FORMULATION APPROACHES AND
DEVELOPMENT OF NANOSTRUCTURED
Mr. Rahul S. Dalvi
M. Pharm. (SEM – II)
Dept. of Pharmaceutics
Dr. A. J. Shinde
Dept. of Pharmaceutics
COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, KOLHAPUR
Second generation lipid nanoparticles.
Produced from blends of solid lipids and liquid lipids.
The blends obtained are also solid at room temperature and body
Solid lipids are mixed with liquid lipids preferably in the ratio of
70:30 up to a ratio of 99.9:0.1.
Has lipid matrix with a special nanostructure which improve drug
loading and firmly incorporate the drug during storage.
Can be administered via oral, ocular, topical and intravenous
Nanostructured Lipid Carrier ( NLC )
Poor drug loading capacity.
Drug expulsion after polymeric transition during storage.
Relatively high water content of the dispersions (70-99.9%)
The low capacity to load water soluble drugs due to
partitioning effects during the production process.
NLC overcome these limitations
Better physical stability.
Ease of preparation and scale-up.
Increased dispersability in an aqueous medium.
High entrapment of lipophilic drugs and hydrophilic drugs.
Controlled particle size.
An advanced and efficient carrier system in particular for
Increase of skin occlusion.
Extended release of the drug.
Types of NLC
Type 1: Imperfect type NLC
Solid and liquid lipids are blended.
Small amount of liquid lipid.
The difference in the structures of the lipids and special
requirements in the crystallization process lead to a highly
disordered, imperfect lipid matrix structure offering space for drug
molecules and clusters of drugs.
Type 2: Multiple type NLC
The multiple oil/fat/water, drug can be accomodated in the solid,
but at increased solubility in the oily parts of the lipid matrix.
At high oil concentrations a miscibility gap of two lipids occurs
during the cooling phase, leading to phase separation, that means
precipitation of tiny oily nano compartments.
Type 3: Amorphous type NLC
Lipids are mixed in a way that prevents them from crystallizing.
The lipid matrix is solid but, in a amorphous state.
e g. Hydroxy octacosanylhydroxystearate.
with high shear
Cool at room
Use of piston gap
in lipid melt
Use of ice or
Factors Affecting technique
High temperature, low viscosity of lipid melt, lower particle size,
can lead to degradation of drug and carrier.
High homogenization, high kinetic energy of particles, particle
coalescence, higher particle size.
Temperature Homogenization speed
Solvent Evaporation Technique
Evaporation of organic
solvent (at room temperature
and reduced pressure)
Concentration of lipid in organic solvent dictates particle size
Low lipid load, small particle size
Incorporation of thermolabile drugs
Disadvantages: use of organic solvent may interact with drug,
limited solubility of lipid in organic solvent.
The lipids are melted
Drug incorporated in molten lipid
A mixture is heated
Adding the melted lipid
Transparent and thermodynamically are mixed
Melting Dispersion Technique
Melting of drug and lipids in organic solvent(oil phase)
Simultaneous heating of water at same temperature.
Addition of oil phase in small volume of water with stirring at
higher rpm for few hours.
Cooling down to room temperature.
Double Emulsion Technique
Drug dissolved in aqueous phase.
Then emulsification in melted lipids: Primary emulsion.
Add stabilizer: stabilized primary emulsion.
Dispersion in aq. phase containing hydrophilic emulsifier.
This double emulsion is stirred and filtered.
Colloidal dispersion of NLC is spray dried
Cheaper than lyophilization
Particle aggregation due to high temperature
Partial melting of particles
Particle Size: Photon Correlation Spectroscopy
Electron microscopy: SEM, TEM, AFM
Surface tension: Wilhemy plate method
X-Ray Diffraction: Crystallinity
NMR: Mobility of materials in inner core of NLC
Drug entrapment efficiency: Ultrafiltration, ultracentrifugation,
filtration by sephadex and dialysis
Drug release: Franz cell
Title : ‘Nanostructured Lipid Carrier Gel for Topical Delivery of
API : Ketoconazole
Other excipients : Compritol 888@ ATO, Precirol@ ATO 5, Stearic
acid, Clove oil, Tween 80, Transcutol P, Ethanol, Carbopol 934, etc.
Experimental and Evaluation Parameters
Screening of surfactuctant and co-surfactuctant system
Preparation of NLC
Formulation concentrations for NLC
Preparation of KNLC
KNLC were prepared by using mechanical agitation method. Method uses
ketoconazole in 200 mg and 400 mg concentration, 40 mg/ml and 20 mg/ml of
clove oil and 160 mg/ml and 80 mg/ml of solid lipid compritol 888 ATO.
Surfactant, co-surfactant system included tween 80 (0.3% w/v) and triton X-
100 (0.1% w/v) were used for KNLC. Antisolvent volume was 50 ml.
Preparation of KNLC Gel
KNLC gel was prepared by using mechanical agitation method. Method uses
KNLC system of volume 50 ml and carbomer 934 was used as gelling agent at
Evaluation and optimization of Ketoconazole NLC
Evaluation of Ketoconazole NLC Gel
Accelerated stability studies
Accelerated stability study carried out for three months period at 250C ±
2˚c/ 75 % ±5% RH. Sampling has been done after three months period.
These gels were evaluated for in vitro drug release study (ICH Q1A (R2) .
Cutanova Dr. Rimpler
SuperVital cream IOPE
Surmer Isabella Lancray
NanoLipid Restore CLR Chemisches Laboratorium Dr. Kurt Richter
NanoLipid Q 10 CLR Chemisches Laboratorium Dr. Kurt Richter
NanoRepair Q 10 Dr. Rimpler
NanoVital Dr. Rimpler
The lipid nanoparticles – NLC are carrier systems with good
perspectives to be marketed very successfully.
The reason for this is that they were developed considering
industrial needs e.g. scale up, qualification and validation,
simple technology, low cost, tolerability
NLCs can generally be applied where solid nanoparticles
possess advantages for the delivery of drugs.
NLCs are used in topical drug delivery, oral and parenteral
administration. They also have used in cosmetics, food and
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Carli, F., Physical Chemistry and Oral Absorption of the
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Joshi, M., Patravale, V., Nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC)
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