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Elements of Art and Principles of Design

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Elements of Art and Principles of Design

  1. 1. Elements of Art and the Principles of Design
  2. 2. Elements of Art Line Shape Form Value Texture Space Color Principles of Design Emphasis/Focal Point Balance Unity/Harmony Contrast Movement Pattern/Rhythm Variety Proportion/Scale
  3. 3. Starting with the basics… the elements of ART
  4. 4. Line
  5. 5. Types of Line There are three basic types of line: Actual Lines, which may vary in weight, character and other qualities. Implied Lines, which are created by the positioning of a series of points so the eye tends to automatically connect them. Psychic Lines, which are not real lines. They exist where there is a mental connection between two points, such as when something is looked or pointed at.
  6. 6. Actual Lines which may vary in weight, character and other qualities.
  7. 7. Implied Lines which are created by the positioning of a series of points so the eye tends to automatically connect them.
  8. 8. Psychic Lines which are not real lines. They exist where there is a mental connection between two points, such as when something is looked or pointed at.
  9. 9. Shape
  10. 10. What is shape?
  11. 11. Shape is a two dimensional area or space defined by visible boundaries. Shapes become visible when a line encloses an area or there is an apparent change in value (light/dark), color or texture. Shape is sometimes referred to as form, however it should not be confused with the term form when it applies to the physical product. Therefore the term shape is more specific.
  12. 12. Shape/Mass/Volume Jennifer Bartlett, Boats Shape
  13. 13. Form is height, width and depth or in 2-D works, the appearance of height, width, and depth. Two-dimensional areas are referred to as shape, three- dimensional area is called mass. Mass is the physical bulk of a solid body of material, mass is often a major element in sculpture. Mass is inseparable from space because 3-D objects always relate to the space they occupy. In 2-D, mass must be implied. Volume in three-dimensions is referred to as negative mass.
  14. 14. Shape/Mass/Volume Jennifer Bartlett, Boats
  15. 15. Shape/Mass/Volume Jennifer Bartlett, Boats Shape
  16. 16. Shape/Mass/Volume Jennifer Bartlett, Boats Shape Mass
  17. 17. Shape/Mass/Volume Jennifer Bartlett, Boats Shape Mass Volume
  18. 18. When viewing or considering 2-dimensional versus 3- dimensional works, the latter requires more complex decisions. This is because an object in three dimensions has more viewpoints and angles in which it is seen and thus more angles and viewpoints to consider.
  19. 19. Value
  20. 20. Value Value is the artistic term for light and dark. It is the relative lightness or darkness of a piece and only through value can we discern form. Value-contrast refers to the relationship between areas of dark and light. Values do not exist in gray scale only; it exists in color as well and is often referred to as normal value, a tint or a shade.
  21. 21. Value Techniques The use of value in a 2-dimensional work of art is commonly called shading and there are many ways to achieve shading with a variety of media. Pencil, chalk and Conté crayon are soft media and are capable of providing gradual changes of light to dark. Black ink, on the other hand, gives a sharp or high value contrast.
  22. 22. Soft Media Georges Seurat
  23. 23. Texture
  24. 24. What is texture?
  25. 25. Texture Texture refers to the surface quality of objects. Texture appeals to our sense of touch. Even when we do not actually feel an object, our memory provides a sensory reaction or sensation of touch. All objects have some surface quality, even if it is only smooth flatness. The element of texture is illustrated in art when an artist purposely exploits contrast in surface in order to provide visual interest.
  26. 26. Betye Saar
  27. 27. There are two categories of artistic texture: tactile/physical visual/implied
  28. 28. Visual Visual texture is purely visual, it cannot be touched. It is the impression of texture and is merely the suggestion of the actual surface. Trompe L’oeil is the ultimate point in portraying visual texture. It is a French term meaning “to fool the eye”. In trompe l’oeil the artist copies the exact visual appearance of the object in particularly sharp focus. This is sometimes referred to as deceptive painting.
  29. 29. Visual– Implied Adelaide Labille-Guiard
  30. 30. Visual– Trompe L’oeil Ralph Goings
  31. 31. Space
  32. 32. What is space?
  33. 33. Space Space is the indefinable, great, general receptacle of all things- the void. It is continuous, infinite and ever present. Space cannot exist by itself because it is in and around everything. Visual arts are sometimes referred to as spatial arts because most of these art forms are organized in space.
  34. 34. The major difference between the use of space in 2-D and 3-D works is this: 2-D works you can see the space all at once (whether actual or illusory). 3-D works you must move around the piece to get the full experience of the space it occupies.
  35. 35. 2-D works you can see the space all at once (whether actual or illusory). Gustave Caillebotte
  36. 36. 3-D works you must move around the piece to get the full experience of the space it occupies. Ron Mueck
  37. 37. Size Pieter Bruegel the Elder
  38. 38. Overlapping Jacob Lawrence
  39. 39. Vertical Location Tom Wesselmann
  40. 40. Aerial/Atmospheric Perspective Ansel Adams
  41. 41. One-Point Perspective Raphael, School of
  42. 42. Two-Point Perspective Ed Ruscha
  43. 43. Closed Form Jean-Baptiste-Simeon
  44. 44. Open Form Alex Katz
  45. 45. COLOR
  46. 46. Elements of Art Line Shape Form Value Texture Space Color Principles of Design Emphasis/Focal Point Balance Unity/Harmony Contrast Movement Pattern/Rhythm Variety Proportion/Scale
  47. 47. Elements of Art Line Shape Form Value Texture Space Color Principles of Design Emphasis/Focal Point Balance Unity/Harmony Contrast Movement Pattern/Rhythm Variety Proportion/Scale
  48. 48. Emphasis and Focal Point
  49. 49. Emphasis plays up. It is used to draw our attention to an area or focal point. Position, contrast, size and color intensity are strategies used to create emphasis. The counterpart to emphasis is subordination. Subordination plays down. It is areas of neutral or less interest that help to keep the attention on the area of emphasis.
  50. 50. Paul Klee, The Goldfish Which is bordered in black. The gold fish is the focal point. Which is encircled in blue. Even the fish tails are pointing toward the center. This is the concept of focal point. It is the brightest and it is directly in the center.
  51. 51. Andy Goldsworthy, Sycamore Leaf, 1980-81 Contrast
  52. 52. Rene Magritte Isolation
  53. 53. Absence of Focal Point or Emphasis Jasper Johns, Grey Alphabet, 1956
  54. 54. Absence of Focal Point Andy Warhol, 100 Soup Cans
  55. 55. Balance
  56. 56. Balance is the achievement of equilibrium among various parts of a composition.
  57. 57. There are two general categories of balance: Symmetrical balance (axial balance)- is the near or exact matching of left and right sides of a 3-dimensional form or 2- dimensional composition. Another variation of symmetrical balance is crystallographic balance or allover pattern. This is achieved through the equal emphasis over the entire composition (absence of focal point). Asymmetrical balance- there is a felt or implied center of gravity, the two sides do not match. There is also radial balance, in which opposing forces rotate around or radiate from a central point. It can be either symmetrical or asymmetrical, depending on where the center point is.
  58. 58. Symmetrical balance- it is the simplest type of balance to create and recognize. When referring to architecture, symmetrical balance is sometimes called formal balance. It is a strategy often employed to convey the idea of permanence, strength and stability. Symmetrical balance appeals to us because of the awareness of our bodies and our own symmetry. Taj Mahal
  59. 59. Unity/ Harmony
  60. 60. Harmony Unity is the appearance or condition of oneness. In design, unity is used to describe the feeling that all the elements in a work belong together and make up a harmonious whole. Unity and harmony are essentially the same. An important aspect of visual unity is that the whole must be predominant over the parts: You must first see the whole pattern before you notice the individual elements.
  61. 61. Harmony Unity is the appearance or condition of oneness. In design, unity is used to describe the feeling that all the elements in a work belong together and make up a harmonious whole. Unity and harmony are essentially the same. Wayne Thiebaud
  62. 62. Contrast
  63. 63. Contrast Is the arrangement and amount of variation within a composition. When contrast is minimized within a limited range with only small variation, the result is a restrained, subtle effect.
  64. 64. Form Contrast Isamu Noguchi Red Cube, 1968
  65. 65. Color Contrast Richard Anuszkiewicz: Plus Reversed 1960
  66. 66. Content Contrast Emmanuel Rudnitsky (Man Ray) Gift 1921
  67. 67. Conceptual and Color Contast Andy Warhol Electric Chair 1971
  68. 68. Movement
  69. 69. In art, a sense of movement is created by actual or implied change of position- Implied motion in drawings, painting, photography or sculpture is linked with the repetition of shapes, the action of lines or other rhythmic elements, such as Op Art which is a type of painting that gives the optical illusion of movement.
  70. 70. Implied Motion
  71. 71. Repeated and Cropped Figure Calvin and Hobbes
  72. 72. Rhythm / Pattern
  73. 73. Rhythm- Rhythm refers to any kind of movement or structure of dominant and subordinate elements in sequence, in other words, a pattern. Refering to the movement of the viewer’s eye, rhythm and pattern are based on repetition, particularly repetition of similar elements or recurring motifs.
  74. 74. Charles Rennie Mackintosh
  75. 75. So what is variety?
  76. 76. Variety Unity and variety are complimentary concerns. While unity is the appearance of oneness, variety provides diversity. Variety is the counterbalance to unity.
  77. 77. Emphasis on Unity with Variety Marc Chagall
  78. 78. Emphasis on Unity without Variety Katharina Fritsch
  79. 79. Emphasis on Unity with Variety
  80. 80. Scale and Proportion
  81. 81. Scale and Proportion Scale and proportion both relate to size. Scale refers to the size of an object seen in relation to other objects in the environment. Proportion is the size relationship of parts to a whole and one another (within the same object), or size measured against a mental norm or standard.
  82. 82. Ron Mueck
  83. 83. Changes in scale within a design change the total effect Internal Proportions- this deals with the size and scale of elements within the composition, in relation to to the whole.
  84. 84. Emil Nolde Leonardo DaVinci The Last Supper
  85. 85. Edgar Degas, Dancer with a Bouquet of Flowers
  86. 86. Charles Ray
  87. 87. Elements of Art Line Shape Form Value Texture Space Color Principles of Design Emphasis/Focal Point Balance Unity/Harmony Contrast Movement Pattern/Rhythm Variety Proportion/Scale

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