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20140124 pdr v3

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Presentation of our "Preliminary Design Review" for the Mars Society Student Design Competition.

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20140124 pdr v3

  1. 1. Preliminary Design Review - Mars18 - The Mars Society International Student Design Competition
  2. 2. Content • • • • • – Attitude and Orbit Control System – Electrical Power System – Communications – Re-entry and TPS – Systems Engineering Introduction Launch Systems Trajectory Launch Concepts & TMI Spacecraft Design – – – – Structural Design Life Support Systems Radiation Shielding Thermal Control System • • • • Human Factors Economics To be done Support
  3. 3. Introduction The Mars Society International Student Design Competition: “Design a two-person Mars flyby mission for 2018 as cheaply, safely and simply as possible” Phase 0/A/B Study IEEE Aerospace: Tito and Carrico, Feasibility Analysis for a Manned Mars Free-Return Mission in 2018 3/ 52
  4. 4. Introduction • Competition backed by Dennis Tito and Mars Society in cooperation with NASA Ames • Pushing the envelope towards human Mars exploration • Gaining public attention and generating public interest for manned space missions • Prepare students for future development Schedule Cost projects with comparable goals 20% 30% • Selection criteria Simplicity 20% Technical Quality 30% 4/ 52
  5. 5. Team • Over 40 students from aerospace engineering, economics, medicine and others in the 1st to 9th semester • Faculty advisors from the Institute of Space Systems 5/ 52
  6. 6. Schedule • Critical Design Review: 14.02.2014 • Mars18 Deadline (Design Freeze): 28.02.2014 • Final Report: 14.03.2014 6/ 52
  7. 7. Requirements • Defined mission statement and top-level objectives • Derived requirements on system and subsystem level ID TL.1 TL.2 TL.3 TL.4 7/ 52 Description The mission shall be executed by two astronauts. The mission objective is to complete a mars flyby and safely return to earth. The mission will commence in the year 2018. The mission shall result in scientific progress.
  8. 8. Launch Concepts Expensive Conservative Optimistic Launcher Less expensive Payload 1 (Atlas HLV based) Falcon 9 Atlas HLV Atlas HLV Dragon Rider Cygnus & Tank Centaur 3 (Atlas V551 based) Atlas V 551 Atlas HLV Delta IV Heavy Dragon & Cygnus Tank Centaur Launcher Payload 2 (SpaceX based) Falcon 9 Falcon Heavy Falcon Heavy Dragon Rider Cygnus & Tank Centaur 4 (Conservative) Falcon 9 Delta IV Heavy Atlas V 551 Delta IV Heavy Dragon Rider Cygnus & Tank Tank Centaur 8 8/ 52
  9. 9. Launch Concepts Concept Cost Mio $ TRL Median Date of first launch 1 (Atlas HLV based) 596,5 7,3 Sept. 2017 2 (SpaceX based) 416,5 7,2 Sept. 2017 690 8,3 Okt. 2017 586,5 8,8 Aug. 2017 3 (Atlas V551 based) 4 (Conservative) Comparison: Inspiration Mars Concept Space Launch System & Commercial Crew Launcher Cost in Mio$ TRL Median 600-2100 6 Date of first launch Dec. 2017 9 9/ 52
  10. 10. Concept Atlas V551 (ULA) Delta IV Atlas V 551 (manned) Atlas HLV 10 10/ 52
  11. 11. Concept Atlas V551 (ULA) 11 11/ 52
  12. 12. Concept Falcon Heavy (SpaceX) Falcon 9 Falcon Heavy Falcon Heavy Payload: Dragon Rider Payload: Cygnus & Centaur Payload: Centaur 12 12/ 52
  13. 13. Concept Falcon Heavy (SpaceX) to Mars Trans-Mars-Injection (TMI) Sept. 2017 Dez. 2017 Dez. 2017 04. Jan. 2018 13 13/ 52
  14. 14. Trajectory Start orbit Start date 04.01.2018 Delta-V departure Earth 4825 m/s Arrival date 19.05.2019 Duration 1.37 years V_inf arrival Departure 350 x 350 km 8786 m/s Velocity at 120 km 14143 m/s 14/ 52 Capture Flyby
  15. 15. Trajectory 15/ 52
  16. 16. Structural Design • Sufficient space, protection, simple and inexpensive deployment, support of all required structures Conservative Designs Advanced Designs 16/ 52
  17. 17. Structural Design Conservative Design + Costs and risks + Availability + Proven Design  Less spacious  Radiation Protection Modifications required SpaceX - Dragon Rider Orbital Science - Cygnus Adv. 17/ 52
  18. 18. Structural Design • Sizing structure for launch and re-entry loads – Peak bending moment and compressive force • Addition of supportive structure – Secondary (e.g. International Standard Payload Racks) – Docking adapters • Utilizing proven materials (Aluminum, Titanium) Empty Mass Pressurized Unpressurized Power Dragon Rider ca. 2360 kg 10 m³ 14 m³ 1500 W Cygnus ca. 1630 kg 27 m³ - 3500 W 18/ 52
  19. 19. ECLSS – Environment Control and Life Support System Recycling of most resources (almost closed system) Urine Water Management H2O Air Management O2 Waste Water CO2 Water Management Air Management Food Feces Storage Hygiene Products Storage Waste Clothes 19/ 52
  20. 20. Dirty Laundry Waste ECLSS – Eating and Waste Eating simple!?! Waste Compactor Waste Shielding tile W a t e r Water System 20/ 52
  21. 21. Open Loop <–> Closed Loop Equivalent System Mass (ESM) [kg] 10000 9000 Closed System (VPCAR) 8000 Closed System (MF+VCD) 7000 Open System 6000 - 5500kg 5000 4000 - 1300kg 3000 2000 1000 0 100 200 300 Mission Duration [d] 21/ 52 400 500
  22. 22. Flowchart ECLSS SABATIER VPCAR waste TANKS TANKS brine SPWE FOOD feces CREW 4BMS leakage compensation urine ACS leakage atmosphere TCCS CHX TCS 22/ 52
  23. 23. Radiation Protection against GCR • • • • • • Gradual increase in shielding through PMC-tiling Personal active dosemeters for astronauts PE-blankets while sleeping (2 g/cm²) Wearing of PE-vests whenever possible (1 g/cm²) Additional shielding of 3 g/cm² PE in both capsules Filling of remaining carrying capacity with PE-sheets Shielded Area of Dragon Capsule [m²] 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 250 Time [days] ~ 10 g/cm² + 3 g/cm² ~ 48 g/cm² Trunk Dragon Cygnus Diverse materials Polyethylen (PE) ~ 10 g/cm² + 3 g/cm² 23/ 52 Trunk ~ 48 g/cm² 500
  24. 24. Radiation Protection against SPEs SPE (detected by sensors) ~ 48 g/cm² diverse materials Alignment towards sun Ø: 2 m ~ 9 g/cm² water/feces Trunk ~ 2,4 g/cm² water (decreasing) + tiles (increasing) Dragon Cygnus Trunk • Water gets replaced by feces to maintain shielding against SPEs • PMC-tiles, wet wipes and desinfectant wipes can be used to reinforce shielding (fixation with duct tape) • Amifostin is dispensed after SPE 24/ 52
  25. 25. Thermal Control System • Dissipative and external heat sources • Assembly in Earth orbit – ca. 8900 W • Passing Venus orbit – ca. 6700 W • Mars flyby – ca. 4300 W 25/ 52
  26. 26. Thermal Control System 26/ 52
  27. 27. Attitude & Orbit Control System • Control system consisting of – Hydrazine thrusters [orbit] – Momentum wheels [attitude] – Resistojets [desaturation] • Sensor system consisting of – Sun sensors, star trackers – Inertial measurement units – GPS [Rendezvous] • Control Algorithm: ModelPredictive-Control (MPC) 27 27/ 52
  28. 28. Attitude & Orbit Control System • Rendezvous maneuver also by MPC • Overall model to save propellant 28 28/ 52
  29. 29. Electrical Power System Goal: provide continuous average power and withstand daily power peaks • Sizing Case: Arrival at Mars after ca. 250 days – Largest distance to Sun, moderate degradation – Including environmental, array and system losses – Shadow times during launch/docking and behind Mars Average Required Power Power 3400 W 5750 W 29/ 52
  30. 30. Electrical Power System • UltraFlex arrays (GaAs) as primary power source • Secondary storage: Regenerative fuel cells – Rechargeable, covering daily power peaks, launch/docking – Highly-integrated into ECLSS (no extra tanks) Mass [kg] Solar Arrays 182.6 Secondary Energy Storage 108.2 Power Distribution 70.9 Total Mass 361.7 30/ 52
  31. 31. Electrical Power System • Dimensions are to scale 2.0m 5.8m 10.2m 3.6m 31/ 52
  32. 32. Communications • Goals – Providing failure-safe communication between the spacecraft and ground stations on earth • Limitations  Antenna size/fairing space  Suitable ground stations limit frequency bands selection  Power consumption • Environment – Interference from solar radiation – Communication blackout during flyby 32 32/ 52
  33. 33. Antenna Systems • Parabolic high gain antenna (min. 2.5 m) – High data rate X-band transmission and reception (mainly science data, pictures, videos) – 4 channels with max. 250 kbps – ITU conformable center frequencies (DL 8.45 GHz, UL 7.20 GHz) – Low data rate S-band TT&C • Low gain antennas – Low data rate omni- directional S-band transmission and reception for engineering data, commands, emergency • Electra UHF system – For Mars relay network communication during flyby 33 33/ 52
  34. 34. Phases of communication Near Earth phase – Live streaming – Engineering data Cruise phase – Pictures, videos – Science data – Engineering data Relay communication phase – Science and engineering data, emergency link Cruise phase – Pictures, videos – Science – Engineering data 34 34/ 52
  35. 35. Re-entry • 3 passes through atmosphere before re-entering • Keep the load factors within a limit of 5 g • Lower heat flux peaks Peak Load < 4.5g Duration ca. 7h Type Ablative 35/ 52
  36. 36. Re-entry • Altitude and velocity during re-entry 36/ 52
  37. 37. Thermal Protection System • Use of PICA-X as in Dragon-C1 PICA -X TRL 7 Density Max. Heat Flux Max Temp. 0.27 g/cm³ 1200W/cm² >1920K • Increase in thickness due to higher integral heat load • PICA-X is 10-times cheaper then PICA, ready for 2018 37/ 52
  38. 38. Systems Engineering • Mass, volume and power budgets – Pressurized, unpressurized and packed volume – Average, peak and waste power • Element margins depending on technology readiness level and amount of required modifications – 5%, 10% and 20% • Overall system margin of 20% 38/ 52
  39. 39. Mass Budget Mass [kg] Structure 6% 25% 4 022 25% Attitude and Orbit Control System 1 729 11% 733 5% 1 500 9% 800 5% Radiation Protection 6% 2 032 13% ECLSS 3 197 20% Thermal Control System 913 6% Health Care 877 6% System Total 15 804 100% System Total + Margin (20%) 18 964 Electrical Power System Thermal Protection System 20% Communication System 11% 13% 5% 5% 9% 39/ 52
  40. 40. Human Factors 2 Ensure physical health To ensure physical health during the whole trip the team has to be prepared for all medical risks. Therefore the team supplies medical treatment and prevention . 3 e-Health Offering solutions for a 24/7 monitoring and documentation of all medical parameters through an health vest. The e-Health system offers self-treatment options. 1 Preselecting & Preparation The Team sets up the right criteria for the Preselection (age, experience, health situation, profession, ..). Moreover the astronauts have to be prepared mentally and physically. 4 Training & Food To prevent muscle degradation due to microgravity we provide training equipment and a suitable nutritional protocol. 5 Ensure mental health To establish and keep the astronauts mentally fit during the whole trip is a necessary key for a successful mission. This can be ensured by using audiovisual stimulation, a motivation and entertainment kit. 40/ 52
  41. 41. Human Factors Physical health Mental health • • • • Using medication and physical workouts to keep up the blood circulation Controlled diet plans with a certain amount of iron and sodium chloride Anticoagulants to influence the blood viscosity and composition and prevent thrombosis • • • Biofeedback: the measurement of various physical features that are unconscious Distractions and entertainment Individual configuration and layout of personal space with participation of crew members. Audio-visual-stimulation as a method to enhance mental fitness E-health Training & food • • • • Healthvest measures medical parameters (e.g. ECG, blood pressure, temperature etc.) Monitoring the vital parameters on earth and prevent pathological changes Frequent blood-gas analysis to examine the astronauts on infections or radiation exposure • • Physical training to maintain the blood circulation and assist the muscle-vein-pump Preventing osteoporosis and the decomposition of bones and muscles Ensure the physical fitness of the astronauts 41/ 52
  42. 42. Technical devices Healthvest Brainwave stimulation Monitoring device Gym 42/ 52
  43. 43. Economics - Cost estimating methods • Parametric: mathematical equations relating cost to one or more physical or performance variables associated with the item being estimated 𝜷 𝑺𝒚𝒔𝒕𝒆𝒎 𝑪𝒐𝒔𝒕 = 𝜶 ∗ 𝑸 ∗ 𝑴 𝜩∗ 𝜹 𝑺∗ 𝟏 ( 𝑰𝑶𝑪−𝟏𝟗𝟎𝟎)) 𝜺 ∗ 𝑩ф ∗ 𝜸 𝑫 (Advanced Missions Cost Model (AMCM) • Build-up: historical data (e.g. detailed work hours and bills of material) • Analogy: the data is adjusted or extrapolated 43 43/ 52
  44. 44. Comparison of estimated cost (build-up and analogy) and cost of the AMCM Estimated Cost Structure $427,500,000 Attitude and Orbit Control System $822,400 Electrical Power System $1,457,881 Propulsion Module $900,000,000 Thermal Protection System n/a Communication System $60,000,000 Radiation Protection $3,004,550 ECLSS n/a Thermal Control System n/a Health Care $27,900 Total AMCM $1,652,404,612 $1,998,184,167 $1,139,361,270 n/a $1,159,495,114 n/a $459,414,304 $7,540,528,352 n/a $518,579,504 $1,397,812,731 $13,328,606,055 44 44/ 52
  45. 45. To be done • • • • • Finish design, cost estimations Risk management Mission schedule, roadmap Ground segment Public outreach 45/ 52
  46. 46. Unterstützung • • • • • • Institut für Raumfahrtsysteme – Uni Stuttgart ASTOS Solutions – Bahnbestimmung und -optimierung Campus Konzept Stuttgart – Studentische Unternehmensberatung Constellation – Studentische Nachwuchsforschungsgruppe DGLR – Stuttgart BrainLight GmbH – Marktführer für Entspannungstechnologie 46/ 52
  47. 47. Unterstützung Was wir benötigen: • Reisekostenzuschüsse (Abschlusspräsentation in den USA) • Professionelle Meinungen und Korrekturleser • Finanzielle Unterstützung fürs Teambuilding (T-Shirts etc…) Was für sie drin ist: • Name und ggf. Logo im Abschlussbericht (wird veröffentlich) • Chance sich vor motivierten Studenten zu präsentieren • Kontakt zu Studenten in ihrem Fachgebiet 47/ 52
  48. 48. Thank you for your attention! Questions? Kontakt: D.Fries@Mars18.de L.Teichmann@Mars18.de 48/ 52
  49. 49. Media Sources • • • • • • • • • • • http://casolarco.com http://s400.photobucket.com/user/Donaldyax/ Emil Nathanson, Vorlesung Raumfahrttechnik 1 Johnson, J., and Marten, A., “Testing of a High Efficiency High Output Plastic Melt Waste Compactor”, AIAA-2013-3372, 2013. http://www.coconutsciencelaboratory.com www.nasa.gov www.spacex.com www.orbitalsciences.com Star Trek http://www.ulalaunch.com/site/pages/Products_AtlasV.shtml www.planetaryresources.com 49/ 52
  50. 50. ECLSS - Subsystems o Sabatier Converts CO2 from 4BMS to H2O and CH4 using H2 o 4BMS - 4-Bed Molecular Sieve Filters CO2 from atmosphere o TCCS - Trace Contaminant Control System Filters gaseous and vapor contaminants, airborne particulates and microbes o CHX - Condensing Heat Exchanger Cools atmosphere through condensation of atmospheric moisture (temperature and humidity control) o SPWE - Solid Polymer Water Electrolysis Produces H2 and O2 from H20 o VPCAR - Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal Produces clean H2O from waste water trough evaporation, condensation and other processes o ACS – Atmosphere Control System Monitors and controls the operation of all subsystems o HEHO-PWMC – High Efficiency High Output Plastic Waste Melt Compactor Melts trash to shielding tiles and removes water from trash 50/ 52

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