Address Mapping, ErrorReporting and MulticastingNetworking Fundamentals
21.2ADDRESS MAPPINGADDRESS MAPPING• The delivery of a packet to a host or a routerThe delivery of a packet to a host or a ...
21.3ARP operation
21.4C:>arp -a
21.5ARP packet
21.6
21.7Encapsulation of ARP packetWhat is the Destination address?
21.8Four cases using ARP
21.9An ARP request is broadcast;an ARP reply is unicast.Note
21.10A host with IP address 130.23.43.20 and physical addressB2:34:55:10:22:10 has a packet to send to another hostwith IP...
21.11Example 1, an ARP request and reply
21.12Proxy ARP
21.13
21.14
21.15BOOTP (an app layer protocol) client and server on the same and different networks
21.16BOOTP is not a dynamic configurationprotocol.DHCP provides static and dynamicaddress allocation that can bemanual or ...
21.17ICMPICMP• The IP protocol provides unreliable andThe IP protocol provides unreliable andconnectionless datagram deliv...
21.18IGMPIGMP• The IP protocol can be involved in two types ofThe IP protocol can be involved in two types ofcommunication...
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4c Address Mapping, Error Reporting and Multicasting

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4c Address Mapping, Error Reporting and Multicasting

  1. 1. Address Mapping, ErrorReporting and MulticastingNetworking Fundamentals
  2. 2. 21.2ADDRESS MAPPINGADDRESS MAPPING• The delivery of a packet to a host or a routerThe delivery of a packet to a host or a routerrequires two levels of addressing:requires two levels of addressing: logicallogical andandphysicalphysical..• We need to be able to map a logical address to itsWe need to be able to map a logical address to itscorresponding physical address and vice versa.corresponding physical address and vice versa.• This can be done by using either static or dynamicThis can be done by using either static or dynamicmapping.mapping.
  3. 3. 21.3ARP operation
  4. 4. 21.4C:>arp -a
  5. 5. 21.5ARP packet
  6. 6. 21.6
  7. 7. 21.7Encapsulation of ARP packetWhat is the Destination address?
  8. 8. 21.8Four cases using ARP
  9. 9. 21.9An ARP request is broadcast;an ARP reply is unicast.Note
  10. 10. 21.10A host with IP address 130.23.43.20 and physical addressB2:34:55:10:22:10 has a packet to send to another hostwith IP address 130.23.43.25 and physical addressA4:6E:F4:59:83:AB. The two hosts are on the sameEthernet network. Show the ARP request and replypackets encapsulated in Ethernet frames.SolutionFigure shows the ARP request and reply packets. Notethat the ARP data field in this case is 28 bytes, and thatthe individual addresses do not fit in the 4-byte boundary.That is why we do not show the regular 4-byte boundariesfor these addresses.Example 1
  11. 11. 21.11Example 1, an ARP request and reply
  12. 12. 21.12Proxy ARP
  13. 13. 21.13
  14. 14. 21.14
  15. 15. 21.15BOOTP (an app layer protocol) client and server on the same and different networks
  16. 16. 21.16BOOTP is not a dynamic configurationprotocol.DHCP provides static and dynamicaddress allocation that can bemanual or automatic, respectively.The dynamic address allocation is froma pool of temporary addresses for alimited time.Note
  17. 17. 21.17ICMPICMP• The IP protocol provides unreliable andThe IP protocol provides unreliable andconnectionless datagram delivery. It has no error-connectionless datagram delivery. It has no error-reporting or error-correcting mechanism.reporting or error-correcting mechanism.• The IP protocol also lacks a mechanism for hostThe IP protocol also lacks a mechanism for hostand management queries.and management queries.• TheThe Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) hashasbeen designed to compensate for the above twobeen designed to compensate for the above twodeficiencies. It is a companion to the IP protocol.deficiencies. It is a companion to the IP protocol.
  18. 18. 21.18IGMPIGMP• The IP protocol can be involved in two types ofThe IP protocol can be involved in two types ofcommunication: unicasting and multicasting.communication: unicasting and multicasting.• The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)is one of the necessary, but not sufficient, protocolsis one of the necessary, but not sufficient, protocolsthat is involved in multicasting. IGMP is athat is involved in multicasting. IGMP is acompanion to the IP protocol.companion to the IP protocol.• It is not a multicasting routing protocol; it is aIt is not a multicasting routing protocol; it is aprotocol that manages group membership.protocol that manages group membership.

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