The Great BombardmentAfter the moon wasformed, the earth(and the moon)were bombarded bymeteors. Thisbombardmentadded to the rocksand elements on theearth. The surfacewas mostly molten.Eruptions fueled anearly atmospheremostly made ofnitrogen, carbondioxide and water.
Mount Etna in ItalyThis is a birthplace ofIgneous Rock.Did you know thatIgneous is actually fromthe Latin word for fire?
Volcanoes National Park HawaiiLava has cooled on topbut the hot lavaunderneath still movescausing the wrinkledlook to the top layer.
Dallol Volcano, EthiopiaDallol is the lowestvolcano on earth(157 feet below sealevel)Note the sulfur andother minerals thatcolor the crater.
Colorado RiverThis metamorphic rockcontinues to beeroded by theColorado River.This fudge lookingrock is called SchistRock.
Kilauea Volcano in Hawaii Volcanoes National ParkLava oozes out,solidifies andforms igneousrock.The HawaiianIslands wereformed by volcanicaction.They are stillgrowing today.
Dirty Devil River in UtahIs it possible thatthe one small rivercaused all thiserosion?Note the snowcapped mountainsin the back groundHow many years doyou think it takes towear down thisrock?
Mount Roraima, VenezuelaSandstone Mesa inthe clouds.
The Andes Mountains in ChileThe Andes Mountainswere formed when onetectonic plate subducted(slid underneath) anotherforcing the mountains torise.
Utah’s Little Grand CanyonNote the small stream atthe bottom.What process do youthink has taken place?
A Marble Quarry in Thasos GreeceHeat and Pressureturned Limestone intoMarble.Marble is aMetamorphic Rock thatforms when thelimestone re-crystallizes.
The Checkerboard MesaUtah’s Zion National ParkThis sandstone mesashows fractures andfurrows from yearsof exposure to theelements.
Box Canyon in Ouray, ColoradoAn ice climber movesup icicles that formedover limestonestalagmites.When winter is over,the water flows freelyover these rocks.
Western AustraliaThis small crosssection of rock fromWestern Australiashows the manylayers of sedimentthat haveaccumulated overthousands of years.
Elgol Beach, ScotlandThis sedimentary rockis eroding to look like ahoneycomb.
Zion National Park in UtahThis sedimentary rockhas been lifted (platetectonics) and beingexposed to theenvironment hasbegun to erode.
Devil’s Tower in WyomingThis is actually igneousrock that was exposedby weathering. It wasonce surrounded by acovering of softersedimentary rock.The softer sedimentaryrock has been wornaway by wind and waterrevealing this tower.
Giant’s Causeway, Northern IrelandThese igneous rocks(formed 50 to 60million years ago) areshaped like giantstepping stones.
A Dry Arizona LakebedOnce filled withalkaline water, the lakehad freshwater springsfrom below.Calcium carbonatedeposits formedcolumns. The lakedried up and winderosion wore away thesand.Where have we seenthis before?
Granite being “attacked” by lichensLichens are a symbioticorganism (fungi andalgae) that secretechemicals calledchelates.These chemicals canbreak down graniteover time.
Iowa, USAHeavy rains and novegetation. Sheets ofrain stripped awaythe top soil anderode the landscape.Where does all thewashed away top soilgo?
Bernard Glacier, AlaskaCan you see theerosion that has takenplace over thousandsof years on this“glacier highway”?What is moved by theglacier?
Utah’s BadlandsThough normally dry, apop up thunderstormcan cause instanterosion in areaswithout vegetation.
Colorado Plateau, UtahThese sandstoneswirls are the result ofwind erosion.
Grand Canyon ArizonaWind has eroded thissandstone into afantastic naturalsculpture.
Black Gap TexasLimestone Swirls inthe ChihuahuanDesert
Baffin Island Waterfall, Nanavut, CanadaA melting glacierprovides the waterthat runs over the cliffson Baffin Island.
Great Basin National Park, NevadaEroding rocks anderoding trees …evidence of a harshenvironment.
North Carolina’s Outer BanksNote the shiftingposition of thesandbars. Wave actionand wind cause thesandbars to move daily.
Guess what process has happened here?Where do you thinkthis rock formationmight be located?