall, the high the blood pressure will be. Besides, the size or the dilation and constriction of the arteries also can affect the blood pressure. When the arteries muscular wall dilated, the pressure of blood flowing through is lower. However, when the wall constrict. The pressure of blood flowing through is higher.
  4. 4. KOLEJ ANTARABANGSA TEKNOLOGI & PROFESIONAL PERLISPRIMARY HYPERTENSION Primary hypertension is the most cases had been recorded. About 90% – 95% of cases are categorized as primary hypertension. Primary hypertension are mostly caused by medicals.
  5. 5. KOLEJ ANTARABANGSA TEKNOLOGI & PROFESIONAL PERLISSECONDARY HYPERTENSION Secondary hypertension is the least cases had been recorded 5%-10% of cases are categorized as secondary hypertension. It mostly caused by other condition that affect kidney, arteries, heart and endocrine system. Secondary hypertension has several types:  Renovascular hypertension  Hypertension to other renal disorder  Hypertension to endocrine disorder  Other secondary hypertension
  6. 6. KOLEJ ANTARABANGSA TEKNOLOGI & PROFESIONAL PERLISSYMPTOMS Hypertension is called a “silent killer” as it not have any symptoms until it quietly damage patients heart, blood vessel, brain, lungs and kidney. But, patients can control it by knowing its zones
  7. 7. KOLEJ ANTARABANGSA TEKNOLOGI & PROFESIONAL PERLISNORMAL BLOOD PRESSURE: SAFEZONE Normal blood pressure readings may fall below 120/80. Higher than this level can indicates hypertension.
  8. 8. KOLEJ ANTARABANGSA TEKNOLOGI & PROFESIONAL PERLISPREHYPERTENSION: WARNINGZONE At this zone, the blood level consistently just above normal blood pressure. Patient at this level have twice the risk of developing heart disease than the patient with lower blood pressure. A change in lifestyle are recommended for them to lower down the blood pressure.
  9. 9. KOLEJ ANTARABANGSA TEKNOLOGI & PROFESIONAL PERLISHYPERTENSION: DANGER ZONE The blood pressure reading are at 140/90 or higher. Still no symptoms occur at this level until the pressure reading are at 180/110 or higher, patient may having hypertensive crisis. Hypertensive crisis symptoms are:  Severe headache  Shortness of breath  Nose bleeding  Severe anxiety
  10. 10. KOLEJ ANTARABANGSA TEKNOLOGI & PROFESIONAL PERLISCAUSES There are several causes that contributed to hypertension  High salt diet  Person with diets high in salt experience more risk of hypertension than who take low salt diet.  Alcohol consumption  Taking too much alcohol drinks may lead to high blood pressure.  It is good not to take any alcohol drinks in a diet.  Obesity  Person with too much body weigh have a risk to hypertension.
  11. 11. KOLEJ ANTARABANGSA TEKNOLOGI & PROFESIONAL PERLISCAUSES  Stress  Too much stress can contributed to hypertension.  A good handling of stress are needed to prevent it from get worst.  Caffeine  Consumption of caffeine can rise the blood pressure.  However it only for short term and not sustained.
  12. 12. KOLEJ ANTARABANGSA TEKNOLOGI & PROFESIONAL PERLISHOW TO MEASURE HYPERTENSION? Blood pressure is the amount of force that exerted at the wall of blood vessel as blood passing through it. To measure this force, special device are needed. This device called sphygmomanometer. The blood pressure measurement are written as fraction. For example, normal blood pressure is recorded as 120/80. the number on top is called systolic pressure; the pressure inside blood vessel at the moment of heart beats. The number at the bottom indicates the diastolic pressure; the pressure inside blood vessel when heart is at rest.
  13. 13. KOLEJ ANTARABANGSA TEKNOLOGI & PROFESIONAL PERLISCont… There are two types of sphygmomanometer:  Manometric Digital
  14. 14. KOLEJ ANTARABANGSA TEKNOLOGI & PROFESIONAL PERLISTREATMENT Lifestyle changes is the first recommended to treat hypertension. Losing weigh, exercising more, drinking less or avoid alcohol and cutting back on salt in diet can help lower the blood pressure. But, for some individuals lifestyle changes may not enough for them. They require some hypertension medications to use together.
  15. 15. KOLEJ ANTARABANGSA TEKNOLOGI & PROFESIONAL PERLISCont… Type of medications can be use to treat hypertension are:  Beta blockers  Prescribed to treat condition like chest pain, glaucoma and high blood pressure.  Diuretics  Commonly known as water pills. It help the body to remove unneeded water and salt through urine.  Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)  Help to relax the blood vessel, lower the blood pressure and make for heart pump blood.  Calcium channel blockers (CCBs)  Prescribed to treat chest pain and high blood pressure
  16. 16. KOLEJ ANTARABANGSA TEKNOLOGI & PROFESIONAL PERLISPREVENTION Reduce salt intake Reduce fat intake Lose weight (if overweight) Exercise regularly Quit/avoid smoking Avoid alcoholic drink Manage stress Always check the blood pressure