Kto12 tle home economics lm-commercial cooking

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Kto12 tle home economics lm-commercial cooking

  1. 1. 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Cover Page i Title Page ii Table of Contents iii Introduction 1 Objectives 2 Pre-Assessment 2-5 Learning Goals and Targets 6 Lesson 1 USE OF KITCHEN MATERIALS, UTENSILS AND EQUIPMENT Know Activity 1 Open-ended Statement 8 Activity 2 Entrance, Exit, and Extra Tickets 19 Reflect and Understanding Activity 1 Identifying the Uses 20 Activity 2 Game (Pinoy Henyo Style) Transfer Activity 1 Individual Work Lesson2 MAINTAIN KITCHEN TOOLS and EQUIPMENT Know Activity 1 Cleaning and Sanitizing 21 Process Activity 2 Sanitizing Method 22 Reflect and Understand Activity 1 Organizing 26 Transfer Activity 1 Sharing time 28 Activity 2 Visitation 28 Lesson B
  2. 2. 2 MEASURING RECIPE and PRODUCT COSTING Know Activity 1 Conversion of Measurements 32 Activity 2 Categorizing 32 Activity 3 Computation 32 Process Activity 1 Markup 34 Reflect and Understand Activity 1 Calculate Markup Percentage 35 Activity 2 Compute the percentage markup 36 Transfer Activity 1 Measuring Dry and Liquid Ingredients 37 Activity 2 Interview at least two entrepreneurs in commercial cooking 38 Lesson 3 PREPARATION and COOKING OF NATIVE DELICACIES Know Native delicacies recipe BIBINGKA ESPESYAL (Rice Cake) 39-40 MAJA BLANCA 41 PALITAW 42 CUCHINTA (kutsinta) 43 Sapin-sapin 44-45 EspasolUbe Halaya 46 Reflect and Understand Activity 1. Let me share! 47 Transfer Activity A: GRASPS Model 48 Activity B. Create or innovate your own native delicacies 48 Activity C. Mini-Exhibit 48 Lesson 4 UNDERSTANDING THE BASIC KITCHEN LAYOUT Know Activity 1: Kitchen plan and symbols 53 Activity 2 Kitchen Floor Plan Symbols 54 Reflect and Understand Activity 1. Draw the symbol 56 Activity 2. Search and download 56
  3. 3. 3 Transfer Activity 1 A. Answer what is being ask 57 Activity1 B. When do we use each kitchen layout? 57 Activity 2. Draw kitchen symbols and plans. 57 Activity 3. Lay out your dream kitchen 57 Lesson 5 PRACTICE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY and HEALTH Know A. Protecting Property from Fire 58 B. Protecting establishment from natural hazards Flood 59 C. Protecting property from crime 60 D. Protecting your staff and visitors from accidents 60 Reflect and Understand Activity 1. Speculative Journal Writing 62 Activity 2. Internet-based activities 62 Transfer Activity 1. GRASPS Model 63 Summary 63 Glossary 64 References 65
  4. 4. 4 INTRODUCTION Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) is one of the nomenclature in the implementation of the K to 12 Basic Education Program (BEP) composed of four components; namely, Agri-Fishery Arts, Home Economics, Industrial Arts and Information and Communication Technology. In this module, the focus is on Home Economics mini-course – COMMERCIAL COOKING. In this course, you will be introduced to the different learning activities which will prepare you to be skillful before you take the plunge into the world of work specifically in commercial cooking and to help you more confident in preparing dishes for people around you. Through your creativity and resourcefulness, you are expected to bring the taste buds of most busy people to their comfort food in no time. This module is specifically designed to focus on Process and Delivery. This module is enriched with different activities that will assess your skills and knowledge that you are expected to demonstrate after going through this learning materials. Learning procedures are divided into different sections - What to Know, What to Process, What to Reflect and Understand, and What to Transfer. Go over with the suggested tasks and accomplish them to practice developing a sustainable program, prioritizing needs and building vision. So, explore and experience the K to 12 TLE modules and be a step closer to become a successful chef.
  5. 5. 5 OBJECTIVES At the end of this module, you are expected to:  demonstrate necessary competencies of a chef;  prepare a plan of action that will even more improve your areas of strengths; and,  identify creative and imaginative ideas through customer’s needs and wants in preparing dishes for commercial cooking. PRE-ASSESSMENT Test I Directions: Read and study the situations below. Write the letter of your choice in your answer sheet. 1. Which of the following situations describe a persistent chef? a. Gives up easily over a decline of his business. b. Changes his procedures to get the desired profit. c. Makes effort to invest in another business. d. Sells his property and look for a position in a government office. 2. Jervine owns a restaurant. Although he has a canteen manager, Jervine makes sure that he visits his restaurant every morning and afternoon to see to it that the canteen is well-managed. a. confident c. motivated b. creative d. risk taker 3. He always introduces new recipes. What trait does he possess? a. Goal-setter c. Persistent b. Passion- oriented d. Opportunity seeker 4. This chef spends a lot of time and effort in improving his ability. He is___________. a. creative c. hard worker b. responsible d. opportunity seeker.
  6. 6. 6 5. Who do you think is a good planner? a) One who likes to think of what his business will be five years onwards. b) A person who spends time trying to solve a problem. c) A man with a word of honor. d) A businessman who goes places to seek information. 6. A chef who visits places to learn new things is____________. a. persistent c. information seeker b. goal-setter d. planner 7. How will you describe a person who believes that in whatever he does, he can do well? a. Confident in himself c. Persistent b. Goal setter d. Persuasive 8. Jeryll tries very hard to convince his fellow chefs to do what he wants. He is__________. a. persistent c. efficient b. commited d. persuasive 9. Jenisa always finishes her work on time. She is__________. a. pesistent c. goal setter b. efficient d. committed to work contract 10.Mrs. Soliven considers time as gold. She does not let it pass without doing anything. She____________. a. is planning and monitoring b. demands for quality and efficiency c. has commitment to work contract d. has systematic informations 11.Marilyn cooked “puto”. What cooking utensil sid she used? a. double boiler c. teflon b. kettle d. glass 12.It is good for baking but not practical on top or surface cooking. You need extra care in using it. What is it? a. cast iron c. stainless b. aluminum d. glass 13.It is used to grate, shred, slice and separate foods such as carrots, cabbage and cheese. a. graters c. flipper b. colander d. funnels 14.What utensil is used to transfer little or lots of cooked pasta to a waiting plate without a mess? a. two-tined fork c. scraper b. pasta spoon or server d. serving spoon
  7. 7. 7 15.It is used to level off ingredients when measuring and to spread frosting and sandwich filling. a. spatula c. baster b. spoons d. scraper 16.What tool is used for serving soups or stews, gravy or dessert sauces? a. spoons c. ladle b. soup ladle d. wooden spoon 17.It is commonly used to measure solids and dry ingredients, such as flour, fat, and sugar. a. measuring glass c. scale b. measuring cup d. portion 18.Which tool is used to measure in serving of soft foods, such as filling ice cream, and mashed potato? a. potato masher c. scoops or dipper b. scooper d. baster 19.It is a chamber or compartment used for cooking, baking, heating, or drying. a. microwave oven c. skillet b. oven d. oven toaster 20.Which tool is used to chop, blend, mix, whip, puree, grate, and liquify all kinds of food? a. mixer b. blender c. chopping board d. beater 21.It is a Filipino dessert made primarily from coconut milk. a. maja blanca c. biko b. cuchinta d. suman 22. Which native delicacy is made of rice flour dough that is boiled and then coated with coconut and sesame seeds? a. palitaw c. espasol b. polboron d. sapin-sapin 23. It is a dessert made from purple yam. a. maja blanca c. puto b. ube jam d. puto kutsinta 24. It is a source of coco milk. a. nutmeg c. powdered milk b. coconut d. corn 25. It adds color and flavoring to native delicacies. a. batter c. cheese b. butter and margarine d. nuts
  8. 8. 8 26. Which kitchen lay-out offers a great deal of space? a. G-shape c. L-shape b. Island shape d. U-shape 27. Which shape of the kitchen has a very flexible lay-out? a. G-shape c. Island option b. U-shape d. L-shape 28.Which kitchen is the most flexible and most popular as it provides with a compact triangle? a. U-shape c. Island option b. L-shape d. G-shape 29.The ideal shape of kitchen for larger families that need extra storage space, is the_________________. a. Island option c. U-shape b. G-shape d. L-shape 30. What shape of kitchen is easy to maneuver? a. Pullman kitchen c. G-shape b. Galley Kitchen d. U-shape
  9. 9. 9 LEARNING GOALS/ TARGETS As you go through this module, you will be able to assess yourself with the characteristics and competencies of a chef. You may now set your learning goals and targets that you may guide you as you go through this module. Provide honest answer for each item below. MY GOALS ARE THE RESULTS OF WHAT I WANT TO BE. MY GOALS ARE…. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ MY TARGETS ARE THE METHODS TOWARDS THE ACHIEVEMENT OF MY GOALS. MY TARGETS ARE…. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________
  10. 10. 10 From this point, you are heading into meaningful activities and learning encounters. Complete the exercises and answer the worksheets to experience lifelong, practical learning that awaits at the end of this module. ENJOY YOUR JOURNEY! KNOW Commercial Cooking is cooking for others for sale (restaurant, nursing home, boarding school, food manufacturer, etc.) It is the result of mans demand for food that is readily available and the fast changing phase of his/her lifestyle. Any cook should be familiar with the correct utensils, devices and equipment in the kitchen. It is important to consider several things and not only the price when buying them. The job of cooking requires specific tools, utensils, and equipment for proper and efficient preparation of food. Each piece has been designed to accomplish a specific job in the kitchen. The tools, utensils and equipment are made of different materials, each having certain advantages and disadvantages.
  11. 11. 11 Lesson 1: Use of kitchen materials, utensils and equipment Activity 1. Open-Ended Statement Directions: Complete the clauses below with your opinion or prior knowledge about kitchen materials, kitchen utensils and equipment that are commonly found in the kitchen. The following are list of cooking materials, kitchen utensils and equipment that are commonly found in the kitchen. Cooking Materials Aluminum is the best for all-around use. It is the most popular, lightweight, attractive and less expensive. It requires care to keep it shiny and clean. Much more, it gives even heat distribution no matter what heat temperature you have. It is What I know about ______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ What I can do in relation to_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ What I understand about________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________
  12. 12. 12 available in sheet or cast aluminum. Since it is a soft metal, the lighter gauges will dent and scratch easily, making the utensil unusable. Aluminum turns dark when used with alkalis, such as potatoes, beets, carrots and other vegetables. Acid vegetables like tomatoes will brighten it. Stainless Steel is the most popular material used for tools and equipment, but it is more expensive. It is easier to clean and shine and will not wear out as soon as aluminum. Choose those with copper, aluminum or laminated steel bottoms to spread heat and keep the pot from getting heat dark spots. Stainless steel utensils maybe bought in many gauges, from light to heavy. Glass is good for baking but not practical for top or surface cooking. Great care is needed to ensure for long shelf life. How to take care of Glass? 1.to remove stain, use 2 table spoon of liquid bleach per cup of water when soaking and cleaning them. 2.use baking soda to remove grease crust and boiled vinegar as final rinse. 3.use nylon scrub. Cast Iron is sturdy but must be kept oiled to avoid rusting. Salad oil with no salt or shortening can be rubbed inside and out and dried. Wash with soap (not detergent) before using. Ceramic and heat-proof glass are used especially for baking dishes, casseroles, and measuring cups. Glass and ceramic conduct the heat slowly and evenly. Many of these baking dishes are decorated and can go from stove or oven to the dining table. Double boiler is used when temperature must be kept below boiling, such as for egg sauces, puddings, and to keep food warm without overcooking. Teflon is a special coating applied inside of aluminum or steel pots and pans. It prevents food from sticking to the pan. It is easier to wash and clean, however, take care not to scratch the Teflon coating with sharp instrument such as knife
  13. 13. 13 or fork. Use wooden or plastic spatula to turn or mix food inside. KITCHEN TOOLS A baster is handy for returning some of the meat or poultry juices from the pan, back to the food. Basting brushes can be used for the same purpose, but they are also convenient for buttering the tops of breads and baked goods after they come out of the oven. Cans, bottles, cartoons opener use to open a food tin, preferably with a smooth operation, and comfortable gripand turning knob. Colanders also called a vegetable strainer are essentialfor various tasks from cleaning vegetables to straining pasta or tin contents. Plastic and Hard Rubber are used for cutting and chopping boards, table tops, bowls, trays, garbage pails and canisters. They are much less dulling to knives than metal and more sanitary than wood. Plastics are greatly durable and cheap but may not last long. Cutting boards a wooden or plastic board where meat and vegetables can be cut.
  14. 14. 14 Dredgers – are used to shake flour, salt, and pepper on meat, poultry, and fish. Emery boards/sharpening steel – is used to sharpen long knives. Funnels – are used to fill jars, made of various sizes of stainless steel, aluminum, or of plastic. Garlic Press is a kitchen tool which is specifically designed for the purpose of pulping garlic. Graters are used to grate, shred, slice and separate foods such as carrots, cabbage and cheese. Handy Poultry and roasting tools make it easier to lift a hot
  15. 15. 15 roasted turkey from the roaster to the serving platter, without it falling apart. Kitchen shears they are practical for opening food packages, cutting tape or string or simply to remove labels or tags from items. Other cutting tools such as box cutters are just as handy, especially for opening packages. Pasta spoon or server is used to transfer a little or a lot of pasta to a waiting plate, without mess. Pasta spoons are best used with spaghetti or other long pasta noodles. You can use a large slotted serving spoon for short pastas. Potato masher is used for mashing cooked potatoes, turnips, carrots or other soft cooked vegetables. Rotary egg beater – used for beating small amount of eggs or batter. The beaters should be made of stainless steel. Scraper- a rubber or silicone tool to blend or scrape the food from the bowl, metal, silicone or plastic egg turners or flippers
  16. 16. 16 Seafood serving tools make the task of cleaning seafood and removing the shell much easier. For cooking seafood, utensils will vary depending on what you are cooking. Serving spoons- utensils consisting of a small, shallow bowl on a handle used in preparing, serving, or eating food. Serving tongs enable you to more easily grab and transfer larger food items, poultry or meat portions to a serving platter, to a hot skillet or deep fryer, or to a plate. It gives you a better grip, the longer the tongs, the better, especially when used with a deep fryer, a large stock pot or at the barbecue. Soup ladle is used for serving soup or stews, but can also be used for gravy, dessert sauces or other foods. A soup ladle also works well to remove or skim off fat from soups and stews. Spatula – is used to level off ingredients when measuring, and to spread frostings and sandwich fillings.
  17. 17. 17 Spoons – solid, slotted, or perforated. Made of stainless steel or plastic, the solid ones are used to spoon liquids over foods and to lift foods, including the liquid out of the pot. Two-tine fork – used to hold meats while slicing, and to turn solid pieces of meat while browning or cooking Made of stainless steel and with heat-proof handle. Temperature scales – are used to measure heat intensity. Different thermometers are used for different purposes in food preparation – for meat, candy or deep-fat frying. Other small thermometers are hanged or stand in ovens or refrigerators to check the accuracy of the equipment’s thermosta Whisks for blending, mixing used for whipping eggs or batter, and for blending gravies, sauces, and soups. The beaters are made of looped, steel piano wires which are twisted together to form the handle. Wooden spoons are used for creaming, stirring, and mixing. They should be made of hard wood.
  18. 18. 18 Measuring Tools 1.Measuring cups and spoons for dry ingredients – is used to measure solids and dry ingredients, such as flour, fat and sugar. It is commonly made of aluminum or stainless material. Sizes range from 1, 1⁄2, 3⁄4, and 1⁄4 (nested cups) to one gallon. There are cups made of plastic and come in different colors, but could only be used for cold ingredients. They could warp, causing inaccurate measure. 2. Measuring cup for liquid ingredients – are commonly made up of heat-proof glass and transparent so that liquid can be seen. Quantity of measure of liquid ingredient is different in a dry measuring cup. 3. Portion scales – are used to weigh serving portions from one ounce to one pound. Household Scales – are used to weigh large quantity of ingredients in kilos, commonly in rice, flour, sugar, legumes or vegetables and meat up to 25 pounds. Scoops or dippers – are used to measure serving of soft foods, such as fillings, icecream, and mashed potato. Spoons come in variety of sizes, shapes, materials and colors. These are used to measure smaller quantities of ingredients called for in the recipe like: 1 tablespoon of butter or 1⁄4 teaspoon of salt.
  19. 19. 19 There are many kinds of knives, each with a specialized use Butcher knife – is used to section raw meat, poultry, and fish. It can be used as a cleaver to separate small joints or to cut bones. Butcher knives are made with heavy blade with a saber or flat grind. French knife –is used to chop, dice, or mince food. Heavy knives have a saber or flat grind. Roast beef slicer – is used to slice roasts, ham, and thick, solid cuts of meats. Boning knife – is used to fillet fish and to remove raw meat from the bone. Fruit and salad knife – is used to prepare salad greens, vegetables, and fruits. Kitchen knives often referred to as cook's or chef's tools, knives are a must for all types of kitchen tasks, from peeling an onion and slicing carrots, to carving a roast or turkey.
  20. 20. 20 Citrus knife – is used to section citrus fruits. The blade has a two-sided, serrated edge. Paring knife – is used to core, peel, and section fruits and vegetables. Blades are short, concave with hollow ground. Vegetable peeler is used to scrape vegetables, such as carrots and potatoes, and to peel fruits. The best ones are made of stainless steel with sharp double blade that swivels. Equipment More complicated tools are called equipment. They may refer to a small electrical appliance, such as a mixer, or a large, expensive, power-operated appliance such a range or a refrigerator. Equipment like range, ovens, refrigerators (conventional, convection and microwave) are mandatory pieces in the kitchen or in any food establishment. Refrigerators/freezers are necessary in preventing bacterial infections from foods. Most refrigerators have special compartment for meat, fruits and vegetables to keep the moisture content of each type of food. Butter compartment holds butter separately to prevent food odors from spoiling its flavor. Basically, refrigerator or freezer is an insulated box, equipped with refrigeration unit and a control to
  21. 21. 21 maintain the proper inside temperature for food storage. Oven- a chamber or compartment used for cooking, baking, heating, or drying. Microwave ovens have greatly increased their use in the food industry. Foods can be prepared ahead of time, frozen or refrigerated during the slack periods, and cooked or heated quickly in microwave ovens. Auxiliary equipment like griddles, tilting skillets, broilers/grills, steamers, coffee makers, deep-fat fryers, wok, crockery, cutting equipment (meat slicer, food choppers, grinders), mixers and bowls, pots and pans are utilized most commonly in big food establishments, some with specialized uses and some are optional. Blenders are used to chop, blend, mix, whip, puree, grate, and liquify all kinds of food. A blender is a very useful appliance. They vary in the amount of power (voltage/wattage).
  22. 22. 22 Activity 2. Entrance, Exit, and Extra Tickets Directions: Please write down your honest responses to the questions written on each ticket. Entrance Ticket What do I know about the materials and equipment needed in cooking? Exit Ticket What are the three best things I learned today? Extra Ticket If I were to start all over again, what do I want to think, say, and act?
  23. 23. 23 ReflectandUnderstanding Activity 1. Identifying the Uses Directions: From the given equipment/utensils/materials, complete the table below. Activity 2. Game (Pinoy Henyo Style) Directions: Get a partner and decide who will give the answer and who will ask. (This type of game is made famous in “Eat Bulaga”). (The teacher will provide the materials for the game) Transfer Activity 1: Individual work Directions: Prepare a portfolio of the different tools and equipment in cooking. Group them according to their use and write your own idea why they are important in cooking. Common Kitchen Equipment, Utensils and Materials Uses 1. Aluminum 2. Measuring spoon 3. Cast Iron 4. Basters 5. Measuring cups
  24. 24. 24 Lesson 2: MaintainKitchen Tools and Equipment Know CLEANING AND SANITIZING Cleaning and sanitizing procedures must be a part of the standard operating procedures that make up your food safety program. Improperly cleaned and sanitized surfaces allow harmful microorganisms to be transferred from one food to another. Activity 1. Direction: Put a check (√) mark if the statement is correct and a Cross (X) mark if incorrect. Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper. 1. Utensils need to be thoroughly washed in cold, soapy water. 2. Follow the instructions on the sanitizer’s container carefully. 3. All utensils must be thoroughly dried before they are re-used. 4. Cleaning will remove most of the dangerous bacteria present in the utensils. 5. Chemical sanitizer or very hot water can be used in the absence of dish washer. Cleaning is the process of removing food and other types of soil from a surface, such as a dish, glass, or cutting board. Cleaning is done with a cleaning agent that removes food, soil, or other substances. The right cleaning agent must be selected because not all cleaning agents can be used on food-contact surfaces. (A food-contact surface is the surface of equipment or utensil that food normally comes into contact.) For example, glass cleaners, some metal cleaners, and most bathroom cleaners cannot be used because they might leave an unsafe residue on the food contact surface. The label should indicate if the product can be used on a food- contact surface. The right cleaning agent must also be selected to make cleaning easy.
  25. 25. 25 Process Cleaning agents are divided into four categories: Detergents – Use detergents to routinely wash tableware, surfaces, and equipment. Detergents can penetrate soil quickly and soften it. Examples include dishwashing detergent and automatic dishwasher detergents. Solvent cleaners – Use periodically on surfaces where grease has burned on. Solvent cleaners are often called degreasers. Acid cleaners -- Use periodically on mineral deposits and other soils that detergents cannot remove. These cleaners are often used to remove scale in washing machines and steam tables. Abrasive cleaners -- Use these cleaners to remove heavy accumulations of soil that are difficult to remove with detergents. Some abrasive cleaners also disinfect. If they are not properly cleaned, food that comes into contact with these surfaces could become contaminated. Sanitizing is done using heat, radiation, or chemicals. Heat and chemicals are commonly used as a method for sanitizing in a restaurant; radiation rarely is. The item to be sanitized must first be washed properly before it can be properly sanitized. Some chemical sanitizers, such as chlorine and iodine, react with food and soil and so will be less effective on a surface that has not been properly cleaned. Sanitizing Methods 1. Heat. There are three methods of using heat to sanitize surfaces – steam, hot water, and hot air. Hot water is the most common method used in restaurants. If hot water is used in the third compartment of a three- compartment sink, it must be at least 171F (77C). If a high-temperature ware washing machine is used to sanitize cleaned dishes, the final sanitizing rinse must be at least 180F (82C). For stationary rack, single temperature machines, it must be at least 165oF (74C). Cleaned items must be exposed to these temperatures for at least 30 seconds.
  26. 26. 26 2. Chemicals. Approved chemicals sanitizers are chlorine, iodine, and quaternary ammonium. Different factors influence the effectiveness of chemical sanitizers. The three factors that must be considered are: a. Concentration -- The presence of too little sanitizer will result in an inadequate reduction of harmful microorganisms. Too much can be toxic. b. Temperature – Generally, chemical sanitizers work best in water that is between 55F (13C) and 120F (49C). c. Contact time -- In order for the sanitizer to kill harmful microorganisms, the cleaned item must be in contact with the sanitizer (either heat or approved chemical) for the recommended length of time. Sanitizer Testing Every restaurant must have the appropriate testing kit to measure chemical sanitizer concentrations. To accurately test the strength of a sanitizing solution, determine which chemical is being used -- chlorine, iodine, or quaternary ammonium. Test kits are not interchangeable so check with your chemical supplier to be certain that you are using the correct kit. The appropriate test kit must then be used throughout the day to measure chemical sanitizer concentrations. Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Chemical Sanitizers Chemical Concentration Contact Time Advantage Disadvantage Chlorine 50ppm in water between 75% and 100% 7 seconds Effective on a wide variety of bacteria; highly effective; not affected by hard water; generally inexpensive Corrosive, irritating to the skin, effectiveness decreases with increasing pH of solution; deteriorates during storage and when exposed to light; dissipates rapidly; loses activity in the presence of organic matter Iodine 12.5-25ppm in water that is at least 75F 30 seconds Forms brown color that indicates strength; not affected by hard water; less irritating to the skin than is chlorine; and activity not lost rapidly in the presence of the organic matter. Effectiveness decreases greatly with an oncrease in pH most active at pH 3.0; very low acting at pH 7.0); should not be used in water that is at 120F or hotter; and might discolor equipment and surfaces Quaternary Ammonium Compounds U to 200ppm in water that is at least 75F 30 seconds Non-toxic, odorless, colorless, non- corrosive, non- irritating; stable to heat and relatively stable in the presence of organic matter; active over a wide pH range Slow destruction of some microorganisms; not compatible with some detergents and hard water.
  27. 27. 27 Cleaning and sanitizing utensils There are three steps needed to effectively clean and sanitize utensils: Washing Sanitizing Drying Utensils such as cutting boards, bowls and knives need to be thoroughly washed in warm soapy water. After washing, the utensils should look clean and there should be no food or anything else visible on them. Effective cleaning will remove most of the dangerous bacteria present. Sanitizing will then kill any that might remain. A dishwasher sanitizes very effective if it has a hot wash and drying cycle. If you do not have a dishwasher, you will need to sanitize in a sink using a chemical sanitizer or very hot water. If using a chemical sanitizer such as a sodium hypochlorite– or quaternary ammonium–based solution, ensure that it can be safely used for sanitizing eating, drinking and cooking utensils. Follow the instructions on the container carefully, as different sanitizers work in different ways. If you are using very hot water, take extra care to avoid being scalded. All utensils must then be thoroughly dried before they are re-used. Air-drying is best but tea towels can also be used. Be sure that the tea towels are clean though. If you are washing up at an event being held outdoors, make sure you have access to plenty of hot water. If hot water is not available, disposable eating and drinking utensils should be used and enough cooking utensils provided to last the duration of the event so that washing up is not necessary. Cleaning kitchen premises Cleaning your kitchen regularly is important not only to keep it looking its best, but also to remove all of the germs and bacteria that accumulate regularly in the kitchen area. There are several surfaces around the kitchen, and by making a homemade cleaning solution, you can easily clean most of the surfaces with one basic mixture of household ingredients that are probably already in your kitchen cupboards.
  28. 28. 28 Things You’ll Need Broom Cleaning rags Bucket Instructions 1. Collect loose dust by sweeping the kitchen floor daily with a broom or static sweeper and wiping down counter tops, tables and other surfaces with a cleaning rag. To remove sticky buildup, wipe with a damp cleaning rag and wipe a damp mop over your kitchen floor. 2. Mix 1 gallon warm water in a bucket with ½ cup white vinegar and 1 tsp. dish soap. Dip your mop into the bucket, wring the mop out and wipe across your kitchen floors. The diluted vinegar solution makes it safe for any kitchen floor surface while still strong enough to clean and disinfect. The dish soap assists in cutting through any food residue that may be on the kitchen floor. Let your floor air dry after cleaning. 3. Make an all-purpose cleaner in a spray bottle. Combine 3 cups warm water with ½ cup white vinegar and 1 tsp. dish soap. 4. Spray this solution onto kitchen surfaces and wipe off with a damp cleaning rag. This works well on any type of kitchen surface including cabinetry, sinks, tables, counters and any other area that requires cleaning. 5. Fill a few bowls with about ½ cup each of baking soda. Place these around your kitchen to absorb odor and keep the kitchen smelling fresh. Open windows to let fresh air circulate, which is especially useful when cooking strong-smelling foods.
  29. 29. 29 ReflectandUnderstand Activity 1. Organizing Directions: Arrange the following steps chronologically. Use A for the first step, B for second and so on. Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper. _____ Prepare diluted vinegar solution in a bucket. Dip your mop into the bucket, wring the mop out and wipe across your kitchen floors. _____ Spray all-purpose cleaner onto kitchen surfaces and wipe off with a damp cleaning rag. _____ Collect loose dust by sweeping the kitchen floor daily with a broom or static sweeper and wiping down surfaces with a cleaning rag. _____ Fill a few bowls with about 1/2 cup each of baking soda. Place these around your kitchen to absorb odor and keep the kitchen smelling fresh. _____ Make an all-purpose cleaner in a spray bottle. How to Clean and Store Cooking Tools and Equipment 1. After measuring and mixing ingredients, soak all used mixing bowls, spatulas, measuring spoons and cups and mixer accessories in a tub of warm water (add a small amount of dishwasher detergent to help start the cleaning). Drop items in the soak as soon as you are through using them. They will be easier to wash later on. 2. Use a damp washcloth to wipe off all cake mix splatter from the mixer. While you’re at it, wipe off any stray splatter from the counterpiece and nearby areas. If necessary, finish off with dishcloth. 3. Return electric mixers and other electronic equipment to their designated storage spaces. 4. After cooking, soak used cake pans and muffin tins in warm water with dishwashing solution to soften the baked-on or burnt food. 5. Wash all used baking items and accessories by either handwashing or loading in a dishwasher (if dishwasher-safe). 6. Dry all baking tools and equipment by air-drying rack or wiping with a dry dishcloth. Make sure all wooden spoons and accessories are dry before storing.
  30. 30. 30 7. Store all tools and equipment in their designated places. Put frequently used items in conveniently accessible locations. Gather and secure electrical cords to prevent entanglement or snagging. Proper Storage and Handling Proper storage and handling of cleaned and sanitized equipment and utensils is very important to prevent recontamination prior to use. Cleaned and sanitized equipment and utensils must be:  stored on clean storage areas; and  handled properly to minimize contamination of food contact surface. 10 Steps in Organizing Kitchen Cabinets 1. Pretend it has a glass door and that everyone is going to see what’s inside. 2. Remove all the equipment and scrub shelves with soapy water. 3. Think about what you reach most often and make sure it gets a position that’s easy to reach. 4. Take a cabinet full of glasses and line them up by color. Make sure all of the front are facing out and straight. (Jeff Lewis-Style) 5. Take a step back after one shelf is done and make someone else look at what you’ve done. Storing of Washed Utensils 1. They should be stored in a clean dry place adequately protected against vermin and other sources of contamination 2. Cups, bowls, and glasses must be inverted for storage. 3. When not stored in closed cupboards or lockers, utensils and containers must be covered or inverted whenever possible. Utensils must be stored on the bottom shelves of open cabinets below the working top level. 4. Racks, trays and shelves must be made of materials that are imperious, corrosive-resistant, non-toxic, smooth, durable and resistant to chipping. 5. Drawers must be made of the same materials and kept clean. Full-lined drawers are not acceptable, but the use of clean and removable towels for lining drawers is acceptable. Stacking of chinaware
  31. 31. 31 Transfer Activity 1. Sharing time! Direction: Answer the following questions in a clean sheet of paper: 1. Why it is important to clean, sanitize, and store equipment properly? 2. Enumerate ways on the proper storage of cleaning equipment. Activity 2. Visitation Direction: Observe how canteen staff clean and sanitize kitchen tools and equipment. Take note of your observations and make comments/suggestion on how to improve their methods of cleaning and sanitizing kitchen tools and equipment. Report in your observations in the class.
  32. 32. 32 Lesson B:Measuring Recipe and ProductCosting Know Different people may use the identical recipe for molded desserts; all of their molded desserts could turn out differently because of different measuring and mixing techniques. The following section presents some important measuring equivalents, tables and conversions. Measuring Ingredients Correctly Accurate techniques in measuring are as important as the tools for measuring. Therefore, always observe the following procedures:  Rice and flour. Fill the cup to overflowing, level-off with a spatula or with a straight edge knife  Sifted flour. Most cake recipes call for sifted flour. In this case, sift flour 2 or 3 times. Spoon into the cup overflowing, level off with a spatula.  Refined sugar. Sift sugar once to take out lumps, if any. Spoon into cup and level off with a spatula. Do not pack or tap the sugar down.  Brown sugar. Pack into cup just enough to hold its shape when turned out off cup. Level off with a spatula before emptying.  Level a measuring spoon with straight edge of a knife to measure small amounts of salt, pepper, leavening agents or solid fats.  Liquid ingredients. Place the cup on a flat, level surface. Hold the cup firmly and pour the desired amount or liquid into the cup. Lean over and view the liquid at eye level to make sure it is the proper amount.  Check and calibrate timers/thermometers, scales and other measuring devices according to manufacturer’s manual before using.
  33. 33. 33  Ingredients which measure by volume and by weight demand standardized measuring tools and equipment. Do not shake the dry measuring cup to level off dry ingredients.  It is easier to weigh fat, butter, margarine if bought in pre-measured sticks. If fat doesnot come in pre-measured sticks, use a scale to weigh the needed amount.  Liquids should be poured into cup in desired level. Cup should stand on a flatsurface.  Spring scales should be adjusted so that pointer is at zero (0). Place pan, bowl, or piece of waxed paper on scale to hold ingredient to be measured.  When using balance scales, place the pan on the left-hand side of the balance and the pan weight on the right-hand side. Add the required weights to the right- hand side and adjust the beam on the bar so that the total is the weight needed .  Ranges, sometimes called stoves, provide heat for cooking on top and in the oven. The controls for range heat must be accurate and easy to operate. Tools and utensils needed for cooking on the range and work space should be within easy reach.  Learn to match the size of pan to the size of the unit and to select the right amount ofheat for the cooking job to be done.  In microwave cooking, time schedules must be followed exactly because everysecond is important. The microwaves shut off automatically when the door is opened.  Refrigerators are operated by electricity. The unit that does the cooling isunderneath the box behind the grill.  Dishwashers are a great help if food is rinsed from dishes before stacking them.Follow the plan for stacking as suggested in the direction by manufacturer’s manual.  Mixers are the most useful machines in commercial kitchens and even at home. It isgood for making salad dressings, sandwich fillings, for sauces, mashing potatoes,beat batter and eggs. Attachments are also available to chop, whip, squeeze outjuice, and make purees.  Coffee makers mostly are automatic, requiring only the measurement of coffee and water.
  34. 34. 34  In preparing foods on the range or in the fryer, heat is transferred by conduction MEASURING AND CONVERSION These easy-to-use conversion charts can help you convert your recipes to the measuring system your most familiar with. TABLES OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURE General Ingredient Equivalent Chart Part I USING CUPS and SPOONS Common Abbreviations Standard Weights and Measures Abbreviation Kitchen Term Measure Equivalent tbsp. or T tablespoon 1 kilo 2.2 pounds g. or grams 1,000 grams 1 kilo lb. or pounds 500 grams ½ kilo pt. or pint 250 grams ¼ kilo tsp. or t. teaspoon 1 pound 16 ounces c. or cups 4 pecks 1 bushel oz. or ounces 8 qt. 1 peck k. or kilos 4 qt. 1 gallon qt. quart 2 pt. 1 quart °F degrees Fahrenheit 2 cups 1 pint °C degrees degrees Celsius 16 tbsp. 1 cup pc. piece or pieces 5 tbsp. plus 1 tsp. 1/3 cup med. medium 4 tbsp. ¼ cup sec. Second 1 oz. 2 tablespoons min minute 1 tbsp. 3 teaspoons hr. hour or hours 1 tsp. 1/3 tablespoon sq. square dash /pinch less than ⅛ teaspoon gal. gallon All cup and spoon measurements are level ¼ cup 2 fluid ounces 60 ml 1/4/ teaspoon 1 ml 1/3 cup 2 ½ fluid ounces 85 ml 1/2 teaspoon 2.5 ml ½ cup 4 fluid ounces 125 ml 1 teaspoon 5 ml
  35. 35. 35 1 cup 8 fluid ounces 250ml 1 tablespoon 15 ml ReflectandUnderstand Activity 1.Conversion of measurements Directions: Convert the following ingredients as stated in each number. Activity 2. Categorizing Directions: Identify the following ingredients. Write L for Liquid and S for Solid. Write your answer in your answer sheet. 1. Flour 6. Soy sauce 11.Sesame seeds 2. Cornstarch 7. Garlic 12.Vanilla 3. Condensed milk 8. Cheese 13.Ground pepper 4. Venigar 9. Yeast 14.Coconut milk 5. Skim milk 10.Nuts 15.Refined sugar Activity 3.Computation Directions: Compute for the selling price of the following products. 1. Cream Puff Cost of production : 60.00 Number of pieces / Servings : 50pcs 1._______ quart = 4 gallons 2.______ grams = 3.5 Kilos 3. 64 tablespoons = _______ cups 4.______ teaspoons = 15 tablespoon 5._____ tablespoons = 72 ounces 6.16 pounds =_________ ounces 7.___________ tablespoons = 7 cups 8.8 quart = _______________ gallons 9._________cups = 10.5 pint 10.5 kilos = ___________ pounds
  36. 36. 36 Cost per price : __________________15% Profit Per Price :_________________Selling Price :____________________ 2. Palitao Cost of production : 38.50 Number of pieces / Servings : 50pcs Cost per price : __________________50% Profit Per Price :_________________ Selling Price :____________________ MEASURING AND CONVERSION These easy-to-use conversion charts can help you convert your recipes to the measuring system you're most familiar with. TABLES OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURE General Ingredients Equivalent Chart Part II USING CUPS and SPOONS Common Abbreviations Standard Weights and Measures Abbreviation Kitchen Term Measure Equivalent tbsp. or T tablespoon 1 kilo 2.2 pounds g. gram or grams 1,000 grams 1 kilo lb. pound or pounds 500 grams ½ kilo pt. pint 250 grams ¼ kilo tsp. or t. teaspoon 1 pound 16 ounces c. cup or cups 4 pecks 1 bushel oz. ounce or ounces 8 qt. 1 peck k. kilo or kilos 4 qt. 1 gallon qt. quart 2 pt. 1 quart °F degrees Fahrenheit 2 cups 1 pint °C degrees degrees Celsius 16 tbsp. 1 cup pc. piece or pieces 5 tbsp. plus 1 tsp. 1/3 cup med. medium 4 tbsp. ¼ cup sec. Second 1 oz. 2 tablespoons min minute 1 tbsp. 3 teaspoons hr. hour or hours 1 tsp. 1/3 tablespoon sq. square dash /pinch less than ⅛ teaspoon gal. gallon Measure Equivalent All cup and spoon measurement are level ¼ cup 2 fluid ounces 60 ml 1/4/ teaspoon 1 ml 1/3 cup 2 ½ fluid ounces 85 ml 1/2 teaspoon 2.5 ml ½ cup 4 fluid ounces 125 ml 1 teaspoon 5 ml 1 cup 8 fluid ounces 250ml 1 tablespoon 15 ml
  37. 37. 37 Process How to Calculate Markup Percentage Markup is the difference between how much an item costs you, and how much you sell that item for--it's your profit per item. Any person working in business or retail will find the skill of being able to calculate markup percentage very valuable. Instructions 1. Calculate your peso markup. This is done by subtracting your buying price from your selling price. Example Selling price 15.00 Purchase cost/buying price - 10.00 Peso markup 5.00 2. Decide whether you want to calculate your percentage markup based on cost or selling price. Once you choose which you will be using to calculate, it is importantyou stick to the method you choose throughout all your calculations, or you will endup with faulty data. If you decide to calculate your percent markup based on cost, goon to Step 3. If you decide to calculate your percent markup based on selling price,go on to Step 4. 3. Calculate percent markup based on cost. This is done by dividing the peso markup by the cost. Example Peso markup 5.00 Purchase cost/buying price ÷10.00 Percentage mark up .5 or 50% 4. Calculate your percent markup based on selling price. This is done by dividing the peso markup by the selling price. Example Peso markup 5.00
  38. 38. 38 Selling price ÷15.00 Percentage mark up .33 or 33% 5. Make sure you consistently use either cost of the product or selling price to find the percent markup on an item. Even though the cost, selling price, and peso markup will always be the same, the percentage markup will be drastically different depending on if you calculate it using selling price or cost. Using selling price will give you a lower percentage markup (assuming you are making a profit), while using cost will give you a higher percentage markup. ReflectandUnderstand Activity 1. Calculate the Markup Percentage Directions: Given the following recipe (Maja Blanca) and its estimated cost, compute for the total purchase cost and impose a 50% mark-up to determine the selling price of your product. Item Price 2 cups cornstarch 20.00 2 cups white sugar 25.00 7 cups cocomilk 50.00 1 cup evaporated milk 20.00 ½ cup shredded buko 25.00 1 tsp vanilla 5.00 TOTAL 145.00 Selling price = Total cost + Peso mark-up No. of yield SP= _____
  39. 39. 39 Activity 2. Compute the percentage mark-up Direction: Complete the following table with the necessary information. Items Purchase cost/buying price Selling price Peso markup Percentage mark up Bibingka 50.00 75.00 Suman 10.00 20.00 Puto 30.00 40.00 Sapin-sapin 25.00 55.00 Halaya 55.00 110.00
  40. 40. 40 Transfer Activity 1. Direction: Provided with materials and equipment, perform proper way of measuring dry and liquid ingredients. RUBRICS FOR SCORING Description Score Observes the proper way of measuring ingredients with no mistake 100 Observes the proper way of measuring ingredients with 1 mistake 95 Observes the proper way of measuring ingredients with 2 mistakes 90 Observes the proper way of measuring ingredients with 3 mistakes 85
  41. 41. 41 Observes the proper way of measuring ingredients with 4 mistakes 80 Activity 2. Interview at least two entrepreneursin commercialcooking Directions: Visit at least 2 native delicacies owner in your locality. Interview on how they measure ingredients make a narrative report in a bond paper and share observations in class. LESSON3: Preparation and Cooking of Native Delicacies Know Native delicacies are well-loved by Filipino people. Each region in the Philippines has its own way of preparing suman, puto, biko, kutsinta, bibingka, kalamay and other delicacies. The preparation of native delicacies is easier than other food since most of them are prepared not in oven or other equipment but in traditional kalan, kawali, gilingan, kawa or palayok with banana leaves which add flavor to the native delicacies. These delicacies are sweet and rich with various local ingredients. They come in various attractive forms at affordable cost that attract people. Homemakers can add extra to their family income by simply selling native delicacies in front of their houses, in the market or by supplying schools, offices, and groceries or even starting a small business of their own. Kakanin, or native delicacies, are snacks usually made with or containing any or combination of coconut milk, rice flour, glutinous rice, cassava and
  42. 42. 42 sugar. Kakanin are usually prepared whenever there is a special occasion like fiesta, birthday, Christmas, anniversary, or just enjoy an afternoon of kakanin party with your family and friends. NATIVE DELICACIES RECIPE BIBINGKA ESPESYAL (Rice Cake) or Bibingka Royale or simply just bibingka to many, is very popular during Christmas season. It’s like a pancake with cheese and salted egg, sugar and grated fresh coconut topping-if only it’s as easy as pancake to make at home. Bibingka is a special rice cake made of rice dough called galapong. Bibingka Batter Ingredients: Utensils: mixing bowl wooden ladle Procedure: 1. Soak one cup of rice in one cup of water overnight. 1 cup rice 1 cup water ½ cup refined sugar 2 tsp baking powder 2 tbsp melted butter 3 eggs, beaten 1 cup thick coconut milk
  43. 43. 43 2. Drain water from the soaked rice. Produce rice flour by grinding the rice softened by soaking, in a rice grinder. If you don’t have a grinder, you can have the rice ground in the public market. 3. Once the rice flour is ready, mix it with sugar. 4. Add baking powder, melted butter, beaten eggs and thick coconut milk to the rice flour mixture. 5. Mix the rice flour mixture thoroughly. This will serve as the bibingka batter. Cooking Bibingka Ingredients: bibingka batter 4-5 salted eggs 1 packed white cheese grated coconut butter Utensils: mixing bowl ladle or deep-cupped spoon a pair of tongs stove measuring cup improvised basin for live coals charcoals banana leaves turner for frying or toasting rice caked molder Procedure 1. Put some coals in the improvised basin made of a piece of G.I. sheet or tin. Make the coals red hot first. 2. Line the rice cake molder with a piece of banana leaf. 3. Put one cup of rice batter into the molder. 4. Arrange a few pieces of the sliced salted eggs and sprinkle a little amount of white cheese on top of the batter in the bibingka mold. 5. Put the mold with batter over a stove with live coals and place the improvised tin basin with live, red hot coal over the mold containing the rice cake batter. The rice cake should be cooked in this manner: with live coals under and over the mold. 6. Cook for 10 minutes or until the upper skin of the batter turns golden brown.
  44. 44. 44 7. Once cook, remove bibingka from the stove and transfer it on a plate. 8. Serve bibingka with grated coconut on the side. (This recipe makes 2-4 medium sized bibingka or rice cake Scoresheet for Cassava Bibingka Characteristics Good (3) Fair (2) Poor (1) Shape: cut easily into well shaped servings Color: brown or yellowish Texture: cooked mixtures are soft and runny when hot, firm after cooking Flavor: well-blended, pleasing, sweet rich in flavour MAJA BLANCA is a Filipino dessert made primarily from coconut milk. Also known as coconut pudding, it is usually served during fiestas and during the holidays, especially Christmas. Maja blanca has the consistency of thick gelatine with a delicate flavour, and is creamy white in colour. Ingredients: 1/2 cup cornstarch ½ cup white sugar 2 cups coconut milk coconut cream from 1 grated coconut Procedure: Coconut cream 1. Extract coco cream and coconut milk from the grated coconut. 2. Place grated coconut in a muslin bag wrung out of warm water. 3. Twist the open end and squeeze out the coco cream without adding water. 4. Set aside for cooking latik.
  45. 45. 45 Coconut milk 1. Add three portions of warm water and squeeze the bag of grated coconut with every addition of water. 2. Cook coco cream in a frying pan over medium heat until oil and latik form. 3. The latik should have a delicate, golden yellow color and must not be burnt. 4. Transfer latik into a dish separate from oil further heating will turn the latik to darker shade. 5. Prepare cornstarch-sugar mixture. 6. Boil the rest of the coco milk in a 2- quart saucepan. 7. Add the cornstarch-sugar mixture, stirring with a wire whisk until it boils. 8. Hold for 2 minutes to attain a cooked flavor of the starch. 9. Pour into oiled dishes. Cool completely. 10.Serve hot or chilled. Variations Maja blanca can easily be adapted to include various other ingredients. Examples include squash maja blanca which uses calabazas (Filipino: kalabasa) and a version of maja maiz that uses butter, resulting in a distinctive yellow color. Another variation of maja blanca is the maja de ube. It uses ube (purple yam) as one of the primary ingredients giving it a characteristic deep purple color. Score sheet for Maja Blanca (using cornstarch) Characteristics Good (3) Fair (2) Poor (1) Shape: well-formed when served Color: uniformly blended color or plain Texture: well-cooked starch, smooth unless with other ingredients such as buko, corn etc. Flavor: pleasing coconut flavor for maja and latik PALITAW is a Philippine dessert and snack made of rice flour dough that is boiled and then coated with coconut and sesame seeds. The small, flat rice cakes are traditionally eaten during holiday festivities but can be enjoyed any time. The
  46. 46. 46 texture of the finished cakes ranges from very moist and delicate to chewy and rubbery, depending on the preferences of the cook. Although there are a few variations, palitaw is usually prepared according to the same basic recipe without any changes. Ingredients: ½ kilo glutinous rice flour 1 grated mature coconut 3 tablespoons sugar a tablespoons toasted sesame seeds pinch of cinnamon (optional) Procedure: 1. Boil water. 2. Shape galapong into small disks. Drop one by one to the boiling water. When it floats, it’s already cooked. 3. Remove cooked palitaw with a slotted spoon to drain the water and place on a bed of niyog. Cover both sides of the palitaw with niyog. Arrange on platter or banan leaves. 4. Mix sugar, toasted sesame seeds and cinnamon. Sprinkle over the palitaw. Score sheet for Palitaw Characteristics Good (3) Fair (2) Poor (1) Shape: well-formed when served Color: uniformly blended color or plain Texture: well-cooked, good toast of sesame seeds and good quality grated coconut Flavor: pleasing sesame seeds with grated coconut CUCHINTA (kutsinta) is a type of kakanin (Philippines’ native delicacies these are snacks usually made with or containing any or
  47. 47. 47 combination of these: coconut,coconut milk, rice flour, glutinous rice, cassava). Ingredients: 1 cup rice flour 2 cups brown sugar 3 cups water 1 teaspoon lye water freshly grated coconut Procedure: 1. In a mixing bowl, combine all the ingredients and mix well. Pour into muffin pans, until half full. Steam in a large pan with a cover; the water should be 2 inches deep. Cook for 30 minutes or until a toothpick inserted comes out clean. Add more water, if needed until cooking is done. 2. Remove from the muffin pans and serve with freshly grated coconut. Score sheet for Palitaw Characteristics Good (3) Fair (2) Poor (1) Shape: well-formed when served Color: uniformly blended color or plain Texture: well-cooked, smooth Flavor: pleasing sesame seeds with grated coconut Sapin-sapin is a layered glutinous rice and coconut dessert which is Philippine cuisine. It is made from rice flour, coconut milk, sugar, water, and coloring. It has coconut flakes sprinkled on top. Sapin-sapin means "layers"[2] and the dessert is recognizable for its layers, each colored separately.[3] It has been referred to as "a blancmange of several colored layers, sweetened and flavored with coconut milk". Ingredients: 1½ cups malagkit dough (galapong) ½ cup rice galapong 2½ cups white sugar 3 cups cooked ubi (mashed)
  48. 48. 48 4 cups thick coconut cream (from 2-3 coconuts) 2 big cans condensed milk food coloring, violet & egg-yellow Procedure: 1. Blend all ingredients except for mashed ube and food coloring. 2. Divide into 3 parts: To one part- add mashed ube To heighten the color of the ubi, add a dash of violet coloring. Mix well. To second part- add egg-yellow coloring. Mix well. To third part-just plain white. Do not add anything. 3. Grease a round baking pan. Line with greased banana leaves. Then, pour the ube mixture. Spread evenly. Steam for 30 minutes or more, until firm. Note: cover the baking pan with cheese cloth before steaming. 4. Pour second layer on top of the cooked ube. Cover again and steam for 30 minutes. 5. Lastly, pour the third layer or the plain mixture. Again, steam for 30 minutes or until firm. 6. Sprinkle with “latik”. 7. Cool before slicing. 8. Serve with “budbod” or toasted sweetened coconut. Espasol a native cake of roasted and ground sticky rice with coconut milk and sugar. Ingredients: 1 cup malagkit (glutinous rice) 4 cups rice flour, toasted until light brown 2 cups sugar 1 cup coconut milk 1½ cups toasted shredded coconut Anise seeds Procedure: 1. Boil the malagkit. 2. Place sugar, anise seeds and coconut milk in a saucepan; let it boil until thick. 3. Add toasted shredded coconut and cook for 3 minutes 4. Add boiled malagkit, stir and cook until thick. 5. Remove from fire and add 3 cups of toasted rice flour. 6. Mix with a wooden spoon and pass through a cornmeal grinder. 7. Divide into 2 parts and roll (about 2½ inch in diameter). 8. Slice into ½inch thick pieces.
  49. 49. 49 Ube Halaya is basically a dessert made from purple yam. It's sweet and usually has milk and sugar. Ingredients: 1 kilo ube or yam 1 can (14ounces) evaporated milk 2 cans (12ounces) condensed milk ½ cup butter or margarine ½ teaspoon of vanilla (optional) Procedure: 1. In a pot, boil the unpeeled ube or yam and simmer for 30 minutes. Drain and let it cool. 2. Peel and finely grate the ube or yam. 3. Heat a big wok in medium heat. 4. Melt butter or margarine, add the condensed milk and vanilla flavoring. Mix well. 5. Add the 1 kilo grated ube or yam. 6. Adjust the heat to low. 7. Keep on mixing the ingredients for about 30 minutes or until sticky and a bit dry (but still moist). 8. Add the evaporated milk and continue to mix for another 15 minutes. 9. Let it cool and place in a large platter. 10.Refrigerate before serving the halayang ube. Cooking Tips: You may spread additional butter or margarine on top of the yam before serving.
  50. 50. 50  For the sweet toothed, sprinkle a little sugar on top of the yam after placing on the large platter.  Instead of manually grating the ube, you may cut it in cubes and use a blender to powderize the ube. ReflectandUnderstand Activity. Let me share! Directions: Complete the table below by providing honest responses. Questions Responses 1.What have you just done today? 2. How can familiarity in the various processes and principles help you in providing quality and marketable native delicacies, “kakanin”? 3. How can your new learning help you be the best manufacturer or producer of native delicacies? 4. What are your general impressions about producing or manufacturing native delicacies?
  51. 51. 51 Transfer Activity 1: GRASPS Model Directions: Please prepare a Goal, Role, Audience, Situation, Product and Performance, and Standards and criteria for success (GRASPS) design in preparing native delicacies. GRASPS MODEL Goal Your task is to produce native delicacies. Role You are to prepare native delicacies to sell in school and you need to come up with the good quality, marketable and profitable kakanin. Audience You are to help your classmates and share your skills to your family to cook the native delicacies. Situation The challenges involve in purchasing, preparing, cooking and selling native delicacies or kakanin, using the concepts and principles you have learned. Product and Performance You will cook varied quality, marketable and profitable products using the concepts and principles you have learned in commercial arts. Activity B. Create or innovate your own native delicacies. 1. List down on a clean sheet of bond paper the kitchen materials and utensils needed, ingredients, and procedures. 2. Prepare all the needed materials and ingredients
  52. 52. 52 3. Cook. Activity C. Mini-Exhibit The students output in commercial cooking (native delicacies) will be showcased in a mini exhibit. Students will be guided by the teacher in planning, implementing and assesing the said activity. Lesson 4: UNDERSTANDING THE BASIC KITCHEN LAYOUT Know Understanding the basic principles of kitchen layout will help take much of the mystery out of the design process. One of the most basic layout principles is the work triangle. The work triangle is an imaginary line drawn from each of the three primary work stations in the kitchen - the food storage, preparation/cooking, and clean-up stations. By drawing these lines, you can assess the distance required to move to and from each area and thus determine how well the traffic will flow. To help avoid traffic flow problems, work triangles should have a perimeter that measures less than 26 feet. The three primary kitchen work stations which create the work triangle are: 1. The food storage. Your refrigerator and pantry are the major items here. Cabinetry like Lazy Susan or swing-out pantry units add function and convenience. Options like wine racks, spice racks, and roll-out trays help to organize your groceries. 2. The preparation/cooking. Your range, oven, microwave, and smaller appliances are found in this area. Counter space is important in this section.Conserve space by moving appliances off the counter with appliance garage cabinets and space- saving ideas like towel rods and pot lid racks. 3. The clean-up. Everyone's least favorite activity is one of the kitchen's most important - clean-up. This area is home to the sink, waste disposal, and dishwasher. Cabinetry for this station is designed to organize the trash bin cabinet and roll-out tray baskets for storage convenience DETERMINING YOUR KITCHEN’S LAYOUT
  53. 53. 53 After learning about the work triangle in the section "Understanding Basic Kitchen Layout,"you will now see how the work triangle functions in each layout and the advantages each layout offers. There are five primary kitchen layout shapes - the U-Shaped, L-Shaped, Island, G-Shaped, Corridor/Gallery, and Single Wall shapes. 1.The U-Shaped Kitchen Named for the "U" shape it resembles, this kitchen is popular in large and small homes alike.  Perfect for families who use their kitchens a great deal  Provides plenty of counter space  Efficient work triangle  Can convert one cabinet leg into a breakfast bar 2. The L-shaped kitchen-This kitchen shape is one of the most flexible and most popular, providing a compact triangle. *Very flexible design lay out * Major appliances can be placed in a variety of areas * Work areas are close to each other *Can easily convert to a U-shape with a cabinet leg addition 3.The Island Option. Islands are extremely popular in homes today and are most often seen in L-Shaped kitchens. Islands can not only keep work areas traffic-free, but also create a wealth of extra counter and storage space. An island can be an indispensable food preparation station or act as a butcher block area. The island is also an ideal place to add an extra sink or an island grill. 4. The G-Shaped Kitchen - Built very much like the U-Shaped with the addition of an elongated partial wall, the G-Shaped kitchen offers a great deal of space. *Ideal for larger families needing extra storage space *Plenty of counter and cabinet space *Multiple cooks can function well in this layout *Can convert one cabinet leg into a breakfast bar or entertaining area 5. The Corridor/Galley Kitchen - This style kitchen makes the most out of a smaller space.  Great for smaller kitchens  Appliances are close to one another  Easy for one cook to maneuver  Can easily convert to a U-Shape by closing off one end 6. The Single Wall/Pullman Kitchen - Designed for homes or apartments, the single wall kitchen offers a very open and airy feel. * Ideal for apartments and smaller homes *Works well with the open designs found in many contemporary homes *Small moveable table can provide eating space *Can be enhanced with the addition of an island
  54. 54. 54
  55. 55. 55
  56. 56. 56 Activity 1: Kitchen plan and symbols Direction: Match Column A to B. Do this activity in a sheet of paper.
  57. 57. 57
  58. 58. 58 Kitchen Floor Plan Symbols Scale: ¼” = 1
  59. 59. 59 ReflectandUnderstand Activity 1. Draw the symbol of the following: 1. Refrigerator 2. Free standing stove/oven 3. Sinks 4. Microwave 5. Dishwasher Activity 2. Directions: Search on internet and download some more symbols in kitchen lay- out and report to the class.
  60. 60. 60 Transfer Activity 1 A. Answer what is being ask:(Identification) 1. This kitchen shape is one of the most flexible and most popular providing a compact triangle. 2. Ideal for larger families needing extra storage space. 3. This kitchen makes the most out of smaller space. 4. A very flexible design layout. 5. Ideal for apartments and smaller home Activity1 B. When do we use each kitchen layout? Activity 2. Draw kitchen symbols and plans. Activity 3. Lay out your dream kitchen. Complete your sketch by placing the necessary symbols to show the different appliances, counters, areas and the direction of work flow. Use a separate sheet.
  61. 61. 61 Lesson 5: PracticeOccupationalSafety and Health Know Apply health, safety and security procedures in the workplace. Safety regulations and workplace safety and hazard control practices and procedures are clarified and explained based on organization procedures. Hazards/risks in the workplace and their corresponding indicators are indentified to minimize or eliminate risk to co-workers, workplace and environment in accordance with organization procedures. Contingency measures during workplace accident, fire and other emergencies are recognized and established in accordance with organization procedures. Running a business or a big food service establishment is a demanding job. Consider the following responsibilities if you are a worker or an owner of such business. • Protect your property from fire; • Protect your property from natural hazards; • Protect your property from crime; • Protect your staff and visitors from accidents; • Know the legislation that may affect your business. Most kitchen fires occur in kitchen ranges, boilers or deep-fat fryers and can often be traced back to poor cleaning regimes. A. Protecting Property from Fire • Ensure that cooking ranges, boilers and deep-fat fryers are fitted with thermostats or emergency cutoff valves to turn off the fuel supply should a fire break out. • Ensure that filters are removed and de-greased frequently to prevent a build up of greasy deposits. • Cleaning should be done weekly, you may need to consider more frequent cleaning if the equipment is used for long periods on a daily basis. • Store all combustible materials away from buildings or perimeter fencing – preferably inside locked waste bins or lidded skips. Ensure they are emptied regularly. If no suitable outside location is available, use a secure internal storage area.
  62. 62. 62 • Be vigilant when you open and close the premises each day – look for signs of potential trouble e.g.graffiti or damage to fences – remove graffiti and repair any damage immediately to deter further damage occurring. Electrical faults Prevention of faults is the answer here and this can be achieved by:  Frequent visual inspections of all portable electrical items and fixed electrical wiring.  Regular maintenance of these items by an authorized agency or licensed electrician should be recorded and monitored. Smoking Ideally, smoking should be prohibited throughout the premises (including yards and open areas) and notices to that effect prominently displayed. • Ensure smoking is restricted to a designated area that is kept free of combustible items such as paper, curtains, flammable liquids. • Provide metal lidded bins for the disposal of ashtray contents and ensure they are emptied safely every day. Do not dispose them with other combustible waste. B. Protecting establishment from natural hazards Flood Firstly, check with the local authority whether the property is in a flood risk area. If it is then you should:  Prepare a flood plan for your business detailing the actions you will need to take to minimize damage and disruption.  Conduct flood drill, so that you and your staff will be sure it works and have experience of what to do. Water Escape/Leakages  Get dripping taps repaired as they can cause damages.  Ensure pipes are properly installed using suitable insulation material.  If your premises are likely to be unoccupied for a longer period e.g. over Christmas and New Year, turn the water off at the stopcock and drain the system if possible. Storm Damage
  63. 63. 63 Making sure your premises are in a good state of repair, it will minimize the chance of storm damage - check the building regularly (walls, roof and any outbuildings) and ensure any problems you find are repaired promptly. Check at least once a year that roof gutters, down-pipes and drainage galleys are clear and unobstructed and kept free of leaves and vegetation. C. Protecting property from crime Burglary Thieves frequently see catering businesses as an easy target and it is wise to ensure that you have a good level of security. Locks on external doors should be high standards and quality materials. All accessible opening windows should be fitted with key-operated locks secluded windows and roof-lights should be protected with steel bars, grilles or shutters. Consider fitting shop-fronts with grilles or shutters to deter smash and grab raiders Given time, almost any physical security can be overcome, consider fitting an Intruder. Alarm system which will act as a deterrent and limit the time an intruder will have on your premises. Any alarm system should be fitted and maintained. Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) can help deter and capture evidence of robbery. Any system should be fitted and maintained by an installer registered with a nationally recognized installation body such as - NSI (NationalSecurity Inspectorate) and SSAIB (Security Systems and Alarms Inspection Board). When your premises are closed, lock away portable electronic equipment e.g. laptop computers in a secure cabinet. Consider fitting access control locks on entrance doors to prevent intimidation or robbery. Theft of money Keeping cash on the premises overnight increases the chance of a break in: • Keep as little cash on the premises as possible and keep it out of public view. • Where possible, cash should not be left on the premises outside business hours. • Empty the cash register overnight and leave the drawer open as this often deters thieves. D. Protecting your staff and visitors from accidents. “Prevention is better (and cheaper) than cure”. Slips, Trips and Falls The most common type of workplace accident can be easily and cheaply prevented in most cases and often bring other benefits. o Keeping the premises clean, tidy, congestion-free and well lit will go a long way to preventing most types of accident.
  64. 64. 64 o Clear up spillage promptly and post warning notices. o Repair or replace damaged floor coverings immediately – especially on stairways and areas where the public have access. o Keep a clearly marked first-aid kit available at all times. Electricity Electricity can, and does, kill and the law insists that electrical installation must be safe. • Ensure electrical equipment is only used for the purpose for which it was designed. • Use a qualified electrician for electrical installation work and for regular testing of portable electrical items to ensure they are in good working order. Fire safety Carrying out a fire risk assessment is a legal requirement for all businesses (even one- person operations), this helps prevent fires and ensures swift evacuation by employees and the public in the event of a fire. • Ensure you have clearly labeled and unobstructed escape routes and that your staff are aware of the evacuation procedure. Arrange regular practices to reinforce this. • Ensure that you make a specific member of your staff responsible for customers’ and visitors’ safety in the event of an emergency evacuation. Manual handling/lifting Preventing injuries caused by manual lifting of heavy items is also the subject of regulations and solutions to this problem can easily be achieved. • If loads must be manually lifted, ensure that they are carried by at least two people and that training in lifting techniques is provided. • Provide mechanical equipment, e.g. trolleys to assist staff in unloading and moving deliveries. In addition, ensure deliveries are as close as possible to the location where they will be stored or used. Accident reporting and investigation Make sure that all accidents and incidents are recorded and investigated as lessons can be learned to prevent them in future. Recording method must accessible and secured. Computer records are fine.
  65. 65. 65 F. Legislation that may affect business We have mentioned some areas where legislations may affect your business. Fire Safety, Food Hygiene and electricity. There may be other regulations from other regulatory board like Food and Drug Administration (FDA) particularly on manufacturing, packaging and storing food. Be aware and knowledgeable. Reflect and Understand Activity 1. Speculative Journal Writing Directions: Complete the table below with your speculative thoughts and ways to avoid them. Types of accident or disaster Speculations Ways to avoid them 1. Fire 2. Floods 3. Customer strain 4. Spillage 5. Riots
  66. 66. 66 Activity 2. Internet-based activities 1. Download the various safety signs and tags. Paste one signage in a paper. Transfer Activity 1. GRASPS Model Directions: The class will be divided into 5 groups. Each group will prepare a brochure for the following: A. Protecting your property from fire. B. Protecting your property from natural hazards C. Protecting your property from crime. D. Protecting your staff and visitors from accidents E. Legislation that may affect your business. SUMMARY The assessment of your competencies is based on the improvement of your skills and capabilities in the preparation of dishes. You can be a successful chef, and possible engagement into self or paid employment. On the other hand, you need to satisfy the needs and wants of your customers so that they will continue to patronize products. Assess and evaluate your customers if they satisfy to the goods and services you offered. Always make sure that you give the best preparation, services and market. Providing quality, effective, and efficient commercial cooking requires full awareness of various underlying concepts and principles of the said course.
  67. 67. 67 GLOSSARY Commercial Cooking. Depending on the context, but it generally refers to any cooking or food production that happens on a large scale where the product is intended to be sold at a restaurant or a factory. Cleaning - a physical removal of visible soil and food Disinfectant - a substance used to destroy germs and diseases Exterminate - to destroy totally Filth - anything that is dirty Grates - frames of iron bars for holding fuel while it burns Infestation Kitchen - the state of being infested as with parasites or vermin a room especially set apart and containing the necessary utensils for cooking food. Parts per million (PPM) - is commonly used as a measure of small levels of pollutants in air, water, body fluids, etc. Parts per million is the mass ratio between the pollutant component and the solution. Usually describes the concentration of something in water or soil. One ppm is equivalent to 1 milligram of something per liter of water (mg/l) or 1 milligram of something per kilogram soil (mg/kg). Pedestal - a base or support Sanitizer - a chemical agent used for cleansing and sanitizing surfaces and equipment. Sanitizing - process of reducing number of harmful organismsto safe level on food contact services Stack - a case compose of several rows of shelves. Work Centers - focused around major appliances-refrigerators-freezers, range, or sink. Thers centers make possible an orderly flow of activities connected with food storage, preparation, cooking serving, and clean-up.
  68. 68. 68 Work Flow - where work is done most efficiently when it flows in a natural progression either from left to right or right to left. Work Simplification - means doing the job in the easiest, simplest and quickest way. Work Station simply means a specific work area where a particular kind of food is produced or specific job is done. Work Triangle an imaginary line drawn from each of the three primary work stations in the kitchen, and avoid traffic flow problems. REFERENCES Abon, Orlando P., Bacani, Olivia A. and Cornito, Evelyn B. (2010).Entrepreneur Kids, St. Agustine Publication: Sampaloc, Manila Amy Brown, Understanding Food, 2nd Edition, Thomson Woodworth June Payne, Palacio, Monica Theis, INTRODUCTION TO FOOD SERVICE, 128-130 Mary Frey Ray.Evelyn Jones Lewis.Exploring Professional Cooking, Revised, Chas A. Bennet Co., Inc., Peoria, Illinois 61614 Sonia Y. de Leon, Libia L. Chavez, Virginia S. Claudia, Matilde P. Guzman, et al., BASIC FOODS FOR FILIPINOS, 95-100 Tomlinson ,Peter and Haftendorn, Klaus (2005). Entrepreneurship Education in Schools and Technical Vocational Training Institutions, International Labor Office: Geneva http//:www.google.com http://www.bisnes.com http://content.cteonline.org/resources/documents/35/35a292d/35a2a92d5da7e3be8da54c72 3bf 67448495382e/KitchenFloorPlanSymbolsAppliances.pdf http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/foodnut/09329.html http://www.ehow.com/how_4425471_calculate-markup-percentage.html
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