Exurbanisation, Counterurbanisation And Decentralisation


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Exurbanisation, Counterurbanisation And Decentralisation

  1. 1. Urban Wars Exurbanisation, counter-urbanisation and decentralisation
  2. 2. Sea Changes, Tree Changes & Tee Changes <ul><li>The 3 main locations that people move from the city centre. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Exurbanisation <ul><li>Exurbanisation is the growth of low-density, semi-rural settlements beyond the built-up urban periphery of cities. For the most part the people who live in the settlements remain functionally linked to the city. </li></ul><ul><li>(Global Interactions 2: Second Edition – Urban Dynamics) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Examples: <ul><li>In Sydney the perimetropolitan region is the area bounded by the furthest extent of commuting to metropolitan jobs. These areas include Dural, Galston, Windsor, Richmond,Hornsby, Terry Hills, Berowa Heights, Picton and Camben. </li></ul>One reason this is possible is due to the increasing development of transport and communications.
  5. 5. Counter-Urbanisation <ul><li>The relocation of people and employment from large to smaller urban centers or rural areas . </li></ul><ul><li>(Global Interactions 2: Second Edition – Urban Dynamics) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Examples: <ul><li>In the 1960’s, non-metropolitan areas of the United States lost almost 3 million people through urbanisation. In the first 3 years of the 1970’s it gained more than 1.1 million through counter-urbanisation. </li></ul><ul><li>Counter-urbanisation in the United Kingdom reached a high point during 1970-1973 and then slowed. Population change in the Greater London area stabilised in the mid-1980s and then started in increase as the popularity of inner-city living gathered pace. </li></ul><ul><li>(Global Interactions 2: Second Edition – Urban Dynamics) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Decentralisation <ul><li>Occurs when governments provide encouragement and incentives for various industries to move out of large metropolitan areas. </li></ul><ul><li>( Senior Geography 2, Macmillan, Urban Dynamics) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Examples: <ul><li>Bathurst has a population of 30,000 people in NSW. Its early development was as a commercial and administrative centre for a prosperous grazing hinterland. Government initiatives in decentralisation, especially from the Bathurst-Orange Development Council had a significant impact on the population of Bathurst and the manufacturing sector experienced growth. However, the population didn’t reach the expected total. There are a number of problems with people moving from a large city like Sydney to a smaller place like Bathurst including; dislocation to family life with a movement away from support, difficulty of women to gain employment to supplement family income and movement away from a large job market where there is a broad range of employment without moving residence. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Reasons for these changes <ul><li>Increases in personal incomes leading to expanded options in terms of where to live, along with real reductions in the unit cost of travel. </li></ul><ul><li>About 10% of those leaving metropolitan areas do so to retire or health reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle factors include groups such as retirees, hobby farmers, long-distance commuters and people seeking an alternative lifestyle. </li></ul><ul><li>Areas are scenically and climatically appealing, where seasonal work is often available to supplement pension-based incomes. </li></ul><ul><li>A response to unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>A concern about the environmental quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Technological factors; including the increasing development of transportation, communications and infrastructure. </li></ul>