Aligning Instructional Design
    and Technical Standards

    Damon Regan         Robby Robson, Ph.D.
     Eduworks      ...
MEMO
    TO: Instructional Designer
    RE: New Instructional Content Development

    Create instruction using the Sharab...
What’s SCORM to an Instructional
    Designer?
    A. A programming language?
    B. A format?
    C. A tool?
         t l...
What’s SCORM to a Programmer?

    A. A programming language?
    B. A format?
    C. A tool?
         t l?
    D. Job sec...
What happens…
    if instructional and technical
         needs are not aligned




5
MUTANT NINJA SCORM!

    The BIG PACKAGE (1GB, yearlong course)
                         (     y   g        )
    The ITTY...
Proposed Alignment


    Instructional Design   SCORM 2004
          Concept            Concept


                        ...
What’s New?

     Instructional design not forced into technical
     framework
     Instructional & technical perspective...
PACKAGES AS THE UNIT OF REUSE
    Technical Advantages
    T h i l Ad     t g
     Provides a context for SCO reuse
      ...
LESSONS AS UNIT OF REUSE
     Advantages for Instructional Designers
     Ad   t g f I t ti          l D ig
      Aligns w...
Is this a one size fits all solution?

      Packages can contain
       No SCOs (just assets)
       One SCO
       Multi...
What about “Learning Objects”

      Hodgins (2006)
       “In hind sight I can see that one of my greatest
       errors ...
ABILIY
     REUSA        Traditional View of Reuse




                                  GRANULARITY

            COURSES ...
ITY
       USABILIY & UTILIT
     REU      Y             Content Model View of Reuse




                                 ...
BILITY
         ABILIY & SHARAB
                                Aligned View of Reuse




                                ...
Conclusions




16
Instructional Design and Technical
     Standards Can be Aligned:
     There is a sweet spot for sharing instructional
   ...
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

     SPEAKER CONTACT INFORMATION
          dregan@eduworks.com
          dregan@eduworks com
      ...
Backup




19
Proposed Alignment (Details)
     Instructional Design          SCORM 2004
           Concept                   Concept

 ...
Aren’t SCOs the unit of reuse in
      SCORM? “Technically” maybe, but …
     SCOs are technical objects that             ...
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Aligning Instructional Design and Technical Standards

  1. 1. Aligning Instructional Design and Technical Standards Damon Regan Robby Robson, Ph.D. Eduworks Eduworks dregan@eduworks.com rrobson@eduworks.com
  2. 2. MEMO TO: Instructional Designer RE: New Instructional Content Development Create instruction using the Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) to achieve the goals of interoperability and reusability. 2
  3. 3. What’s SCORM to an Instructional Designer? A. A programming language? B. A format? C. A tool? t l? D. A paradigm? E A pain? E. i ? Correct A C t Answer: Posted to Flickr by Second Life Resident Daneel Ariantho E if it doesn’t meet the Designer’s goals! 3
  4. 4. What’s SCORM to a Programmer? A. A programming language? B. A format? C. A tool? t l? D. Job security? E A pain? E. i ? Correct A C t Answer: Posted to Flickr by Lloyd Budd E if it doesn’t meet the Programmer’s goals! 4
  5. 5. What happens… if instructional and technical needs are not aligned 5
  6. 6. MUTANT NINJA SCORM! The BIG PACKAGE (1GB, yearlong course) ( y g ) The ITTY BITTY SCO (Each question is a SCO) The SCORM Intelligent Tutoring System (programmed using 1 000 sequencing rules) 1,000 The CROWD FAVORITE (Need SCORM? Take your content and wrap it as a single SCO) LIMITED FRUSTRATION REUSE Debates over “what is a SCO?” 6 Posted to Flickr by San Diego Shooter
  7. 7. Proposed Alignment Instructional Design SCORM 2004 Concept Concept Content Lesson Package 7
  8. 8. What’s New? Instructional design not forced into technical framework Instructional & technical perspectives considered equally Focus on larger objects with more widely accepted definitions: L t d d fi iti Lessons & C t t Content Packages NOT FOCUSED ON THE SCO AS THE UNIT OF REUSE 8
  9. 9. PACKAGES AS THE UNIT OF REUSE Technical Advantages T h i l Ad t g Provides a context for SCO reuse SCOs can be interchanged within packages SCOs can be extracted from packages BUT the context for their use and reuse is not lost Enables instructional strategies to be changed without altering the underlying content Sequencing is defined at the package level Learning objectives are defined at the package level Natural unit of search, discovery, and exchange (e.g. within the ADL Registry) 9
  10. 10. LESSONS AS UNIT OF REUSE Advantages for Instructional Designers Ad t g f I t ti l D ig Aligns with Instructional Theory Driscoll Gagne Merrill M ill Aligns with Instructional Design practice Smith and Ragan Dick, Carey, and Carey 10
  11. 11. Is this a one size fits all solution? Packages can contain No SCOs (just assets) One SCO Multiple SCOs M lti l SCO Packages support multiple approaches to mapping SCOs to learning objectives Packages can contain lots of sequencing or non at all Packages can contain alternative or optional content 11
  12. 12. What about “Learning Objects” Hodgins (2006) “In hind sight I can see that one of my greatest errors was in assuming that everyone would understand that Learning Objects exist within a conceptual model for content. Overall they were not meant to be a fixed thing.” Within a SCORM instructional design context, almost everything that has been proposed as a learning object can be realized as a type of content package! 12
  13. 13. ABILIY REUSA Traditional View of Reuse GRANULARITY COURSES ASSETS The smaller the object, the more reusable 13
  14. 14. ITY USABILIY & UTILIT REU Y Content Model View of Reuse GRANULARITY COURSES AGGREGATIONS LEARNING INFORMATION ASSETS OBJECTS OBJECTS Self-contained content objects with single learning objectives are the “Lego’s” of instructional content 14
  15. 15. BILITY ABILIY & SHARAB Aligned View of Reuse Designers share – developers reuse! REUSA GRANULARITY COURSES CONTENT SCO’S MEDIA ASSETS PACKAGES COURSES LESSONS INSTRUCTIONAL INSTRUCTIONAL EVENTS ASSETS 15
  16. 16. Conclusions 16
  17. 17. Instructional Design and Technical Standards Can be Aligned: There is a sweet spot for sharing instructional content that considers both instructional and technical aspects that focuses on the package as p p g the technical unit of exchange Instructional designers and trainers share lessons Standards provide technical specifications for exchange Developers reuse technical objects found inside packages. packages 17
  18. 18. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS SPEAKER CONTACT INFORMATION dregan@eduworks.com dregan@eduworks com rrobson@eduworks.com 18
  19. 19. Backup 19
  20. 20. Proposed Alignment (Details) Instructional Design SCORM 2004 Concept Concept Lesson Content Package D i ti I f Descriptive Information ti Metadata M t d t Instructional Strategy Sequencing & Navigation Instructional Events Sharable Content Objects Instructional Assets Assets & Resources 20
  21. 21. Aren’t SCOs the unit of reuse in SCORM? “Technically” maybe, but … SCOs are technical objects that Courseware Programming Complexity interact with an LMS in a i t t ith i prescribed manner Adding instructional requirements mplexity to SCOs is problematic: Com Mapping SCOs to single learning objectives is restrictive Big SCOs lead to higher costs (G h is f (Graph i from Ch l ) b t using Chrysler) but i CD-i CD i CD ROM CD-ROM Web C t W b - Custom Big Bi SCO Scorm 1.2 SCORM 2004 small SCOs can impact the user experience Defining SCOs is an implementation and business issue, not an instructional design issue! 21

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