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Kontagious Kids

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Kontagious Kids

  1. 1. Kontagious Kids: Keeping Children and Day Care Staff Healthy
  2. 2. H1N1 “Swine” Flu
  3. 3. H1N1 “Swine” Flu <ul><li>Person-to-person, not pig-to-human </li></ul><ul><li>Pandemic </li></ul><ul><li>Type of influenza A virus </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to flu virus that infects pigs </li></ul><ul><li>Spread same way as seasonal flu; coughing, sneezing, fomites </li></ul>
  4. 4. Transmission <ul><li>Similar to seasonal flu; coughing, sneezing, touching contaminated surface </li></ul><ul><li>Spreads easily between people </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended to stay home from work/school if infected to avoid spread </li></ul><ul><li>Face masks of limited value; do not block viral agents </li></ul>
  5. 5. Symptoms <ul><li>Similar to other flus </li></ul><ul><li>Chills/fever </li></ul><ul><li>Coughing </li></ul><ul><li>Headaches </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle/joint pain </li></ul><ul><li>Sore throat </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Runny nose </li></ul>
  6. 6. High Risk Groups <ul><li>People older than 65 </li></ul><ul><li>Children younger than 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnant women </li></ul><ul><li>Folks with underlying medical conditions; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asthma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased immune response </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Vaccination Recommendations <ul><li>Pregnant women </li></ul><ul><li>Household contacts and caregivers for children < 6 months of age </li></ul><ul><li>Healthcare and emergency medical services personnel </li></ul>
  8. 8. Vaccination Recommendations <ul><li>6 months to 18 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Close contact; schools, daycare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5-11 years has highest infection rate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>19 through 24 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Live, work, study in close proximity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile population </li></ul></ul><ul><li>25 through 64 who have health conditions associated with a higher risk of complications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As mentioned previously </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Vaccination Recommendations <ul><li>Those over 65? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry some antibody protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to flu circulating in the 20’s through 50’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have lower infection rates </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Prevention <ul><li>Difficult to contain </li></ul><ul><li>WHO states that containment is not a feasible option </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on decreasing the effects of the virus </li></ul><ul><li>No recommendations on closing borders or restricting travel </li></ul><ul><li>Stay home when sick; reschedule travel plans if possible </li></ul>
  11. 11. Prevention <ul><li>Cover nose/mouth when you cough/sneeze </li></ul><ul><li>Wash hands afterwards </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid touching eyes, nose, mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid close contact with sick individuals </li></ul><ul><li>CDC recommends staying home 24 hours after fever subsides </li></ul>
  12. 12. H1N1 and Children <ul><li>Keep them home when sick, especially when symptomatic </li></ul><ul><li>Keep them away from other children </li></ul><ul><li>Call family physician first; don’t run to the ER </li></ul><ul><li>Kids can catch H1N1 in the ER </li></ul>
  13. 13. H1N1 in Children <ul><li>Emergency attention should be considered: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breathing difficulties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluish or gray skin color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased fluid intake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irritability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lethargy </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Treatment <ul><li>OTC remedies; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid intake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soup to relieve congestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pain relief </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Treatment <ul><li>Antiviral medications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tamiflu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relenza </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use for folks in high-risk groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthy people don’t need it </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Common Cold & Flu
  17. 17. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
  18. 18. RSV <ul><li>Major cause of lower respiratory tract infections during infancy & childhood </li></ul><ul><li>No vaccine available </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment is oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Usually produces mild symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Virus is ubiquitous; avoidance of infection is not possible </li></ul>
  19. 19. RSV Treatment <ul><li>Oxygen is the only thing that works in severe cases </li></ul><ul><li>Often indistinguishable from the common cold </li></ul>
  20. 20. RSV Prevention <ul><li>Just like the common cold, wash your hands often </li></ul>
  21. 21. Strep Throat <ul><li>Most common bacterial cause of sore throat </li></ul><ul><li>Common in children 5-15 </li></ul><ul><li>Can lead to Rheumatic Fever; treat with antibiotics (penicillin or amoxicillin) </li></ul><ul><li>Scarlet Fever – allergy to Strep toxin </li></ul>
  22. 22. Strep Throat <ul><li>2-5 day incubation </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid onset </li></ul><ul><li>Resolves in about a week, with or without antibiotics </li></ul>
  23. 23. Signs/Symptoms <ul><li>Fever >101 </li></ul><ul><li>White draining patches on the throat </li></ul><ul><li>Swollen, tender lymph glands in the neck </li></ul><ul><li>Headache </li></ul><ul><li>Stomach pain </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul>
  24. 25. Diagnosis <ul><li>Culture of throat </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid tests; not always accurate </li></ul><ul><li>Culture any negative rapid tests </li></ul>
  25. 26. Prevention <ul><li>Contagious until antibiotics kick in (24-48 hours) </li></ul><ul><li>Stay home for at least a day after antibiotics have been started </li></ul><ul><li>Change your toothbrush; reinfection </li></ul><ul><li>Wash hands often </li></ul><ul><li>Clean utensils </li></ul><ul><li>Re-occurring strep? Possible carrier? </li></ul>
  26. 27. MRSA
  27. 28. MRSA <ul><li>Staphylococcus Aureus bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Open wounds, invasive devices </li></ul><ul><li>Weakened immune systems; children and the elderly </li></ul>
  28. 29. MRSA <ul><li>Colonizes the anterior nares </li></ul><ul><li>Carried asymptomatically by healthy folks </li></ul><ul><li>Treated with sulfa-drugs or clindamycin </li></ul><ul><li>Vancomycin </li></ul><ul><li>VRSA; rare </li></ul>
  29. 30. What is MRSA <ul><li>Strain of Staphylococcus Aureus </li></ul><ul><li>Resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Penicillins and cephalosporins </li></ul><ul><li>Last line of defense is Vancomycin </li></ul>
  30. 31. MRSA Fast Facts <ul><li>In the USA, 95 million people carry S. Aureus </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 million thought to carry MRSA </li></ul><ul><li>Increased outbreaks in locker rooms and gymnasiums </li></ul>
  31. 32. Signs/Symptoms <ul><li>Skin and soft tissue infections </li></ul><ul><li>Red bumps, resemble pimples or boils </li></ul><ul><li>Open into painful pus-filled boils </li></ul><ul><li>Can become systemic , toxic shock and necrotizing pneumonia & fasciitis </li></ul>
  32. 33. Treatment <ul><li>Sulfa drugs have some effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Vancomycin is the last drug of choice </li></ul><ul><li>Linezolid is a newer drug with good effectiveness too </li></ul>
  33. 34. Prevention of MRSA <ul><li>Proper handwashing </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol-based hand sanitizers near patient beds/care areas </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorhexidine solution for proper handwashing </li></ul>
  34. 35. Rotavirus
  35. 36. Rotavirus <ul><li>Leading single cause of diarrhea among infants and young children </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitted via fecal-oral route </li></ul><ul><li>Infects cells of the small intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Entertoxin </li></ul><ul><li>Severe diarrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Death via dehydration </li></ul>
  36. 37. Rotavirus Epidemiology <ul><li>2.7 million cases in USA annually </li></ul><ul><li>60,000 hospitalizations </li></ul><ul><li>37 deaths </li></ul>
  37. 38. Signs/Symptoms <ul><li>Vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhea, 4-8 days </li></ul><ul><li>Low-grade fever </li></ul><ul><li>2-day incubation once infected before signs/symptoms appear </li></ul>
  38. 39. Detection and Diagnosis <ul><li>Enzyme immunoassay </li></ul><ul><li>Test kits, rapid sensitive and specific </li></ul>
  39. 40. Treatment <ul><li>Management of symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain hydraytion </li></ul><ul><li>Water, Pedialyte, IV solutions </li></ul>
  40. 41. Prevention <ul><li>Handwashing to prevent spread; not entirely effective </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccination </li></ul><ul><li>Rotarix by GlaxoSmithKline </li></ul><ul><li>RotaTeq by Merck </li></ul><ul><li>Taken orally, contain disabled live virus </li></ul>
  41. 42. Hepatitis A
  42. 43. Hepatitis A <ul><li>Highly contagious liver infection </li></ul><ul><li>Contaminated food, water </li></ul><ul><li>Fecal/oral route </li></ul><ul><li>Close contact with infected persons </li></ul><ul><li>No treatment required </li></ul><ul><li>Most recover completely without any permanent liver damage; immunity thereafter </li></ul>
  43. 44. Signs/Symptoms <ul><li>No signs/symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea/vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Abdominal pain </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Low-grade fever </li></ul><ul><li>Dark urine </li></ul>
  44. 45. Prevention <ul><li>Contain spread </li></ul><ul><li>Handwashing </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccination </li></ul><ul><li>Havrix or Vaqta </li></ul><ul><li>Twinrix, hepatitis A & B vaccine </li></ul>
  45. 46. Salmonella
  46. 47. Salmonella <ul><li>Causes enteritis </li></ul><ul><li>Self-limiting, no antibiotics required </li></ul><ul><li>Can cause severe illness in infants and children </li></ul><ul><li>Over 40,000 cases reported each year in the USA </li></ul>
  47. 48. Sources of infections <ul><li>Unclean food; institutional & restaurant kitchens </li></ul><ul><li>Excretions from infected individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Polluted water </li></ul><ul><li>Unhygienically thawed food </li></ul><ul><li>Meat, poultry, eggs, milk </li></ul><ul><li>Tortoises and snakes </li></ul>
  48. 49. Signs/Symptoms <ul><li>Nausea, diarrhea, chills, fever, abdominal cramps </li></ul><ul><li>8-72 hour incubation; sign/symptoms disappear in 4-7 days </li></ul><ul><li>Primary concern in children is dehydration, and containment </li></ul>
  49. 50. Prevention <ul><li>Wash hands after handling raw eggs and meats, poultry </li></ul><ul><li>Separate these foods from ready-to-eat foods </li></ul><ul><li>Clean utensils, cutting boards and counter tops </li></ul><ul><li>Clean kitchen surfaces with paper towels </li></ul>
  50. 51. Escherichia Coli
  51. 52. E. Coli <ul><li>Most strains are harmless </li></ul><ul><li>O157:H7 causes food poisoning </li></ul><ul><li>Enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic strains are common </li></ul><ul><li>Gastroenteritis, UTI and neonatal meningitis </li></ul>
  52. 53. Food Sources <ul><li>Ground beef </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetables grown in cow manure, or washed in contaminated water </li></ul><ul><li>Non-pasteurized fruit juices </li></ul>
  53. 54. Signs/Symptoms <ul><li>Stomach cramps </li></ul><ul><li>Vomiting and diarrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes a bloody stool </li></ul>
  54. 55. Prevention <ul><li>Cook ground beef thoroughly </li></ul><ul><li>Wash vegetables thoroughly </li></ul><ul><li>Wash hands after preparing these foods </li></ul><ul><li>Wash hands after caring for someone with E. Coli enteritis </li></ul>
  55. 56. Shigella
  56. 57. Shigella <ul><li>Causative agent of dysentary </li></ul><ul><li>Fecal-oral route once again </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of intestinal epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Cell-to-cell spread </li></ul>
  57. 58. Signs/Symptoms <ul><li>Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever </li></ul><ul><li>Stomach cramps, flatulence </li></ul><ul><li>Bloody stool containing mucus and/or pus </li></ul><ul><li>2-4 day incubation </li></ul><ul><li>Self-limiting </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotics in severe cases; shorten symptoms </li></ul>
  58. 59. Shigellosis <ul><li>Occurs typically during summer months </li></ul><ul><li>Usually affects kids 2-4 years old; rarely younger than 6 months </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydration is a problem in children; Pedialyte </li></ul><ul><li>Very contagious; just need 10 cells </li></ul><ul><li>Good handwashing practices prevent spread </li></ul>
  59. 60. Shigellosis <ul><li>Cleaning toilets </li></ul><ul><li>Clean diaper changing areas </li></ul><ul><li>Disposal of diapers </li></ul><ul><li>Handling foods </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation of kids with Shigellosis </li></ul>
  60. 61. Handwashing <ul><li>Single most important procedure for preventing the spread of biological contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents illness at home, school, work </li></ul><ul><li>Key prevention tools in healthcare, daycare and public facilities & schools </li></ul>
  61. 62. Handwashing – When to wash? <ul><li>Hands are visibly dirty </li></ul><ul><li>Before eating </li></ul><ul><li>Before touching eyes, nose or mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Before and after handling/preparing food </li></ul><ul><li>Before dressing a wound, giving medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Before inserting contact lenses </li></ul>
  62. 63. Handwashing – When to wash? <ul><li>After contact with blood/bodily fluids </li></ul><ul><li>After using the restroom </li></ul><ul><li>After changing diapers </li></ul><ul><li>After touching animals or pets </li></ul><ul><li>After coughing, sneezing, using a tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Wash more frequently when someone in the household is ill </li></ul>
  63. 64. Proper Handwashing Technique
  64. 65. Proper Handwashing Technique
  65. 66. Wash Your Hands: The Right Way When washing hands with soap and water: Wet your hands with clean running water and apply soap. Use warm water if it is available. Rub hands together to make a lather and scrub all surfaces. Continue rubbing hands for 15-20 seconds. Need a timer? Imagine singing &quot;Happy Birthday&quot; twice through to a friend. Rinse hands well under running water. Dry your hands using a paper towel or air dryer. If possible, use your paper towel to turn off the faucet. Always use soap and water if your hands are visibly dirty

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