Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Green Conversion of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch into Fermentable Sugars- Research Progress

2,634 views

Published on

The oil palm industry in Malaysia provides a high economic return to the country. Currently empty fruit bunch (EFB) is one of the solid wastes which is produced daily but have limited use whereby it is usually left as plantation site to act as an organic fertilizer for the plants to ensure the sustainability of fresh fruit bunch (FFB). However, this waste material have the potential to be transformed into high value-added products such as bioethanol, acids and compost using advanced biotechnology technique. The major drawback in biomass technology is the difficulty of degrading the material in a short period of time. Therefore, a pretreatment step such as hot-compressed water treatment is required to break the lignocellulosic compound to easily accessible carbon sources for further use to produce bioethanol. This research proposes an environmental friendly technology which could convert waste biomass to valuable bio-based chemicals and fuels which could be transferred easily to rural areas and small medium industries for wealth creation and for their own use in their agricultural fields.

Published in: Engineering
  • Be the first to comment

Green Conversion of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch into Fermentable Sugars- Research Progress

  1. 1. Conversion of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch to Fermentable Sugars MOHD DANIAL BIN MUHD ALI MMJG143006 SUPERVISOR : DR PRAMILA TAMUNAIDU CO-SUPERVISOR : PROF DR NOOR AZIAN BT MORAD 1 10 Oct 2014 CAIRO’s Meeting Room
  2. 2.  Introduction - Lignocellulosic Biomass - Oil Palm Biomass - Availability of Solid Waste - Types of Pretreatment Problem Statement Objectives of Research  Overall Methodology Proposed Research Scopes Chemical Composition Studies 2 Presentation Outline
  3. 3. • Complex, cross-linked polymer of aromatic rings (phenolic monomers) 3 Introduction Lignocellulosic biomass refers to plant biomass that is composed of mainly cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. • Branching polymer of C-5,C-6, uronic acid, acetyl derivatives • Rigid, linear polymer of glucose subunits
  4. 4. 4 Oil Palm Biomass Type of Biomass Description Site of Production National Biomass Strategy 2020: New wealth creation for Malaysia’s palm oil industry Availability (MnT) Leaves of palm tree Plantation 48 Tree trunks available at end of plantation lifecycle Plantation 15 Remains after removal of palm fruits Mill 7 Remains after palm kernel oil extraction Mill 4 Remains after oil extraction from mesocarp Mill 8 Liquid by-product from sterilization and milling of FFB Mill 65 (wet weight) Fronds (OPF) Trunks (OPT) Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Shell (PKS) Mesocarp Fiber (MF) Palm Oil Mill Effluent POME
  5. 5. Availability of Solid Waste:Oil Palm Biomass 46 48 14 15 16 7 7 8 4 4 5 2010 2015 2020 Frond Trunk Fibre EFB Shell 49 Dry Weight (million tonnes) Year 7 8 8 Source: ETP; MPOB; "Exploring land use changes and the role of palm oil production in Indonesia and Malaysia" 2010. B. Wicket 5
  6. 6. • Destroy the lignin structure • Reduce the crystallinity of cellulose • Increase the porosity of the lignocellulosic material 6 Types of Pretreatment Physical Pretreatment Chemical Pretreatment Biological Pretreatment  Milling  Ultrasonic Pretreatment  Acid Hydrolysis  Alkaline Hydrolysis  Liquid Hot Water  Enzymatic Hydrolysis Physicochemical Pretreatment  Steam Explosion  Ammonia Fiber Explosion  Hot Compressed Water
  7. 7. Author Lignocellulosics Feedstock Conversion Process Type of Biomass Process Condition Product Availibility Chemical Common Scientific Composition Name Name Chin et. al Applied Energy 88(2011) 4222- 4228 Oil Palm Trunk Elaeis guineensis Malaysia: Largest agricultural plantation, 4.69 million hect. Lignin: 18.4 Holocellulose: 78.5 Cellulose: 47.5 Ash: 1.69 Chemical Process: Concentrated Sulfuric Acid hydrolysis Wood to Acid Ratio: 1:5 1st Stage Conc. (%): 60,65,70,75 2nd Stage Conc. (%): 10, 30 Reaction Time (min): 60, 120 Temperature (°C): 60 76% Glucose Prado et. Al J. of Supercriti cal Fluids 86 (2014) 15– 22 Sugarcan e Bagasse Saccharum officinarum Not mentioned Not mentioned Physico-chemical Process: Sub-critical Water Semi-Batch Reactor: Reaction Time (min): 30,32,38 Temperature (°C): 213, 251, 290 Pressure: 20MPa 5.6% Sugars, 1.37% 5- hydroxym ethyl furfural (5-HMF), 4.6% Furfural Literature Survey 7
  8. 8. Literature Survey Author Lignocellulosics Feedstock Conversion Process Process Condition Product Type of Biomass Availibility Chemical Common Composition Scientific Name Name Akhtar et. al Renewable Energy 35 (2010) 1220–1227 Empty Palm Fruit Bunch (EFB) Elaeis guineensis Not mentioned Not mentioned Physico-chemical Process: Hot Compressed Water Reaction Time (min): 20 Temperature (°C): 270 Pressure (bars): 20-45 Catalyst: K2CO3, NaOH, KOH 0.61% Phenols, 94.29% Methyl Ester, 1.72% Benzoic Acid Jeon et. al Biomass & Bioenergy 67 (2014) 99-107 Empty Palm Fruit Bunch (EFB) Elaeis guineensis Indonesia: 44,000 ton/yr fresh EFB Cellulose: 34.6 ± 0.7% Hemicellulose : 17.1 ± 0.5% Lignin: 26.4 ± 0.5% Ash: 1.6 ± 0.1% Others: 20.3 ± 0.9% Pilot Plant Scale Pretreatment: 2.9 M sodium hydroxide at 130 °C and 3.5 kg f/cm2 for 20 min, Hydrolysis: Separate Hydrolysis & Fermentation (SHF) process, 50 °C, pH 4.8 (controlled using sulfuric acid), and agitation at 60 Hz Fermentation: 5% Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 33 °C for 48 h. Distillation, Dehydration 83.6 % Bioethan ol 8
  9. 9. Author Lignocellulosics Feedstock Conversion Process Type of Biomass Process Condition Product Availibility Chemical Common Scientific Composition Name Name Chang et. al Bioresourc e Technology 121 (2012) 93–99 Wheat Straw Triticum aestivum Not mentioned Cellulose: 39.5 ± 0.3%, Hemicelluloses: 17.7 ± 0.7% Lignin: 15.9 ± 0.4% Chemical Process: Concentrate d Sulfuric Acid hydrolysis in Ethanol Media Liquid to Solid Ratio (wt/wt): 15:1 -25:1 Acid Conc. (wt/wt%): 60,65,70,75 Reaction Time (min): 15-45 Temperature (°C): 180- 200 51% Ethyl Levulinate Chang et. al Bioresourc e Technology 158 (2014) 313–320 Corn Cob Zea mays Not mentioned Cellulose: 27.5 ± 1.68% Hemicelluloses: 33.6 ± 4.2% Lignin: 19.6 ± 0.39% Extractives: 14.3 ± 0.39% Chemical Process: Catalytic Hydrotherm al Pretreatmen t via Solid Acid Catalyst Solid Acid Catalyst: (SO4)2- /TiO2– ZrO2/La3+ Solid to Water Ratio (g/ml): 5:100, 10:100, 15:100 Reaction Time (min): 0-120 Temperature (°C): 160,170,180,190 Agitation: 350rpm/min 6.8% Xylose, 6.18% Furfural Literature Survey 9
  10. 10. Literature Survey Author Lignocellulosics Feedstock Conversion Process Type of Biomass Process Condition Product Availibility Chemical Comm Scientific Composition on Name Name Chui et. al Bioresou rce Technolo gy 102 (2011) 1831– 1836 Corn Stover Zea mays Not mentioned Cellulose: 64.83% Hemicelluloses: 23.89% Lignin: 11.61% Biological Process: Mixed Cultures Cultures: Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus brevis pH: 5 Temperature (°C): 37 Time(h): 36 Shaking (rpm): 100 0.7g/g Lactic Acid 10 Yemis & Mazza Bioreso urce Technol ogy 109 (2012) 215– 223 Wheat Straw Triticum aestivum Globally: 600–900 million Mt/yr Cellulose: (30– 35%), Hemicellulose: (15–25%) Lignin: (10– 25%) Physico-chemical Proces: Acid Catalyzed Conversion by Microwave Assisted Catalyst: Hydrochloric Acid Microwave Extraction System: (ETHOS EX, Milestone, Italy) Time(min): 5, 10, 15, 20 65% Glucose, 100% Xylose, 3.4% 5- hydroxy methyl furfural (5-HMF), 66% Furfural
  11. 11. Problem Statement 11 The problem statement are stated below: Abundance of solid oil palm biomass due to increasing of demand of palm oil product Difficulty of degrading lignocellulosic material to easily accessible carbon sources Degrading lignocellulosic material in a short period of time
  12. 12. 12 Objectives of Research The objectives of this research are to: • Determine chemical composition of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). • Physico-chemical (hot-compressed water/subcritical) conversion of oil palm biomass into soluble and insoluble-products • Improvement and optimization of conversion process
  13. 13. Overall Methodology Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Chemical Composition Studies Hot Compressed Water Treatment Soluble Products Insoluble Products  Ash Content  Inorganic Element  Extractives Content  Cellulose  Hemicellulose  Lignin Considered Parameter  Pressure  Temperature  Solid to Solvent Ratio Analysis Improvisation/ Optimization 13
  14. 14. 14 Proposed of Research Scopes The scopes of this research are to: • Determine the optimum mean particle size (MPS) prior to Hot- Compressed Water (HCW) extraction between 0.15-0.50 mm. • Characterize the component of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin from the raw and extracted sample through Electron Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). • Optimization of Empty Fruit Bunch fibre extraction through Hot- Compressed Water (HCW) extraction at operating condition of temperature (200°C -270°C), pressure (4- 10MPa). • Conduct acid hydrolysis of Empty Fruit Bunch fibre on the effect of temperature, time and solvent to sample ratio.
  15. 15. Chemical Composition Studies 15
  16. 16. Preparation of Sample 16
  17. 17. 17 Milling Process of EFB at FRIM Sample : EFB Fibre Location : Wood Composite Laboratory, FRIM Weight of Sample : 1.50 kg Machine : Disc Mill
  18. 18. 18 Milling Process of EFB at FRIM
  19. 19. 19 Ash Analysis at Solid Mechanics Lab Sample : EFB Fibre Apparatus : Electrical Laboratory Furnace Model : Nabertherm (LH 15/14)
  20. 20. Timeline of Planned Research Activities YEAR 2014 YEAR 2015 SEM 1 SEM 2 SEM 3 SEM 4 Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Literature Review Preparation of Oil Palm Biomass Study of Chemical Composition Experiments Analysis 1 st Progress Report Improved experiments Analysis Optimization Result and Discussion Report Writing Thesis Defense 20
  21. 21. • Continuation on the chemical composition studies; extractives content, carbohydrates content; cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content. • Literature studies on hot-compressed water treatment. 21 Next Progress
  22. 22. 22 Source: http://catinaanderson.com/photography/just-what- i-needed-to-hear-1-year-later/

×