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Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins


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This powerpoint details sources of carbs, fats and proteins. Used in Foods 1 classes

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Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins

  1. 1. Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins Nutrients that Provide Calories
  2. 2. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Carbohydrates are the major components of most plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants make carbohydrates on their own through photosynthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Separated into two categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Functions of Carbohydrates <ul><li>Main source of energy </li></ul><ul><li>Spare protein from being burned so it can be used to build and repair </li></ul><ul><li>Dietary fiber can help lower blood cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>Part of connective tissues, some hormones and enzymes and genetic material. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Sources <ul><li>Grains (wheat, corn, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Rice </li></ul><ul><li>Beans </li></ul><ul><li>Sugars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Honey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cane sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molasses </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Nutrition of Carbohydrates <ul><li>Provide 4 calories per gram </li></ul><ul><li>Main source of body’s energy </li></ul><ul><li>Body uses carbs before calories from protein and fat. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Simple Carbohydrates <ul><li>Sugars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refined </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Sugars (Simple Carbohydrates) <ul><li>Divided into two categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single sugars (monosaccharide) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double sugars (disaccharides) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Names of sugars usually end in –ose </li></ul><ul><li>Monosaccharide's are the building blocks of complex carbs </li></ul>
  8. 8. Monosaccharide's <ul><li>Glucose (also called dextrose) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body’s main source of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body converts other sugars into glucose for use by the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in fruits and honey </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fructose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweetest natural sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in honey and fruit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Galactose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not found alone in nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked to glucose to make lactose (milk sugar) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Disaccharides <ul><li>Sucrose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cane sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of glucose and fructose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maltose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not occur in nature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lactose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural only in milk </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Complex Carbohydrate <ul><li>Also known as polysaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>Starch </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber </li></ul>
  11. 11. Starch <ul><li>Made up of many glucoses linked together </li></ul><ul><li>Found only in plant foods </li></ul><ul><li>Found in grains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheat, corn, rice, rye, barley, and oats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thickens liquids when heated (gelatinization) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Fiber <ul><li>Edible but not digestible </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber moves through the body unchanged </li></ul><ul><li>Two categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soluble (swells in water) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insoluble (does not swell as much) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Found in dried beans, peas, lentils, </li></ul><ul><li>Also found in the peelings of fruits and vegetables. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Fiber continued <ul><li>Found in whole grains. </li></ul><ul><li>Whole grains include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endosperm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bran </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>germ </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Dietary recommendations <ul><li>130 grams each day for children and adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Use sugars in moderation. </li></ul><ul><li>Women need at least 38 grams of carbohydrates from fiber a day. </li></ul><ul><li>Men need at least 25 grams of carbohydrates from fiber a day. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Fats (Lipids) <ul><li>Include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fats (Solid at room temperature) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oils (Liquid are room temperature) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cholesterol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lecithin </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Functions <ul><li>Account for 15-25% of body weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% of fat stores are right under skin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fat provides 9 calories per gram </li></ul>
  17. 17. Sources <ul><li>Margarine (Saturated) </li></ul><ul><li>Butter (Saturated) </li></ul><ul><li>Oils (unsaturated) </li></ul><ul><li>Fast foods </li></ul><ul><li>Baked goods </li></ul><ul><li>Meats (mostly saturated) </li></ul><ul><li>Dairy products </li></ul>
  18. 18. Types of Fats <ul><li>Saturated fat (worst for you) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in animal foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some vegetable oils are high in saturated fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coconut, palm kernel, and palm oil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mono-unsaturated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Olive oil , canola oil, and peanut oil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poly-unsaturated (best for you) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safflower, corn, soybean, sesame, and sunflower oil </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Trans fats <ul><li>Naturally occur in meat and dairy foods </li></ul><ul><li>Most come from hydrogenated fat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificially solidified oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in margarine, shortening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a longer shelf life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes unsaturated fats, saturated </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Cholesterol <ul><li>Found in animal products </li></ul><ul><li>High levels in blood can lead to heart problems </li></ul>
  21. 21. Dietary recommendations <ul><li>No more than 20-35% of calories should come from fats </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 10% of calories should come from saturated fat </li></ul><ul><li>You should consume no more than 300 milligrams of cholesterol a day. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Protein <ul><li>Building block of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of long chains of amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>20 different kinds of amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>9 amino acids must come from food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential amino acids </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Function of Protein <ul><li>Protein is a part of every cell in your body </li></ul><ul><li>Build and maintain body tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Needed most during pregnancy and infancy </li></ul><ul><li>Also needed for healing after surgery or infections </li></ul><ul><li>Found in hormones, and all antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Transport minerals, vitamins, fats and oxygen through body </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain acid base balance and water balance in body </li></ul>
  24. 24. Sources of Protein <ul><li>Complete Proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incomplete </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grains </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Incomplete proteins <ul><li>Combine Beans with grains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beans and rice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Combine a grain with a small amount of a full protein food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mac and cheese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pork and egg fried rice </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Dietary recommendations <ul><li>Between .85 and 1.5 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight </li></ul><ul><li>Varies based on age, and based on whether a person is pregnant or lactating </li></ul>
  27. 27. Sources <ul><li>Drummond, Karen, and Lisa Brefere. Nutrition for Food Service and Culinary Professionals . Fifth. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and sons, 2004. Print. </li></ul>