Vegetation
Adaptations <ul><li>Plants w/in riparian wetlands are extremely adaptable </li></ul><ul><li>Able to survive periods of hig...
Morphological (Adaptation to structure) <ul><li>Most common adaptation in NE riparian plants = the development of aerenchy...
Physiological <ul><li>Diffusion of oxygen to roots </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygenation of root rhizosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Dec...
Whole Plant Strategies <ul><li>Delayed germination of seeds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cottonwood Seeds ( Populous Deltoids) </...
Trees & Bushes <ul><li>Honeylocust ( Gleditsia triacanthos ): Easy to identify based on the thorny spines on the trunk. </...
<ul><li>Green Ash ( Fraxxinus pennsylvanica ): Really likes alluvial soils and is the most widespread ash.  </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Red Osier Dogwood ( Cornus stolonifera ): Commonly used for erosion control of stream banks. Looks like a large sh...
<ul><li>Sandbar Willow ( Salix exigua ): Greatest range of all willows, very common near riverbanks, sandbars and silt fla...
<ul><li>Bebb Willow ( Salix bebbiana ): Also called a diamond willow due to diamond patterns that appear on the plants tru...
<ul><li>Speckled Alder ( Alnus rugosa ): A shrub like plant that grows up to 20 feet and is distinguishable by the sunken ...
<ul><li>Swamp White Oak ( Quercus bicolor ): Most common Oak seen in Riparian soils in the Northeast. </li></ul><ul><li>Si...
<ul><li>Red Maple ( Acer rubrum ): Greatest North to South distribution of any Maple. </li></ul><ul><li>Sycamore ( Palantu...
Other trees that may be seen <ul><li>White-Cedar ( Thuja occidentalis ): Tend to grow in neutral to alkaline soils and str...
<ul><li>River Birch ( Betula nigra ): Only birch that occurs at low altitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>Tamarack ( Larix laricina...
Other Plants <ul><li>Fringed Loosestrife ( Lysimachia ciliata ): Seen in almost every state in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Golden Ragwort ( Senecio aureus ): Common in the eastern U.S. With yellow flowers. </li></ul><ul><li>Cowslip ( Cal...
<ul><li>Swamp Buttercup ( Ranunculus septentrionalis ): Hollow stems and bright yellow flowers distinguish this plant. </l...
<ul><li>Yellow Flag ( Iris pseudacorus ): Seen along the edges of streams, this plant usually grows in clumps and has very...
<ul><li>Turtlehead ( Chelone glabra ): Especially common near stream banks and low ground wet land. The distinctive shape ...
<ul><li>Buttonbush ( Cephalanthus occidentalis ): Common along the borders of streams. </li></ul><ul><li>Water Parsnip ( S...
<ul><li>Watercress ( Nasturtium officinale ): This plant is found throughout the U.S. And has a very pungent smell. </li><...
<ul><li>Swamp Milkweed ( Asclepias incarnata ): Has large cluster of pink flowers when in bloom. </li></ul><ul><li>Swamp L...
<ul><li>Spotted Joe-Pye Weed ( Eupatorium maculatum ): Grows mostly in Northeastern U.S. And has a stem with spots on it h...
<ul><li>True Forget-me-not ( Myosotis scorpioides ): Seen along stream banks, this was initially introduced by Europeans. ...
<ul><li>Marsh Fern ( Thelyperis palustris ): The most common of the wetland ferns. </li></ul><ul><li>Green Dragon ( Arisae...
<ul><li>Wood Nettle ( Laportea canadensis ): Grows to a maximum of 4 feet and has small greenish flowers. </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Swamp Saxifrage ( Saxifraga penslyvanica ): Grows in wet areas along alluvial banks. </li></ul><ul><li>Wild Rice (...
<ul><li>Wool Grass ( Scirpus cyperinus ): Especially important to waterfowl, providing cover and food. </li></ul><ul><li>G...
<ul><li>Soft Rush ( Juncus effusus ): Has a soft grasslike stem and is found along most of the Northern U.S. </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Annual Blue Grass ( Poa annua ): Sometimes found in flooded areas. </li></ul><ul><li>American Manna Grass ( Glycer...
Vegetation Habitat <ul><li>Vegetation is an integral part of a web of fish aquatic and semi-aquatic vertebrates, microbes ...
 
Vegetation Diversity <ul><li>Dependent on: </li></ul><ul><li>Location w/in system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Further downstream...
Effects of Vegetation <ul><li>Regulates runoff of alluvial systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ET -> back into the system </li><...
 
Viability of Vegetation <ul><li>Natural Influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drought </li></u...
Vegetation recovery time
Functions of Vegetation <ul><li>Flood Mitigators </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Purify Water </li>...
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Riparian Wetland Vegetation

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Riparian Wetlands of Western New York and Northeastern U.S.

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Riparian Wetland Vegetation

  1. 1. Vegetation
  2. 2. Adaptations <ul><li>Plants w/in riparian wetlands are extremely adaptable </li></ul><ul><li>Able to survive periods of high flow or very little flow </li></ul><ul><li>3 different types of adaptation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Morphological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whole plant strategies </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Morphological (Adaptation to structure) <ul><li>Most common adaptation in NE riparian plants = the development of aerenchymous systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion of oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potentilla palustris, Juncus effusus, Glyceria grandis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adventitious Organs (Cottonwood, Giant Reed) </li></ul><ul><li>Stem Hypertrophy (American Elm) </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Vertical Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Prop Roots </li></ul>
  4. 4. Physiological <ul><li>Diffusion of oxygen to roots </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygenation of root rhizosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease water uptake </li></ul><ul><li>Altered nutrient absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic respiration </li></ul>
  5. 5. Whole Plant Strategies <ul><li>Delayed germination of seeds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cottonwood Seeds ( Populous Deltoids) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Buoyant seedlings </li></ul><ul><li>Growth dormancy </li></ul><ul><li>Development of coleoptiles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wild Rice ( Zizania palustris) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Trees & Bushes <ul><li>Honeylocust ( Gleditsia triacanthos ): Easy to identify based on the thorny spines on the trunk. </li></ul><ul><li>Black Ash ( Fraximus nigra ): The northernmost ash, this ash is predominantly seen where soil drainage is poor, close to streams. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Green Ash ( Fraxxinus pennsylvanica ): Really likes alluvial soils and is the most widespread ash. </li></ul><ul><li>Elderberry ( Sambucus canadensis ): An elder that extends across most of the eastern portion of the U.S. Creates really good jam with fruit. Many uses like home remedies, whistles, maple taps, wine, etc. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Red Osier Dogwood ( Cornus stolonifera ): Commonly used for erosion control of stream banks. Looks like a large shrub with several stems and forms in clusters. </li></ul><ul><li>Black Willow ( Salix nigra ): Often seen with cottonwoods, these trees grow along stream banks and flood plains. Also has lots of uses as wood (furniture, barrels, toys, etc.) </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Sandbar Willow ( Salix exigua ): Greatest range of all willows, very common near riverbanks, sandbars and silt flats. </li></ul><ul><li>Pussy Willow ( Salix discolor ): Notorious for their fuzzy catkins, these plants can be found across nearly all of New York State. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Bebb Willow ( Salix bebbiana ): Also called a diamond willow due to diamond patterns that appear on the plants trunks due to fungi. </li></ul><ul><li>American Elm ( Ulmus americana ): Very well known and abundant species that took a severe population loss in the 1930's due to a fungus spread by the elm bark beetles. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Speckled Alder ( Alnus rugosa ): A shrub like plant that grows up to 20 feet and is distinguishable by the sunken veins on the leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Cottonwood ( Populus deltoides ): Name refers to cottony seeds. This is one of the fastest growing trees, though they are generally short lived. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Swamp White Oak ( Quercus bicolor ): Most common Oak seen in Riparian soils in the Northeast. </li></ul><ul><li>Silver Maple ( Acer saccharinum ): Very rapid growth and popular as a shade tree, but has a lot of litter. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Red Maple ( Acer rubrum ): Greatest North to South distribution of any Maple. </li></ul><ul><li>Sycamore ( Palantus occidentalis ): Has very large trunk straight trunks with bark that peels off in large thin flakes. Extend across much of the Eastern U.S. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Other trees that may be seen <ul><li>White-Cedar ( Thuja occidentalis ): Tend to grow in neutral to alkaline soils and stretch down to about New York's border. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>River Birch ( Betula nigra ): Only birch that occurs at low altitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>Tamarack ( Larix laricina ): Deciduous tree sporadically grows in Western New York. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Other Plants <ul><li>Fringed Loosestrife ( Lysimachia ciliata ): Seen in almost every state in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Nodding Bur Marigold ( Biodens cernua ): Grows to about 3 feet and is can be seen where there is wet ground. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Golden Ragwort ( Senecio aureus ): Common in the eastern U.S. With yellow flowers. </li></ul><ul><li>Cowslip ( Caltha palustris ): Plant stands about 2 feet tall and resembles large Buttercups. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Swamp Buttercup ( Ranunculus septentrionalis ): Hollow stems and bright yellow flowers distinguish this plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Seep-Spring Monkeyflower ( Mimulus guttatus ): Seen from mountains to lowlands this plant is extremely adaptable. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Yellow Flag ( Iris pseudacorus ): Seen along the edges of streams, this plant usually grows in clumps and has very apparent flowers. </li></ul><ul><li>Common Cattail ( Typha latifolia ): This plant is very common across the U.S. And while it is primarily seen in marshes, it will take root along the edges of streams and riverbanks. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Turtlehead ( Chelone glabra ): Especially common near stream banks and low ground wet land. The distinctive shape of the flower gives the name. </li></ul><ul><li>Lizard's Tail ( Saururus cernuus ): Though this species is usually found in the south it has bee seen all the way up to Ontario, Canada. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Buttonbush ( Cephalanthus occidentalis ): Common along the borders of streams. </li></ul><ul><li>Water Parsnip ( Sium suave ): Closely resembles the Water Hemlock and can be seen along muddy shores. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Watercress ( Nasturtium officinale ): This plant is found throughout the U.S. And has a very pungent smell. </li></ul><ul><li>Tall Meadow Rue ( Thalictrum polygamum ): Tall plant which can grow up to 8 feet. During the blooming season this plant is constantly visited by bees and butterflies. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Swamp Milkweed ( Asclepias incarnata ): Has large cluster of pink flowers when in bloom. </li></ul><ul><li>Swamp Loosestrife ( Decodon verticillatus ): Can grow up to 8 feet tall and is a shrub like plant that can grow in pretty sizable patches. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Spotted Joe-Pye Weed ( Eupatorium maculatum ): Grows mostly in Northeastern U.S. And has a stem with spots on it hence its name. </li></ul><ul><li>Blue Flag ( Iris versicolor ): Very colorful native Northeastern Iris with distinct violet-blue flowers. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>True Forget-me-not ( Myosotis scorpioides ): Seen along stream banks, this was initially introduced by Europeans. </li></ul><ul><li>Cinnamon Fern ( Osmunda cinnamomea ): Tall fern that is covered in cinnomon-brown wool in the spring. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Marsh Fern ( Thelyperis palustris ): The most common of the wetland ferns. </li></ul><ul><li>Green Dragon ( Arisaema dracontium ): Similar to the Jack-in-the-pulpit, this plant is very rare. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Wood Nettle ( Laportea canadensis ): Grows to a maximum of 4 feet and has small greenish flowers. </li></ul><ul><li>Clearweed ( Pilea pumila ): Small annual that grows just over 1 foot tall and has a distinctive clear stem. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Swamp Saxifrage ( Saxifraga penslyvanica ): Grows in wet areas along alluvial banks. </li></ul><ul><li>Wild Rice ( Zizania aquatica ) An annual grass that is seen where there is slow moving water and periodic flooding. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Wool Grass ( Scirpus cyperinus ): Especially important to waterfowl, providing cover and food. </li></ul><ul><li>Giant Reed ( Phragmites australis ): Tall and thick stemmed grass that is initially reddish, but then turns silver. Often seen in large clusters. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Soft Rush ( Juncus effusus ): Has a soft grasslike stem and is found along most of the Northern U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Creeping Love Grass ( Eragrostis hypnoides ): Found mostly along muddy shores and sandbars of streams and rivers. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Annual Blue Grass ( Poa annua ): Sometimes found in flooded areas. </li></ul><ul><li>American Manna Grass ( Glyceria grandis ): Grows across most of U.S. Especially near water or wet places. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Vegetation Habitat <ul><li>Vegetation is an integral part of a web of fish aquatic and semi-aquatic vertebrates, microbes and organic detritus. </li></ul><ul><li>Often times dependent on one another, if one part fails all will fail. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Beaver ( Castor Canadensis) </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. Vegetation Diversity <ul><li>Dependent on: </li></ul><ul><li>Location w/in system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Further downstream & wider = more vegetation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Channel gradient </li></ul><ul><li>Lithology </li></ul><ul><li>Level of confinement </li></ul>
  34. 35. Effects of Vegetation <ul><li>Regulates runoff of alluvial systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ET -> back into the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderates soil condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaf litter alters nutrients available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature due to shading (effects nutrient cycle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alters geomorphology of rivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Undercut banks -> erosion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 37. Viability of Vegetation <ul><li>Natural Influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass Wasting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind Throw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herbivory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human Influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urbanization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damming </li></ul></ul>
  36. 38. Vegetation recovery time
  37. 39. Functions of Vegetation <ul><li>Flood Mitigators </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Purify Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>phosphorous, nitrates, sulphates, metals, carbon sinks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downside = when species die materials can reenter the system. </li></ul></ul>

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