I AM CANADIAN, EH? How Canadians Are Perceived

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Shows research about (Canadian-born and non-Canadian-born) post-secondary students' perceptions of people living in Canada

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  • Intro ourselves and YUELI, title tie into conference themeImpetusShira: in a Pre-MBA classroom, discussion abt cross-cultural communications sparked disagreements abt what Canadians are like. How many times has Canadian personality come up in your classroom, with students making surprising comments abt Canadians? Abt behaviours, personality traits, and so onWe decided to . . . .We’re gonna warm you up with a question.......
  • 2) TO THE AUDIENCE: Think about all the people you’ve met in Canada. What are 5 personality traits (characteristics or adjectives) that you think of to describe them? Personality traits are those that describe the way that people act, not look.3) The reason why we asked you this question is...............
  • DANA
  • Paraphrase: How do group 1’s and group 2’s perceptions of group 3 differ?
  • Ssh- any measured network of personality traits is more a reflection of the culture’s linguistic network of word-word associations than of a behavioral network of trait-trait associations. In other words, propositions about language are confused with propositions of the world. Fails to explain how such a linguistic network can possibly exist independently of a behavioral network (Jackson & Paunonen, 1980). Rather, the language of a culture evolves to reflect the actual behavior patterns of its members. Rejected by Paunonen, Jackson, Trzebinski, & Forsterling, 1992 where verbal and nonverbal formats of personality were compared across 4 cultural and linguistic groups and very similar patterns emerged between groups. Proving that there are culturally shared meanings associated with such adjectives independent of a common language or cultural heritage. acculturation+= cultural changes resulting from intercultural encounters-in either or both groups-on individual level or group level4 strategies: integration, assimilation, separation, marginalizationDifferent from interculturalism= processes used to interact with cultural distinct individuals and groupsFive-factor model of personality (Tupes & Christal, 1961 Dependability, culture, emotional stability, agreeableness, surgency.Indicates that there are 5 robust factors that have replicated across all culturesConscientiousness, openness to experience, neuroticism, agreeableness, extraversionAof IE – help schools manage cultural diversity-this shows that relevant topics are receiving more attention recently and are even being implemented at the educational policy level. In this document, the council of Europe outlines the importance of intercultural pedagogy. Interculuralism is here defined as = being open to , interested in, curious about and empathetic towards people from other cultures, and using this heightened awareness of otherness to evaluate one’s own everyday patterns of perception, thought, feeling and behaviour in order to develop greater self-knowledge and self-understanding. ….involves intercultural competencies or understanding of cultural knowledge, including behaviours, attitudes, and values, and the interactions of people from different cultures rather than adopting.. Also, intercultural competence allows intercultural citizens to participate in multilingual and multicultural communitiesRelated to successfulness of multicultural societiesSocial distance= differences between language learner group and target language group. Also addressed by bonnie norton as social variables to language learning-the greater the social distance the lesser degree of acculturation taking place, predicting that members of the second language groups will not become as proficient speakers of the target language. Norton- explores the relationship between the individual and social. the role of language as constitutive of and constituted by a language learner’s social identity, giving access to or denying access to powerful social networksCheng and fox- explored the factors which affect acculturation at Canadian universities and the role of EAP in L2 students’ acculturation processAcculturation: used to describe the relationship between L2 students’ cultural adaptation and academic achievement, so that culture is not viewed as behaviours to be acquired but a world view to be discovered in the language and communication of the interlocutors that use the language.
  • DANADetails about outreach:-we were surprised to get so many NCBs and relatively fewer CBs-why we didn’t use ELI Ss: we wanted to compare apples and apples, one type of postsec student with another-We contacted people viaPersonal & professional email contactsEmailed survey link to York U, York Int’l office, York Linguistics Dept. Listserv, Humber College CE, George Brown College, UOIT, our instructor listserv, U of TorontoPosted to 100s of postsec facebook pagesTweeted survey thru my twitter account
  • CBs and NCBs2 analyses of this question: # adj. mentions, and weighted rankings of adj.s taking into account whether a student ranked an adj. 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, or 5th
  • DANAHappy to get so many responses! In our sample, NCBs > CBs, BUT total pop. of CBs > NCBs = assymmetryNote this is a “sample of convenience” (a YORK statistician we consulted suggest we use this term)Difficult to know the absolute size of the population we’re dealing with b/c includes 4 groups:includes current CB postsec SsCurrent non-Cdn-born postsec SsAnd recent graduates, within the last 5 years, for both groups
  • CBs and NCBs2 analyses of this question: # adj. mentions, and weighted rankings of adj.s taking into account whether a student ranked an adj. 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, or 5th
  • -CBs: no ties-NCBs: open-minded & kindly – tied for 5th
  • -Why weighted ranking?-wanted to capture the fact that Ss’ ranked some adj.s more highly than others-The closer to a student’s first choice, the higher the score for the adjective
  • For CBs: Caring & open-minded tied
  • Stastically significantRanked Largest to Smallest
  • We didn’t edit for grammar!
  • - Sample size: recall ours was a “sample of convenience”- About 40% of responses from York U: Is it truly representative of all post-sec Ss in Canada?Statistical significance??? Linguistic limitations of Ss? Do all Ss (CBs & NCBs) have similar understandings of adj.s?Heterogeneity of NCBs:NCBs include people who came to Canada when very young, new immigrants, int’l Ss, and so on
  • AT THE VERY END: Is anyone aware of other research similar to ours (that we should consult)?Please see us afterwards!GET DISC. Qs down to 3!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Extra QWhat significance, if any, do these results have for your teaching and/or administrative context?
  • I AM CANADIAN, EH? How Canadians Are Perceived

    1. 1. I AM CANADIAN, EH? How Canadians Are Perceived in RealityTESL Canada Conference, Halifax, Apr. 28th-30th, 2011<br />Shira Packer & Dana Lynch<br />spacke@yorku.ca dlynch@yorku.ca <br />York University English Language Institute<br />Toronto, ON<br />NOT FOR REPRODUCTION OR CIRCULATION <br />WITHOUT THE EXPLICIT PERMISSION OF THE AUTHORS<br />
    2. 2. Warm-up Question!<br />Think about all the people you’ve met in Canada. <br />What are 5 personality traits that you immediately think of to describe them? <br />(Keep in mind, personality traits are those that describe the way that people act, not look.)<br />
    3. 3. Agenda<br />Research question<br />Influencing Literature <br />Social and Cross-Cultural Psychology<br />SLA<br />Methodology & survey questions<br />Data analysis & results<br />Limitations<br />Possible Implications<br />Discussion<br />
    4. 4. Research Question<br />How do <br />(1) native-born Canadian postsecondary students’ and recent graduates’ (CBs) perceptions<br />AND<br />(2) non-native-born Canadian postsecondary students’ and recent graduates’ (NCBs) perceptions<br />(3) of people living in Canada<br />DIFFER? (if at all) <br />TO ANSWER OUR RESEARCH QUESTION, WE CONDUCTED AN ONLINE SURVEY!<br />
    5. 5. Relevant Literature <br />Social & Cross-Cultural Psychology<br />Acculturation & Adaptation (Berry & Sam, 1980)<br />Five-factor model of personality (McCrae & Costa, 1987)<br />Hofstede (1980)<br />Katz and Braly & follow up studies(1933)<br />SLA<br /><ul><li>Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters (Language Policy Division, Council of Europe, 2009)
    6. 6. Social identity, investment, and language learning (Bonnie Norton, 1995)
    7. 7. Towards a better understanding of academic acculturation: Second Language Students in Canadian Universities (Cheng & Fox, 2008)</li></li></ul><li>Methodology<br />Consent and research ethics<br />Rec’d consent from York’s Office of Research Ethics<br />Platform<br />Survey Monkey online survey tool<br />Outreach<br />Video: http://vimeo.com/18546862<br />Email<br />Facebook: page, personal messages, status update<br />Twitter<br />
    8. 8. Survey Questions<br />Background <br />Unprompted adjective ranking<br />30 Likert-scale questions (5-point scale)<br />E-interview qualitative questions<br />
    9. 9. Adjective Ranking Question<br />Think about all the people you’ve met in Canada. <br />What are 5 personality traits (characteristics or adjectives) that you think of to describe them? <br />____________<br />____________<br />____________<br />____________<br />____________<br />
    10. 10. Likert-scale Question<br />To what extent do you agree with the following statements, where 1 represents strongly disagree and 5 represents strongly agree:<br />People in Canada are…..<br /><ul><li>Friendly
    11. 11. Peaceful
    12. 12. Helpful
    13. 13. Polite
    14. 14. Selfish
    15. 15. Respectful
    16. 16. Loyal
    17. 17. Competitive
    18. 18. Open-minded
    19. 19. Caring
    20. 20. Modest
    21. 21. Funny
    22. 22. Hardworking
    23. 23. Self-confident
    24. 24. Boring
    25. 25. Cooperative
    26. 26. Optimistic
    27. 27. Dissatisfied
    28. 28. Materialistic
    29. 29. Risk-taking
    30. 30. Easygoing
    31. 31. Patient
    32. 32. Outgoing
    33. 33. Generous
    34. 34. Cold
    35. 35. Afraid
    36. 36. Individualistic
    37. 37. Reliable
    38. 38. Intelligent</li></li></ul><li>Respondent Background Info<br />Sample Size:<br />
    39. 39. Respondent Background Profile<br />
    40. 40. Canadian Post-Sec Institutions Represented<br />Acadia University<br />Algonquin College of Applied Arts and Technology<br />Athabasca University<br />Aurora College<br />Bishop's University<br />Brandon University<br />British Columbia Institute of Technology<br />Brock University<br />Canadian Mennonite University<br />Canadore College of Applied Arts and Technology<br />Cape Breton University<br />Capilano College<br />Capilano University<br />Carleton University<br />Centennial College of Applied Arts and Technology<br />Collège universitaire de Saint-Boniface<br />College of New Caledonia<br />College of the North Atlantic<br />Concordia University<br />Crandall University<br />Dalhousie University (10)<br />École polytechnique de Montréal<br />Fanshawe College of Applied Arts and Technology<br />George Brown College of Applied Arts and Technology<br />HEC Montréal<br />Humber College of Applied Arts and Technology (10)<br />Huron College<br />Keyano College<br />Kwantlen Polytechnic University<br />Langara College<br />Laurentian University<br />McGill University (11)<br />McMaster University<br />Medicine Hat College<br />Memorial University of Newfoundland<br />Mohawk College of Applied Arts and Technology<br />Mount Royal University<br />Mount Saint Vincent University<br />MTI Community College<br />Nipissing University<br />North Island College<br />Northern Alberta Institute of Technology<br />Nova Scotia Community College (various campuses)<br />OCAD University<br />Queen's University (14)<br />Redeemer University College<br />Ryerson University<br />Seneca College of Applied Arts and Technology<br />Sheridan College of Applied Arts and Technology<br />Simon Fraser UniversitySimon Fraser University<br />Sir Sandford Fleming College of Applied Arts and Technology<br />Southern Alberta Institute of Technology<br />St. Lawrence College<br />St. Thomas University<br />Thompson Rivers University<br />Trent University<br />Université de Montréal<br />Université de Sherbrooke<br />Université du Québec à Chicoutimi<br />Université du Québec à Montréal<br />Université Laval<br />University College of the Fraser Valley<br />University of Alberta (6)<br />University of British Columbia (6)<br />University of Calgary<br />University of Guelph<br />University of King's College<br />University of Lethbridge<br />University of Manitoba<br />University of New Brunswick<br />University of Northern British Columbia<br />University of Ontario Institute of Technology<br />University of Prince Edward Island<br />University of Regina<br />University of Saskatchewan<br />University of Toronto (UofT) (36)<br />University of Victoria<br />University of Waterloo<br />University of Western Ontario (Western)<br />University of Windsor<br />Vancouver Community College<br />Wilfrid Laurier University<br />York University (119)<br />Yukon College<br />
    41. 41. CBs Profile (n=130)<br />
    42. 42. NCBs Profile: in Canada (n=169)<br />
    43. 43. NCB Profile: English Education (n=169)<br />
    44. 44. Adjective Ranking Question<br />Think about all the people you’ve met in Canada. <br />What are 5 personality traits (characteristics or adjectives) that you think of to describe them? <br />____________<br />____________<br />____________<br />____________<br />____________<br />
    45. 45. Comparison CBs vs. NCBs: Total # of Mentions - Top 5<br />CBs <br />NCBs<br />
    46. 46. ‘Weighted Ranking’ Method<br />We gave adj.s scores <br />as follows:<br />If a S’s 1st choice: 5<br />2nd choice: 4<br />3rd choice: 3<br />4th choice: 2<br />5th choice: 1<br />
    47. 47. Comparison CBs vs. NCBs: Weighted Rankings - Top 5<br />CBs <br />NCBs<br />
    48. 48. Likert-scale Question<br />To what extent do you agree with the following statements, where 1 represents strongly disagree and 5 represents strongly agree:<br />People in Canada are…..<br /><ul><li>Friendly
    49. 49. Peaceful
    50. 50. Helpful
    51. 51. Polite
    52. 52. Selfish
    53. 53. Respectful
    54. 54. Loyal
    55. 55. Competitive
    56. 56. Open-minded
    57. 57. Caring
    58. 58. Modest
    59. 59. Funny
    60. 60. Hardworking
    61. 61. Self-confident
    62. 62. Boring
    63. 63. Cooperative
    64. 64. Optimistic
    65. 65. Dissatisfied
    66. 66. Materialistic
    67. 67. Risk-taking
    68. 68. Easygoing
    69. 69. Patient
    70. 70. Outgoing
    71. 71. Generous
    72. 72. Cold
    73. 73. Afraid
    74. 74. Individualistic
    75. 75. Reliable
    76. 76. Intelligent</li></li></ul><li>Likert-scale results: Highest & lowest means (n=299)<br />
    77. 77. Significant Differences in Perceptions <br />
    78. 78. CB & NCB E-Interview Sample Quotes (+ experiences)<br />CB<br />“I walk in, wait in line and see that the tellers are pleasant . . . That person took the time to look into my eyes and make a connection even though she didn’t ‘need’ to. She didn’t seem to be worried about the long line behind me and whatever else she had to get done that day.”<br />“I was walking through my grocery store one day with my mom and we saw a man accidentally bump into a girl . . . The girl explained about the man saying sorry, and the friend just said, “oh, yeah, we have to say ‘sorry’ here, it’s a Canadian thing.””<br />NCB<br />“When i came to Canada many people in University helped me to adapt to the environment and to reduce the culture shock.”<br />“My very first day at york . . . Just as I came to my residence people were there to help. Everyone was a complete stranger yet so friendly. . . . The people helping me did the heavy lifting of my things, yet they seemed to enjoy it. I was a positive experience cause coming from a different continent a different culture this was not expected. It did represent the typical friendly and nice nature of Canadians.”<br />
    79. 79. CB & NCB E-Interview Sample Quotes (- experiences)<br />CB<br />“I was at work and someone and someone asked for my assistance on a project . . . I was really confused, but I suppose because I wasn’t very perky they interpreted me as being cold. This is typical of seme general bad things I’ve experienced in Canada—being scared to offend someone else to the point of being overly nice and worried, which makes me feel uncomfortable.”<br />“. . . many Canadians seem to have an impenetrable wall that keeps them from showing others who they really are”<br />NCB<br />“Even though Canadians generally seems to be acceptance of others, deep down the heart, they do not really understand others.”<br />“I do not really informed of political, historical, and any general knowledge about Canada and Canadians. It is hard to mingle and mix without knowing of these things especially about North American entertainment industry and sports.”<br />
    80. 80. Limitations of Study<br />Sample size (n=299)<br />Sample of convenience <br />Significant York U representation<br />Both groups are heterogeneous<br />Our video may have promoted + responses<br />
    81. 81. Possible Implications<br />CBs may experience “inflated” self-perceptions for specific character traits<br />NCBs may be well-acculturated, but potential exists for further social integration and classroom acculturation of NCBs<br />Canadian content curriculum development<br />
    82. 82. Discussion Questions<br />How, if at all, do you address Canadian culture in your classroom and/or at your institution?<br />To what extent do you feel that your students (and/or students at your institution) have an “accurate” understanding of Canadian culture/perception of Canadians?<br />To what extent can ESL instructors and administers assist acculturation?<br />
    83. 83. Works Cited<br /><ul><li>Berry, J. W. & Sam, D. L. (1980). Acculturation and adaptation. In J.W. Berry, Segall, M. H., Kagitcibasi, C. (Eds.), Cross-cultural psychology: Social behaviour and application (Vol. 3, p. 291-326). Needham Heights: Allyn and Bacon.
    84. 84. Cheng, L. & Fox, J. (2008). Towards a better understanding of academic acculturation: Second Language Students in Canadian Universities. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 65(2), p. 307-333.
    85. 85. Council of Europe (2009). Autobiography of intercultural encounters. Language Policy Division.
    86. 86. McCrae, R. R., & Costa, R. T., Jr. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 81-90.
    87. 87. Norton, B. P. (1995). Social identity, investment, and language learning. TESOL Quarterly, 29(1), p. 9-31.
    88. 88. Paunonen, S. V., Jackson, D. N., Trzebinski, J., & Forsterling, F. (1992). Personality structure across cultures: A multimethod evaluation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62(3), 447-456.
    89. 89. Schumann, J. (1976). Social distance as a factor in second language acquisition. Language Learning, 26, p. 135-143. </li>

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