Psychology module 3


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Psychology module 3

  1. 1. Module 3:Nature and Nurture in psychology pg. 37<br />
  2. 2. Learning goals<br />1. define the nature-nurture issues and explain the key issues of the field of behavior genetics<br />2. Name and describe the elements of the genetic code(chromosomes, DNA, genes)<br />3. Discuss how twin studies and adoption studies are used to learn about the inflouences of nature and nurture<br />4. Describe the research findings related to the environmental influences of early brain devleopment, parents, peers and our culture<br />
  3. 3. How do our families, friedns, and the culture in which we live affect our whole field of study?<br />Behavior Genetics- the study of the effects of genes and environment on our behavior<br />Psychologist call this the nature-nurture issue<br />
  4. 4. Nature VS nurture<br />Influences of nature consists of genes<br />Genes-the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes<br />Passed down when you were conceived<br />Nurture comes from the environment<br />Environment-every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us<br />
  5. 5. Genetics in brief<br />Thinking critically: what do we know about the human genetic code and how it affects our thinking and behavior?<br />Everyone has genetic code<br />Each nucleus contains 46 chromosomes: <br />Chromosomes: threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes<br />Each person received 23 chromosomes fro mother and father<br />Chromosomes are composed of molecules called Deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA)<br />
  6. 6. Genetics continued….<br />DNA-A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.<br />Genes influence our behaviors <br />Genes are distinguished by 4 letter codes( A,T,C,G)called nucleotides<br />Largest chromosome has about 250 million nucleotides and the smalles t has about 50 million<br />We all exhibit same traits nation wide(smiling, laughing…etc.<br />Scientist have found snips in which differ from one person to person<br />
  7. 7. Genes…<br />Have even found variations in areas that should not exist.<br />These variations are called mutations<br />Mutations- random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the individual’s genetic code; the source of all genetic diversity.<br />Predisposition- predisposed to cancer= genetic mutation<br />Family health…. Diabetes, cancer, high BP<br />
  8. 8. Nature and individual differences<br />Thinking critically: How do twin studies and adoption studies help behavior geneticists study the influences of nature and nurte?<br />SMARTS??? WHO IS SMARTER THAN WHO<br />
  9. 9. tWiNs<br />Identical twins: Twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two creating two genetically identical organisms.<br />
  10. 10. Twins….<br />Fraternal twins- twins who develop from 2 different fertilized eggs; they are genetically no more similar than any other 2 siblings, but they share a fetal environment<br />
  11. 11. heritability<br />heritability:-the degree to which traits are inherited<br />Who has more similarities identical or fraternal twins?<br />Intelligence testing on these areas:<br />IF the intelligence levels of identical twins are significantly more similar than the intelligence levels of fraternal twins, then we can say that genetics or nature is at work.<br />Genetic influences on personality follow the same<br />Identical twin studies- if one is divorced chances of other is 5.5 times more likely.<br />Fraternal is 1.6 times likely<br />
  12. 12. Twin studies <br />Helped us learn about heritability of certain traits<br />Also shown us influence of environment<br />Reunited twin studies<br />Adioption studies<br />Will the adopted person have similar traits as biological parents or adopted parents?<br />Political and religious influences<br />
  13. 13. Environment matters <br />Thinking critically: how much do our parents, peers and culture influence us?<br />For our brains to meet their developmental potential, early experience is critical<br />Brain changes over time<br />Peer and parent influences<br />Cultural influences:<br />Culture- shared attitudes, beliefs, norms and behaviors of a group communicated from one generation to the next<br />Norms-understood rules for accepted and expected behavior<br />