Tab3fowatermainextensionapril2010 100521100751-phpapp01


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Tab3fowatermainextensionapril2010 100521100751-phpapp01

  1. 1. Water Main / Extensions Service Line Installation Valves & Hydrants Fereshteh Doost, P.E. Fuss & O’Neill, Inc. (860)-646-2469 Ext. 5295 June 2010
  2. 2. Products <ul><li>Pipe, Fitting, Valves, etc. – Latest edition of AWWA Standard. </li></ul><ul><li>All pipe, paints, linings, coating, for potable water must meet NSF/ANSI Standard 61 Criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Material shall stand internal and external pressure and force while in service. </li></ul><ul><li>Material shall be protected against internal and external corrosion. </li></ul><ul><li>Non metallic buried pipe shall include a tracer wire, detection tape. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Pipe Materials <ul><li>Material Size Length </li></ul><ul><li>Gray Cast Iron Pipe (CIP) 3” - 54” 12’, 16’, 18’, 20’ </li></ul><ul><li>Ductile Iron Pipe (DIP) 4” - 64” 18’, 20’ </li></ul><ul><li>Steel Pipe (SP) 4” - 96” 40’ </li></ul><ul><li>Asbestos Cement Pipe (ACP)* 4” - 42” 10’ - 13’ </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforced Concrete Pipe (RCP) 60”- 144” 8’ - 24’ </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic Pipe PVC C-900 4” - 12” 20’ - 40’ </li></ul><ul><li>*No longer used. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Separation & Layout <ul><li>10 feet horizontally from sewer, edge to edge </li></ul><ul><li>18” vertically above sewer, crown to invert </li></ul><ul><li>Loop Water Main </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Dead-End if possible </li></ul><ul><li>Routinely Flush Dead-End </li></ul>
  5. 5. Water Main Installation <ul><li>In accordance with AWWA Standard. </li></ul><ul><li>All materials shall be kept clean. </li></ul><ul><li>Plug open ends. </li></ul><ul><li>4.5’ to 5’ minimum cover (prevent freezing) </li></ul><ul><li>Insulation for pipes passing above or below culvert and bridge. </li></ul><ul><li>Shut off valve at both sides of bridge. </li></ul><ul><li>Thrust block and/or restrained joints, to prevent joint separation (bends, tee, hyd. Reducer, caps) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Restrained Joints
  7. 7. Concrete Thrust Blocks
  8. 8. Water Main Extension <ul><li>Need to understand existing configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Materials of existing main is very important </li></ul><ul><li>Need to be careful not to contaminate existing main (HPC testing is very helpful) </li></ul><ul><li>Can be done under 2 circumstance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry tap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wet tap </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Dry Tap <ul><li>Need to be able to isolate the portion of main to be extended </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure valves available to isolate the area work </li></ul><ul><li>Some leakage of valves is okay, but can hinder progress </li></ul><ul><li>Be cautious when dealing with asbestos cement or transite </li></ul><ul><li>Thrust restraints should be designed accordingly </li></ul>
  10. 10. Dry Tap (cont.) <ul><li>If connection is in form of a tee, make sure tee assembly is complete prior to cutting main </li></ul><ul><li>Notify customers of the potential interruption in service </li></ul><ul><li>Should begin any extension with a new gate or butterfly valve </li></ul>
  11. 11. Wet Tap <ul><li>Typically a tapping sleeve & valve is used </li></ul><ul><li>Disinfect sleeve and valve interiors with bleach prior to installation </li></ul><ul><li>Sleeve is bolted onto existing main </li></ul><ul><li>Existing main is then live tapped </li></ul><ul><li>Gate valve is closed to allow removal of the tapping machine at completion of tap </li></ul><ul><li>Outside diameter of existing main is critical </li></ul><ul><li>Thrust restraint should be designed accordingly </li></ul>
  12. 12. Wet Tap Example
  13. 13. Water Services <ul><li>For this section we will deal with domestic services under normal pressures (up to 100 lbs.) </li></ul><ul><li>AWWA Standard C800 outlines water services </li></ul><ul><li>Fire services are an issue in commercial areas and will not be discussed in detail </li></ul>
  14. 14. Water Service Components <ul><li>There are 4 basic components to most services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporation Stop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service Pipe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curb Stop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Meter </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Water Service Installation Details
  16. 16. Typical Service Connection
  17. 17. Service Valves
  18. 18. Corporation Stop <ul><li>Provide a means of shutting off water while installing service </li></ul><ul><li>Typically made of bronze </li></ul><ul><li>Typically not provided with service box </li></ul><ul><li>Usually a ball valve type </li></ul><ul><li>Always attached directly to the water main </li></ul><ul><li>Corporation is usually mounted in the 2:00 position (between 1:00 – 2:00 position) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Corporation Stop (cont.) <ul><li>Two ways to attach stop to water main </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct tap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Involves tapping the corporation stop directly to the main </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually this applies to small stops tapped to metal pipe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metallic pipe is usually required on main line </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not used for high pressure applications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saddle tap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For plastic pipe, corporation is often attached using a pipe saddle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typically used with larger (2” and larger) taps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The saddle provide structural backing for the tap </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corporation is then attached to the saddle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High pressure applications </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Service Saddle
  21. 21. Service Pipe <ul><li>Most common material is copper (type K) </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic, steel, and iron pipe can be used </li></ul><ul><li>Lead had been used, but should be removed when found </li></ul><ul><li>Pipe extends from corporation to curb stop, then into home to meter </li></ul>
  22. 22. Service Pipe (cont.) <ul><li>Typical sizes are between 5/8-inch to 2-inch in diameter for a domestic service </li></ul><ul><li>Services can be as 2-inches and larger for fire services </li></ul><ul><li>It is not uncommon for multiple homes to be fed from a single service </li></ul><ul><li>Each service should be equipped with curb stop to allow shut-off without interrupting other customers </li></ul>
  23. 23. Curb Stop <ul><li>Provides a means of shutting off water after completion of water service construction </li></ul><ul><li>Typically located at the property line </li></ul><ul><li>Usually defines break in ownership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility usually owns from main to curb stop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private owner owns from the curb stop into the home </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Curb Stop (cont.) <ul><li>Typically made of bronze </li></ul><ul><li>Provided with service box </li></ul><ul><li>Operating key is usually between 1 to 2-inch depending on the service size </li></ul><ul><li>Usually a ball valve type </li></ul><ul><li>Direction of opening valve should be utility standard (can be provided in either direction) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Typical Curb Stop
  26. 26. Water Meters <ul><li>The final component of the service is the meter </li></ul><ul><li>Provides the utility a means of charging consumer for water used </li></ul><ul><li>There are many types of meters available </li></ul><ul><li>Meters can be remotely read </li></ul><ul><li>Meter readings can also be transmitted directly to billing office </li></ul>
  27. 27. Appurtenances <ul><li>Shut-off valves – determined by public water system (PWS) </li></ul><ul><li>Air-release valve at high point to release and remove air. </li></ul><ul><li>Blow-offs at low point where sediment accumulates. </li></ul><ul><li>Flushing device location by (PWS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Flushing device shall not be directly connected to any sewer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Flushing device shall have minimum velocity of 2.5 fps </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Valves <ul><li>The most common valve in a distribution system is a gate valve (AWWA C500, C509, or C515) </li></ul><ul><li>Gate valves are used to isolate portions of the system </li></ul><ul><li>For 16-inch and larger diameter pipes, butterfly valves are often used (AWWA C504) </li></ul><ul><li>Usually 1,000 foot spacing is used </li></ul>
  29. 29. Gate Valve
  30. 30. Gate Valves <ul><li>The direction to open the valve is critical </li></ul><ul><li>Valve body can be either ductile or cast iron </li></ul><ul><li>Valves are usually epoxy coated (AWWA C550) </li></ul><ul><li>Typically provide a “cluster” at each intersection </li></ul><ul><li>The two basic types of gate valves are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resilient wedge (AWWA C509) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double disk (AWWA C500) </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Gate Valves (cont.) <ul><li>Resilient Wedge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stops flow using a rubber encapsulated iron wedge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for diameters less than 14-inches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For >14-inch double disks can be used although RW can still be used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bypass typically used on gate valves > 16-inches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturer recommends not testing against a resilient wedge valve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When newly installed, operate (open and close) several times to insure proper sealing </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Resilient Wedge Gate Valve Section
  33. 33. Gate Valves (cont.) <ul><li>Double Disk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stops flow using a double metal disk mechanism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Its use is being phased out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use today is typically limited to diameters over 14-inch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bypass typically required on installations > 16-inches </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Gate Valves (cont.) <ul><li>Gate valves are used for smaller pipe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less expensive compared to butterfly valves for small pipe (<= 12-inch) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many turns to open (3 x diameter + 3): for 8-inch it would take (3 x 8 + 3 =) 27 turns to open </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mechanical joints need to be restrained </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure force on large diameter gates make opening difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Gates are accessed using a gate box </li></ul><ul><li>Wrenches for opening gates should be standard for a given utility </li></ul>
  35. 35. Gate Valve Section View
  36. 36. Butterfly Valves <ul><li>More expensive compared to gate valves for smaller pipe, but more economical for larger pipe – 16-inch or greater </li></ul><ul><li>Cracking valve equalizes pressure; assists in opening </li></ul><ul><li>¼ turn will open or close the valve </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical joints are preferred </li></ul><ul><li>Buried valve is accessed using gate box </li></ul><ul><li>Bypass valves typically not required </li></ul>
  37. 37. Typical Butterfly Valve
  38. 38. Hydrants <ul><li>AWWA Standard C502 & C503 outlines hydrants </li></ul><ul><li>There are 2 basic types: wet or dry barrel </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrant assembly is composed of the following </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchor tee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Branch piping (6-inch diameter) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gate valve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thrust restraint is a major concern for hydrants </li></ul><ul><li>All joints from tee to hydrant should be restrained </li></ul>
  39. 39. Hydrants (cont.) <ul><li>AWWA recommends spacing hydrants <500 feet </li></ul><ul><li>Direction of opening the hydrant should match gate opening direction </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrants are usually located at the back of sidewalk </li></ul><ul><li>Do not locate hydrants too close to structures, poles, etc. (can’t get to hydrant during fire) </li></ul><ul><li>Try to place at property line to prevent interference with future drives, walkways. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Typical Hydrant Section View
  41. 41. Typical Hydrant Installation
  42. 42. Hydrant Operation <ul><li>Operator needs to understand hydrant operation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In New England, hydrants are dry barrel type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry barrel hydrants are often equipped with drain ports to drain barrel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drain ports are not allowed in some jurisdictions (Maine) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not throttle with hydrant, use gate valve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not fully closing hydrant can cause scouring of base through drain ports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closing hydrant too quickly can cause water hammer and possible break </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be careful of final couple of turns </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Hydrant at Dead End
  44. 44. Hydrant Operation (cont.) <ul><li>Operator’s understanding (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NEVER THROTTLE A HYDRANT WITH THE OPERATING NUT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If hydrant needs to be throttled, use gate valve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When operating always either fully open or close the hydrant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never stand in front of hydrant cap when pressurizing; stand behind hydrant in case cap ‘blows” off </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Hydrants (cont.) <ul><li>Air release valves should be installed at high points to bleed entrained air. Hydrants have been used in lieu of air release valves with mixed results </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrants located at low points can be used to flush deposited materials </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller diameter flushing hydrants also available </li></ul>
  46. 46. Reference Materials <ul><li>AWWA Standards </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA </li></ul><ul><li>Water Distribution System Operation and Maintenance, fourth edition </li></ul><ul><li>State Guidelines and Policies for Public Water Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Ten State Standards </li></ul>
  47. 47. Questions?