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VIRFAC | The Virtual Factory
Virtual Manufacturing Made Real
Simulation of chained processes:
Laser Cladding, Heat Treatme...
Virfac ® | www.geonx.com
OBJECTIVES
The present lecture aims to:
1. Apply the welding simulation methodology to additive l...
Virfac ® | www.geonx.com
APPLICATION DESCRIPTION
Machining
Simple (for validation purposes) additive manufacturing applica...
Virfac ® | www.geonx.com
APPLICATION DESCRIPTION
Machining
A heat treatment is added to improve the manufacturing chain. S...
Virfac ® | www.geonx.com
WORK PLAN
MA
-
Corrective
Machining
The present study aims to setup a demonstrator of process cha...
Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved
SIMULATION DESCRIPTION - ALM
Additive Layer
Manufacturing...
Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved
SIMULATION RESULTS - ALM
ALM sequence:
 Same starting po...
Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved
SIMULATION RESULTS - ALM
ALM sequence:
 Same starting po...
Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved
SIMULATION RESULTS - ALM
Residual distortions (after ALM ...
Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved
SENSITIVITY STUDIES - ALM
Alternative layer sequences:
In...
Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved
SENSITIVITY STUDIES - ALM
i
i+1Cross section
δtop = -0.47...
Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved
SENSITIVITY STUDIES - ALM
δtop = -0.66 mm
δmax = -0.747 m...
Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved
SENSITIVITY STUDIES - ALM
δtop = -0.577 mm
δmax = -0.700 ...
Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved
MODELLING DESCRIPTION
Additive Layer
Manufacturing
Stage ...
Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved
SIMULATION RESULTS - SRHT
Effect of heat treatment on dis...
Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved
SIMULATION RESULTS - SRHT
Residual distortions (after hea...
Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved
MODELLING DESCRIPTION
Additive Layer
Manufacturing
Stage ...
Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved
SIMULATION RESULTS - MA
Machining thickness sensitivity:
...
Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved
SENSITIVITY STUDIES - MA
Machining thickness sensitivity:...
Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved
SENSITIVITY STUDIES - MA
Evaluation of residual stresses:...
FURTHER DETAILS
Please contact us to know more about
VIRFAC features
Dr. Laurent D’Alvise
Mail: sales@geonx.com
Skype: geo...
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Simulation of chained processes: Laser Cladding, Heat Treatment and Machining

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The present lecture aims to:
1. Apply the welding simulation methodology to additive layer manufacturing simulation
2. Demonstrate the feasibility and pertinence of manufacturing chaining simulation using Virfac.
3. Perform sensitivity studies on the operating conditions and check the influence on quality criteria in terms of residual distortions.

Published in: Engineering
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Simulation of chained processes: Laser Cladding, Heat Treatment and Machining

  1. 1. VIRFAC | The Virtual Factory Virtual Manufacturing Made Real Simulation of chained processes: Laser Cladding, Heat Treatment and Machining Slideshare Distribution April 2016 L. D’Alvise, A. Majumdar GeonX S.A. www.geonx.com sales@geonx.com
  2. 2. Virfac ® | www.geonx.com OBJECTIVES The present lecture aims to: 1. Apply the welding simulation methodology to additive layer manufacturing simulation and build a first prototype 2. Demonstrate the feasibility and pertinence of manufacturing chaining simulation. 3. Perform sensitivity studies on the operating conditions and check the influence on quality criteria in terms of residual distortions. Process n°1 Process n°2 Process n°3 © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved
  3. 3. Virfac ® | www.geonx.com APPLICATION DESCRIPTION Machining Simple (for validation purposes) additive manufacturing application (laser cladding: tube on support) followed by machining. Additive Layer Manufacturing Distortions from the T/M process Final part within geometrical tolerances • Large excursions of temperature • Cycling heat load over one location • Cycling material melting & solidification • Large excursions of material properties © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved
  4. 4. Virfac ® | www.geonx.com APPLICATION DESCRIPTION Machining A heat treatment is added to improve the manufacturing chain. Simulations will provide a quantification of its influence on final distortions. Stress Relief Heat Treatment Additive Layer Manufacturing Distortions from the T/M process Reduction of stresses before machining Distortions from the machining process © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved
  5. 5. Virfac ® | www.geonx.com WORK PLAN MA - Corrective Machining The present study aims to setup a demonstrator of process chaining simulation. The following questions will be addressed: 1. How far the ALM part will be from the nominal geometry ? 2. How will the SRHT change the distortions inherited from the ALM ? 3. How will the machining process influence the distortions of the final part ? 4. How will the SRHT influence the whole chain and final distortions ? Important notice: this numerical model will be used as a simulation demonstrator and not yet for experimental validation purposes (see perspectives). SRHT - Stress Relief Heat Treatment ALM - Additive Layer Manufacturing © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved
  6. 6. Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved SIMULATION DESCRIPTION - ALM Additive Layer Manufacturing Stage n°1: Additive Layer Manufacturing 1. Operating conditions:  Tube on plate: ext.diam. 52.4 mm, length 25 mm, thickness 2.2 mm  Material: Inconel 718  Number of cladding layers: 14  Loading speed: 13.3 mm/s  Loading time: 172 s  Post-ALM cooling time (on threshold 20°C): 1579 s 2. Modelling hypothesis:  Thermo-Mechanical coupling (welding model with filler material)  Transient analysis  HEXAhedra elements conforming to the clad  Automatic mesh elements’ activation according to a moving box of selection  Heat loading: energy density applied in the activated FE elements (volume)  Thermal properties as a function of temperature  Mechanical properties as a function of temperature (Elasto-Plastic # Power Law)  Distributed Multi-Processing analysis: 12 processors
  7. 7. Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved SIMULATION RESULTS - ALM ALM sequence:  Same starting point for each layer  Same loading direction for all layers
  8. 8. Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved SIMULATION RESULTS - ALM ALM sequence:  Same starting point for each layer  Same loading direction for all layers
  9. 9. Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved SIMULATION RESULTS - ALM Residual distortions (after ALM + cooling):  Comparison against the nominal geometry  Cross section parallel to the ALM start  Deflection at the top of the tube: -0.637 mm  Maximum deflection (radial): -0.755 mm δtop = -0.637 mm δmax = -0.755 mm Cross section
  10. 10. Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved SENSITIVITY STUDIES - ALM Alternative layer sequences: Influence on residual distortions Configuration T2:  Same start for each layer  Alternating loading direction from one layer to the next Configuration T3:  90° shift start for each layer  Same loading direction for all layers Configuration T4:  90° shift start for each layer  Alternating loading direction from one layer to the next i i+1 i i+1
  11. 11. Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved SENSITIVITY STUDIES - ALM i i+1Cross section δtop = -0.475 mm δmax = -0.594 mm Reference (configuration T1): δtop = -0.637 mm δmax = -0.751 mm Configuration T2:
  12. 12. Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved SENSITIVITY STUDIES - ALM δtop = -0.66 mm δmax = -0.747 mm Cross section Reference (configuration T1): δtop = -0.637 mm δmax = -0.751 mm Configuration T3:
  13. 13. Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved SENSITIVITY STUDIES - ALM δtop = -0.577 mm δmax = -0.700 mm Cross section i i+1 Reference (configuration T1): δtop = -0.637 mm δmax = -0.751 mm Configuration T4:
  14. 14. Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved MODELLING DESCRIPTION Additive Layer Manufacturing Stage n°2: Stress Relief Heat Treatment 1. Operating conditions:  Tube on plate: deformed shape from the ALM process  Geometry: Configuration T2 selected  Material: Inconel 718  Stress relief process: Annealing [*ASM International]  Ramp Up on threshold: [20, 950] °C  Annealing Temperature: 950 °C  Holding time: 1 hour  Ramp Down on threshold : [950, 20] °C 2. Modelling hypothesis:  Deformed mesh from the upstream analysis (ALM)  Residual Stresses mapped from the upstream process (ALM)  Thermo-Mechanical coupling (staggered)  Transient analysis  Shared Memory Processing analysis: 12 processors Stress Relief Heat Treatment Mesh’
  15. 15. Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved SIMULATION RESULTS - SRHT Effect of heat treatment on distortions:  Expansion of the tube under the effect temperature increase  During cooling down, shrinkage of the workpiece  The plate constraints the tube shrinkage and stress increases at the border Magnify: 10x
  16. 16. Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved SIMULATION RESULTS - SRHT Residual distortions (after heat treatment):  Comparison against the nominal geometry  Cross section parallel to the ALM start  Deflection at the top of tube: from -0.475 to -0.367 mm  Maximum deflection (radial): from -0.594 to -0.441 mm  Smaller distortions after heat treatment δtop = 0.367 mm δmax = 0.441 mm i i+1Cross section
  17. 17. Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved MODELLING DESCRIPTION Additive Layer Manufacturing Stage n°3: Machining 1. Operating conditions:  Tube on plate: deformed from the Heat Treatment process  Geometry: Configuration T2 selected  Machining process: surface finish (cylindrical shape)  Thickness of removed material: 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 mm  Objective: flat surfaces 2. Modelling hypothesis:  Deformed mesh from the upstream analysis (ALM + SRHT)  Residual Stresses mapped from the upstream process (ALM + SRHT)  Mechanical analysis based on XFEM  Cutting passes represented by Level-Sets  Two setups will be considered:  Without the heat treatment  With the heat treatment Stress Relief Heat Treatment Mesh’ Machining Mesh’’
  18. 18. Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved SIMULATION RESULTS - MA Machining thickness sensitivity:  Effect of machining on residual distortions  Without Stress Relief Heat Treatment  The 0.6 mm thickness leads to flat external surfaces Thickness (mm) Rtop (mm) Rmin (mm) |Δ| (mm) 0.2 25.882 25.775 0,107 0.4 25.798 25.776 0.022 0.6 25.592 25.599 0.007 i i+1Cross section Additive Layer Manufacturing Machining Flat surface
  19. 19. Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved SENSITIVITY STUDIES - MA Machining thickness sensitivity:  Effect of machining on residual distortions  With Stress Relief Heat Treatment  The 0.4 mm thickness leads to flat external surfaces Additive Layer Manufacturing Stress Relief Heat Treatment Machining HT Thickness (mm) Rtop (mm) Rmin (mm) |Δ| (mm) Yes 0.2 25.89 25.850 0.040 No 0.2 25.88 25.775 0,107 i i+1Cross section
  20. 20. Virfac ® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2016 GeonX – All rights reserved SENSITIVITY STUDIES - MA Evaluation of residual stresses:  Before machining (after HT)  After machining  Deformation is magnified 10 times  Prediction of residual distortions Before machining (after HT) After machining
  21. 21. FURTHER DETAILS Please contact us to know more about VIRFAC features Dr. Laurent D’Alvise Mail: sales@geonx.com Skype: geonx_ Visit: www.geonx.com Follow us on Twitter: geonx_ Virfac© | www.geonx.com © 2012 - 2016 GeonX – All rights reserved

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