Legal & moral issues in e commerce


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Legal & moral issues in e commerce

  1. 1. Legal & Moral issues in e-commerce Background information
  2. 2. 1. Data Protection Act <ul><li>DPA (1984) grew out of public concern over personal privacy during rapidly developing computer technology </li></ul><ul><li>Individual rights are protected </li></ul><ul><li>Information needs to be handled correctly </li></ul><ul><li>People who use data on individuals need to be open and follow set practices </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>DPA updated in 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Now incorporates European Data Directive (2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Also covers some manual data </li></ul>
  4. 4. Principles – data must be: <ul><li>Fairly and lawfully processed </li></ul><ul><li>Processed for limited purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate, relevant and not excessive </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate </li></ul><ul><li>Not kept longer than necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Processed in accordance with subject’s rights </li></ul><ul><li>Secure </li></ul><ul><li>Not transferred to countries without protection </li></ul>
  5. 5. Useful phrases <ul><li>Personal data (on living individuals) </li></ul><ul><li>Automatically processed (by a computer – doesn’t cover manual paper records) </li></ul><ul><li>Data Users (controllers of personal data) </li></ul><ul><li>Data subjects (individuals whose files are kept) </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Data Protection registrar – keeps a register of data users, promotes data protection principles, considers complaints and prosecutes offenders </li></ul><ul><li>Exemptions – payroll, pensions & accounts; no right to access data collected for statistical purposes,tax, crime and national security </li></ul>
  7. 7. Rights of data subjects <ul><li>Compensation for unauthorised disclosure </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation for inaccurate data </li></ul><ul><li>Erase inaccuracies </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation for unauthorised access, loss or destruction of data </li></ul>
  8. 8. 2. Copyright Act <ul><li>Copyright Designs & Patents Act (1988) </li></ul><ul><li>Includes software, music and literature </li></ul><ul><li>You cannot: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Run pirate software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmit software to make copies available </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Bootlegged software available via filesharing sites accounts for 40% of US software and 100% in Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>Companies sue over “look and feel” of similar software (ie Apple invented the GUI, unsuccessfully sued MS over Windows) </li></ul><ul><li>Companies often put ‘fingerprints’ into code to spot engineers who copy designs </li></ul>
  10. 10. 3. Misuse of Computers Act <ul><li>Computer Misuse Act (1990) followed hacking scandals of the 1980s when it was not illegal </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal offences dealt with hacking, viruses and other nuisances </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Under the Computer Misuse Act, it is an offence to: </li></ul><ul><li>Unauthorised access to computer programs or data </li></ul><ul><li>Unauthorised access with further criminal intent </li></ul><ul><li>Unauthorised modification of computer material (ie. Programs of data) </li></ul>
  12. 12. 4. Moral issues <ul><li>Civil liberties groups try to protect privacy, free expression, access to online information </li></ul><ul><li>Civil liberties groups include those trying to protect the history of minorties and the storage of your personal data </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Frontier Foundation challenge “remote attestation” – some companies ‘own’ the software on your computer and often force you into expensive upgrades </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>More issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to personal information made available through search engines, what web sites have you visited? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online stores target adverts based on browsing habits to encourage you to spend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP / MS Office designed to send and store personal data on your computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some personal information kept may be accessible to stalkers etc; child safety issue too </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Examples used to illustrate - DPA <ul><li>Cookies </li></ul><ul><li>CRB – Computer Records Bureau </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of IP addresses </li></ul><ul><li>CCTV use </li></ul><ul><li>Identity theft </li></ul><ul><li>Stolen credit/debit card data -swiping </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail surveillance – reading your e-mails </li></ul>
  15. 15. Examples – Misuse Act <ul><li>Denial Of Service attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Virus/worms/trojans </li></ul><ul><li>Phishing for data </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail bombing </li></ul><ul><li>Hacking via open ports (ie. Your printer that you always leave on) </li></ul><ul><li>WiFi piggy-backing </li></ul>