Kevin Hassel                     Dana Wei                   Nick Lenard                  Ben Knudsen       Challenges andI...
The macro-  economicenvironment
India At a Glance   1.21 billion people   2nd largest workforce at 478.3 million people   Competitive advantage is cent...
India At a Glance(cont…)   An estimated 25% of Indian’s live on less than $2 a day,    making inequality and quality of l...
India At a Glance(cont…)   India is currently involved with multiple trade    agreements that include: SAFTA, APTA, BIMST...
LaborChallenges
Overview of IndianLabor   Labor is India’s competitive advantage   6% economic growth through the 1990s     Job growth ...
Labor Inefficiencies   15 million human days of work lost from work stoppage     Unions have little power   Less than 1...
Regulation Reform   Allow the market to take control     Eliminate inefficient processes   Stop Over-Regulating     6 ...
Unions   Trade Union Leadership   Too Many Unions & Too Much Rivalry     Not enough power     68544 Unions with     8...
Opportunities andChallenges   Jobs will be lost as inefficiencies are eliminated     Similar to China’s privatization   ...
Labor reforms “Countries that assume that their physical resourcessustain prosperity are economic dwarfs. Countries that  ...
Independence: 1980’s   India gained independence in 1947   Trade Union Act 1946       Allows for the formation of a tra...
Industrial DisputesAct: 1948   India’s heavy regulation includes over 45 national laws    and 200 state laws that derive ...
Effects of Rigidities   Jobless growth in organized sector   Organized: accounts for 6% GDP     seeking more capital-in...
Infrastructur e challenges
Key ImprovementsNecessary:   Transportation   Power   Water
Transportation   Airports, bridges, and highways in short supply and    crumbling away, placing the country’s citizens at...
Power   Power failures are a major obstacle     Last up to multiple hours are also an obstacle     Can and should be ex...
Water   Availability     Steel production, chemical manufacturing, and India’s      rapidly growing population all requi...
Source: World Bank Report on Water in India
In 1980                       India    ChinaGross NationalIncome ($ current       182      188billion)Average AnnualGrowth...
Policy Making:
Air Transported Freight by Year                                                  14000                                    ...
Container Port Traffic by Year140,000,000.00120,000,000.00100,000,000.00 80,000,000.00                                    ...
Electricity Production (kWh) 4E+123.5E+12 3E+122.5E+12 2E+12                                  Electricity production (kWh)...
Quality of Infrastructure4.504.30                   4.32                            4.284.103.90   3.983.70               ...
Total Rail Lines (km)70,000.0065,000.0060,000.0055,000.00                                    Rail lines (total route-km) C...
Cellphone Subscriptions800,000,000.00700,000,000.00600,000,000.00500,000,000.00400,000,000.00                             ...
The Results:                                 India             China                          1990       2005      1990   ...
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India Presentation

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  • In December, a bridge in eastern India collapsed which resulted in the death of 34 passengers in a train passing by underneathTrans-shipment necessary which leads to fees, delays, inability to achieve economies of scale
  • India Presentation

    1. 1. Kevin Hassel Dana Wei Nick Lenard Ben Knudsen Challenges andINDI
    2. 2. The macro- economicenvironment
    3. 3. India At a Glance 1.21 billion people 2nd largest workforce at 478.3 million people Competitive advantage is centered around labor More than half of the Indian work force is in agriculture (52%), but its major source of economic growth comes from the services industry (34%)
    4. 4. India At a Glance(cont…) An estimated 25% of Indian’s live on less than $2 a day, making inequality and quality of life real issues for India. Unions exist in India mainly in smaller concentrated industries and have declined over the past few decades, so poverty is rising Protectionism exists overwhelmingly within India, which has led to the takeover of a majority of the private sector by the government.
    5. 5. India At a Glance(cont…) India is currently involved with multiple trade agreements that include: SAFTA, APTA, BIMSTEC, and PTA in efforts to:  Hasten economic growth through increased trade  Increase national security and protection for local cultures. However, challenges with labor and infrastructure remain the key hindrances to India’s growth.
    6. 6. LaborChallenges
    7. 7. Overview of IndianLabor Labor is India’s competitive advantage 6% economic growth through the 1990s  Job growth decelerated during the same time Estimated 30-40% of manufacturing jobs have been lost from over regulation 45 Central Laws and 170 State Statutes that regulate Labor
    8. 8. Labor Inefficiencies 15 million human days of work lost from work stoppage  Unions have little power Less than 10 million workers are employed in the private sector  Indian firms are forced to be inefficient by the labor laws Lack of Economies of Scale  India’s Industrial Disputes Act: 1947
    9. 9. Regulation Reform Allow the market to take control  Eliminate inefficient processes Stop Over-Regulating  6 attendance logs, 10 overtime accounts, etc. Stop Protectionism  Allow creative destruction  Allow more efficient businesses to develop Limit Government Takeovers/Allow market to naturally eliminate jobs  Leads to inefficient practices
    10. 10. Unions Trade Union Leadership Too Many Unions & Too Much Rivalry  Not enough power  68544 Unions with  893 average membership Firms do not have to recognize Unions  Limited negotiations
    11. 11. Opportunities andChallenges Jobs will be lost as inefficiencies are eliminated  Similar to China’s privatization  Lost jobs, unemployment, etc. Reduce Inequality  25% of Indian’s live on $2 a day Natural Balance of Union/Firm Power Able to exploit both skilled and unskilled labor Incorporate labor in current and future trade agreements
    12. 12. Labor reforms “Countries that assume that their physical resourcessustain prosperity are economic dwarfs. Countries that regard their human resources as their eternal wealth are economic giants.”
    13. 13. Independence: 1980’s India gained independence in 1947 Trade Union Act 1946  Allows for the formation of a trade union by 7 or more workers, including outside members under different employment, which causes disputes to span many years. In 2000: 533,038 disputes pending in Indias labor courts  28,864 had been pending for over 10 years
    14. 14. Industrial DisputesAct: 1948 India’s heavy regulation includes over 45 national laws and 200 state laws that derive the Industrial Disputes Act of 1948. The Act requires organizations in the formal sector, as well as any organization with more than 100 workers, to seek government approval before firing an employee.
    15. 15. Effects of Rigidities Jobless growth in organized sector Organized: accounts for 6% GDP  seeking more capital-intensive methods of production  set up several plants instead of a single large one to get around labor laws Unorganized: accounts for 94% GDP
    16. 16. Infrastructur e challenges
    17. 17. Key ImprovementsNecessary: Transportation Power Water
    18. 18. Transportation Airports, bridges, and highways in short supply and crumbling away, placing the country’s citizens at risk. Lack of efficiency a big issue:  Absence of mass transit system has led to overcrowding  In turn, overcrowding has led to traffic jams  In turn, many laborers spend up to 4 hours a day commuting Ports are incompetent  Turnaround rate is 3 days in India vs. 8 hours in countries like China  Cannot handle many of the world’s largest cargo ships
    19. 19. Power Power failures are a major obstacle  Last up to multiple hours are also an obstacle  Can and should be expected daily  Prevalent even in the highly commercial and developed areas such as Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore India is losing out investment opportunities as a result  Last year, Intel Corp. chose Vietnam over India as the site for a new chip assembly plant
    20. 20. Water Availability  Steel production, chemical manufacturing, and India’s rapidly growing population all require huge amounts of water  Shortage of water will devastate the agricultural sector as well as industrial sector  Global warming and reduction in size of India’s glaciers have had a hand in this Sanitation
    21. 21. Source: World Bank Report on Water in India
    22. 22. In 1980 India ChinaGross NationalIncome ($ current 182 188billion)Average AnnualGrowth Rate 3.30% 6.90%GDP Per Capita (2000Constant $) 223 186Populaiton Less than$1 day (million) 382 634Poverty at less than$1 day (%) 54.40% 63.80%
    23. 23. Policy Making:
    24. 24. Air Transported Freight by Year 14000 12000Total Airtransported Freight (millions of tons) 10000 8000 6000 Air transport, freight (million ton-km) China Air transport, freight (million ton-km) India 4000 2000 0 Year
    25. 25. Container Port Traffic by Year140,000,000.00120,000,000.00100,000,000.00 80,000,000.00 Container port traffic (TEU: 20 foot equivalent units) China Container port traffic (TEU: 20 foot 60,000,000.00 equivalent units) India 40,000,000.00 20,000,000.00 - 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
    26. 26. Electricity Production (kWh) 4E+123.5E+12 3E+122.5E+12 2E+12 Electricity production (kWh) China Electricity production (kWh) India1.5E+12 1E+12 5E+11 0
    27. 27. Quality of Infrastructure4.504.30 4.32 4.284.103.90 3.983.70 Quality of port infrastructure, WEF (1=extremely underdeveloped to 7=well developed and efficient by international3.50 standards) 3.49 3.47 Quality of port infrastructure, WEF3.30 (1=extremely underdeveloped to 7=well 3.33 developed and efficient by international standards)3.102.902.702.50 2007 2008 2009
    28. 28. Total Rail Lines (km)70,000.0065,000.0060,000.0055,000.00 Rail lines (total route-km) China Rail lines (total route-km) India50,000.0045,000.0040,000.00 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
    29. 29. Cellphone Subscriptions800,000,000.00700,000,000.00600,000,000.00500,000,000.00400,000,000.00 Mobile cellular subscriptions China Mobile cellular subscriptions India300,000,000.00200,000,000.00100,000,000.00 - 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
    30. 30. The Results: India China 1990 2005 1990 2005Gross National Income($ current billion) 313 800 356 2244Average Annual GrowthRate 6.50% 6.40% 10.40% 10.90%GDP Per Capita (2000Constant $) 317 588 392 1449Populaiton Less than $1day (million) 357 327 375 173Poverty at less than $1day (%) 42.10% 30.70% 33.00% 13.40%
    31. 31. Questions?

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