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"Photography and Surrealism"
Coffee Talk – Peter Tush
August 3, 2016
"Photography and Surrealism" Outline:
1. How does Horst relate to Surrealism?
2. Photography as a medium prior to Surreali...
"Surrealism lies at the heart of the photographic enterprise: in the
very creation of a duplicate world, of a reality in t...
1. Horst and the
Influence of
Surrealism
Dinner suit and headdress by
Schiaparelli,
1947
Muriel Maxwell
American Vogue Cover, July 1,
1939
Horst P. Horst
Costume
design for
"The Dream of
Venus"
1939
Horst P. Horst
Hands, Hands…,
1941
Horst P. Horst
Electric Beauty
1939
2. Photography and
Dalí
René Magritte: Edward James in front of "On the Threshold of Liberty,"
1937
Salvador Dalí
The
Phenomenon
of Ecstasy
In Minotaure,
no. 3/4, 1933
Salvador Dalí
"Communication: Visage
paranoïaque"
("Communication:
Paranoiac Face")
in
Le Surréalisme au service de
la rév...
Raoul Ubac
Dali's Rainy Taxi
1938
Philippe Halsman: Dalí Atomicus, 1948
3. Straight
Photography versus
Pictorialism
Straight Photography
Alfred Stieglitz: The Terminal 1893
Edward Weston
Pepper No. 30
1930
Edward Steichen
Gloria Swanson
1924
Edward Steichen
Vogue Cover
July, 1932
4. Surrealism &
Photography:
Major Themes
André Breton: Manifesto of
Surrealism, 1924
Rogi Andre: Jacqueline Lamba in
aquarium, 1934
Central Themes (1924-1939):
Automatism (Man Ray’s solarizations; Nadja’s snapshots)
Eroticism, Gaze of desire
Fetishizatio...
Major Theme:
Eroticism
Man Ray: The Primacy of Matter over Thought, 1929
Major Theme:
Madness
Germaine Berton surrounded by
the Surrealist Group
Cover of
La Revolution Surrealiste
No.1, December 1924
Breton was an an...
Papin Sisters Before, After
Le Surrealisme au Service de la Revolution, May 1933
After seven years exemplary service as do...
Major Theme:
Hysteria
Salvador Dalí
"Le Cinquantenaire de
l'hystérie, 1878-1928"
("The Fiftieth Anniversary of
Hysteria")
In La Revolution Surre...
Major Theme:
the Marvelous
Man Ray
Fixed Explosive
in Andre Breton’s essay "La
beaute convulsive" ("Beauty
will be Convulsive") in
Minotaure, no. 5, ...
Major Theme:
Blasphemy
Man Ray
Monument à D. A. F. de Sade
in
Le Surréalisme au service de la
révolution
No.5, 1933
This blasphemous image was
al...
Major Theme:
The Uncanny
Georgio
de Chirico
Enigma of Fatality
1914
De Chirico’s work brought
together the mannequin, the
interior and the street i...
The "Uncanny": époque des
mannequins,
époque des intérieurs
Cover of
La Revolution surrealiste
No.4, 1925
With a photo by Man Ray of a
mannequin
Eugène Atget
Boulevard de Strasbourg,
Corsets
Paris, 1912
Benjamin Peret
Automatons, illustrating
"Au paradis des
fantômes"
In Minotaure, no. 2/3,
1933
Major Theme:
Paris – City as
Metaphor
Eugène Atget
Rue du Figuier
1924
5. Surrealism &
Documentary
Photography
Anthropological photographs,
ordinary snapshots, movie
stills, medical and police
photographs—all of these
appeared in Sur...
Photo from Survey Of
Love, featured in the last
issue of La Revolution
Surrealiste, No.12,
December 1929
Magritte’s
The Hi...
Man Ray
Chessboard
1930
Man Ray published in La Révolution surréaliste, number 7 (Jun. 15, 1926)
6. Nadja &
Photography
Breton’s Nadja (1928), a
book about mysterious
Parisian chance
encounters with a
woman.
In Nadja, photos are used
not so m...
Les cabarets du Ciel et de l'Enfer, en bas du 42 rue Fontaine
Breton’s Nadja is also about Paris, a City as Metaphor: expl...
Léona Delcourt (Nadja),
1920s.
Source: Jacques Rigaut
She never appears in the
novel.
Anonymous: A Woman’s glove as well
Photo used in André Breton’s Nadja, 1928
With the Exception of the
Rectangular Mask, which she can
say nothing about
A Symbolic Portrait
of Her and Me
Jacques-André Boiffard
No: not even the very
beautiful and very
useless Porte Saint-
Denis, 1928
The surrealists saw the
c...
Jacques-André Boiffard:
The Humanité bookstore
Jacques-André Boiffard:
The Boulevard Magenta outside
the Sphinx Hotel
Breton wanted a
"medical" style of
dispassionate
observation in the
images, as well as the
writing.
Photographer
Jacques-A...
Boiffard’s
photographs of sites
including the Saint-
Ouen flea market, the
Humanité bookstore
and the Sphinx Hotel
are fam...
For Rosalind Krauss, the
photographs are 'banal':
'the presence of the
photographs
strikes one as extremely
eccentric — an...
But for Walter Benjamin,
"[In Nadja], photography
intervenes in a very
strange way. It makes the
streets, gates, squares o...
According to David Bates, there is so little information for the reader to
link the photos to the story that they open up ...
7. Surrealism &
Photography:
Technical
Experiments
Techniques used to blur reality and dream:
• Deliberate ambiguity between reality and imagination
• Automatism (Man Ray’s ...
Automatism - a method
of art making in which the
artist suppresses
conscious control over
the making process
Brassai
Sculp...
Double Exposure - using
the negatives of two or
more photographic images
in conjunction with one
another to create a singl...
Dora Maar, Untitled (hand and shell), 1934
Montage - making of composite picture by cutting and joining a
number of photog...
Man Ray
Solarisation
1930
Solarization - a partial
reversal of tone within a
print, most visible at the
edges of forms, ca...
Brassai
Untitled
1950
Cliché Verre: method of either etching, painting or drawing on a
transparent surface, such as glass,...
André Kertész
Distortion #168
1933
Distortion - renders
the image uncanny
8. The Photographers
of Surrealism
The Photographers:
Max Ernst
Max Ernst
(April 2, 1891-
April 1, 1976)
Cologne Dadaist
and Surrealist
Founder
Max Ernst
The Chinese
Nightingale
1920
Max Ernst: Here all together are my seven sisters, often living on liquid
desires and perfectly resembling sleeping leaves...
The Photographers:
Man Ray
Man Ray
(1890-1976)
American visual artist,
Member of Alfred
Stieglitz's "291" gallery,
friend of Marcel Duchamp,
informal...
Man Ray: The Enigma of Isidore Ducasse 1920
Man Ray
Rayograph
1922
Man Ray: Black And White 1926
Man Ray: Les Larmes (Glass Tears), 1932
Man Ray: Untitled, 1933
Man Ray
Erotique Voilée
Veiled Erotic
(Meret Oppenheim
at the Press)
1933
In Minotaure, 1934
The Photographers:
Lee Miller
Lee Miller
(1907-1977)
American photographer,
successful fashion
model in 1920s and she
became an
established fashion and
...
Lee Miller
Lee Miller
in Adolf Hitler's
bathtub, Munich
1945
The Photographers:
Eugène Atget
Eugène Atget
(1857-1927)
French photographer,
Man Ray’s neighbor,
the “Henri Rousseau”
of the camera,
Paris as empty
“drea...
Atget on the cover of
La Révolution Surréaliste,
June, 1926
Eugène Atget
Boulevard de Strasbourg,
Corsets
Paris, 1912
Eugène Atget
Window of a shop on the
avenue des Gobelins
1925
The Photographers:
Jacques-André
Boiffard
Jacques-André
Boiffard
(1902-1961)
French photographer,
a medical student,
Man Ray’s assistant
from 1924 to 1929,
photos i...
Jacques-André Boiffard: The
Humanité bookstore. Photo used in
André Breton’s Nadja, 1928
Jacques-André Boiffard: The
Boule...
Jacques-André Boiffard
In Georges Bataille: "Le gros orteil“
("The Big Toe") Documents, no. 6,
1929
Jacques-André Boiffard...
Jacques-André Boiffard
Renée Jacobi
1930
The Photographers:
Eli Lotar
Eli Lotar
(1905-1969)
French photographer
and
cinematographer,
closely associated
with Georges
Bataille’s Documents,
cinem...
Eli Lotar
Aux abattoirs
de la Villette
from Georges
Bataille’s
"Dictionnaire
critique" in
Documents, no. 6,
1929
Eli Lotar
Bouche
(Mouth)
from Georges Bataille’s
"Dictionnaire critique" in
Documents, no. 3, 1929
Bassesse (bassness), th...
The Photographers:
Hans Bellmer
Hans Bellmer
(1902-1975)
German photographer,
est known for the life-
sized pubescent female
dolls
His photographs were
pu...
Hans Bellmer
La Poupée
(The Doll)
1936
"The body is like a sentence that
invites us to rearrange it."
- Hans Bellmer
Uncanny confusion between
animate and inanim...
The Photographers:
Paul Nougé
Paul Nougé
(1895-1967)
Belgian photographer
poet, founder and
theoretician of surrealism
in Belgium, sometimes
known as th...
Paul Nougé
The Juggler
1929-1930
Paul Nougé: photographs from La Subversion des images,
1919-30
The Photographers:
Raoul Ubac
Raoul Ubac
(1910-1985)
French painter,
sculptor, photographer
and engraver
Raoul Ubac
Mannequin
1937
Photograph of
Masson’s mannequin
Raoul Ubac
Portrait Dans un Miroir
1938
Raoul Ubac
The Nebula
1939
Raoul Ubac: Le Combat des Penthesilees, 1939
The Photographers:
Claude Cahun
Claude Cahun
(Lucy Schwob)
(1894-1954)
French artist,
photographer and
writer, explorer of
gender roles, disciple
of Breton
Marcel Moore (Suzanne Malherbe) and Claude Cahun (Lucy Schwob).
Self-Portraits Reflected in a Mirror, c. 1920
Claude Cahun
Don't Kiss Me I Am in
Training
1927
Claude Cahun, What Do You Want from Me?, 1928
Claude Cahun
Untitled
1936-1939
The Photographers:
Dora Maar
Dora Maar
(1907-1997)
French and Croatian
descent photographer,
Picasso’s “weeping woman,”
Friend of Paul Eluard,
Maar and...
Dora Maar
Père Ubu
1936
Dora Maar
Le Simulateur
(The Simulator)
1936
Pompidou, Paris
http://designobserver.com/fea
ture/exposure-the-simulator-
by...
The Photographers:
Brassaï
Brassaï
(1899-1984)
Hungarian-French
photographer, tutored by
his fellow Hungarian André
Kertész, Brassai
photographed man...
Brassaï
Photo of Hector
Guimard's metro
entrances in Paris for
Salvador Dali’s essay
"On the Terrifying and
Edible Beauty ...
Brassai:
Photo for Salvador Dalí’s
article "Sculptures
involontaires"
in Minotaure no. 1
Paris, 1933
Photographs of everyd...
Brassaï: Untitled, 1933
The Photographers:
André Kertész
André Kertész
(1894-1985)
Hungarian-born
photographer, seminal
figure of photojournalism.
Mentor to Brassaï.
André Kertész: In a
sculptor’s studio, 1925
André Kertész: Entry to the Galerie
de l’Horloge, Passage de l’Opera,
1925
Eroticism
Andre Kertesz: Distortion 38, 1933
André Kertész
Meudon, France
1928
10. Legacy of
Surrealist
Photography
Legacy:
Duane Michals
Duane Michals (1932-Present)
Duane Michals: Magritte with Hat, 1965
Duane Michals
Dr. Heisenberg's Magic Mirror
1998
Duane Michals: Dr. Heisenberg's Magic Mirror, 1998
Legacy:
Francesca Woodman
Francesca Woodman
(1958-1981)
Francesca
Woodman
Space2,
Providence,
Rhode Island
1976
Francesca
Woodman
Space,
Providence,
Rhode Island
1975
Francesca
Woodman
Self Portrait
Talking to Vince
1980
Legacy:
Cindy Sherman
Cindy Sherman
Untitled #92
1985
Cindy Sherman
Untitled
1985
Cindy Sherman
Untitled #261
Mannequin
1992
Legacy:
Jerry Uelsmann
Jerry Uelsmann
Tree House
1982
Legacy:
Gregory Crewdson
Gregory Crewdson: Ophelia
(from the Beneath the Roses series), 2001
Marcel Duchamp
André Breton
1945
Flâneur from the French
noun flâneur, means
"stroller", "lounger",
"saunterer", or "loafer."
According to Baudelaire, the
...
In this painting, Edouard
Manet is shown in the pose
of a flâneur (see
Baudelaire's essay entitled
The Painter of Modern L...
Baudelaire,
Benjamin,
Breton
Quaker Efficiency Expert: Frederick Winslow Taylor
"Down with dawdling" led to the demise of the flâneur
For Breton, the war on
the work ethic and the
value of the flâneur was a
strategy against a society
that "maximized"
effic...
Walter Benjamin:
the arcades,
the lost corners
of the city,
the passé
Man Ray
Monument à D. A. F. de Sade
in
Le Surréalisme au service de la
révolution
No.5, 1933
This blasphemous image was
al...
Man Ray
Fixed Explosive
in Andre Breton’s essay "La
beaute convulsive" ("Beauty
will be Convulsive") in
Minotaure, no. 5, ...
Round the Clock, 1987
Comme ils l’entendent (The way they see it; left) and Comme nous
l’entendons (The way we see it; right), photographs by E....
Max Ernst: Vision Induced by the Nocturnal Aspect of the Porte St. Denis,
1927, Private Collection
Employs both frottage (...
Max Ernst: La Ville entière, (The Entire City), 1935-36,
Kunsthaus, Zurich
The photos Breton used
in Nadja seem
deliberately banal
Jeff Wall: Dead Troops Talk (A vision after an ambush of a Red Army
patrol, near Moqor, Afghanistan, winter 1986)
"Photography and Surrealism"
Outline:
1. How does Horst relate to Surrealism?
2. Photography as a medium prior to Surreali...
Woodman studied
surrealist texts in Rome
at the Libreria Maldoror,
a bookshop-gallery that
specialized in work about
and b...
Surreal Photographers Checklist:
Jean-Eugène-Auguste Atget
Hans Bellmer
Denise Bellon
Ilse Bing
Jacques-André Boiffard
Bra...
Horst P. Horst
Salvador Dalí
1943
Horst P. Horst
Dalí Bacchanale
Costumes
1939
Horst P. Horst
Mainbocher Corset
1939
2. Development of
Photography as a
Medium
Still life with plaster casts, made by Daguerre in
1837, the earliest reliably dated daguerreotype
Kodak and the Rise of Amateur Photography
Eastman Kodak Advertisement for
the Brownie Camera, c. 1900
Alfred Stieglitz
Winter – Fifth Avenue 1893
Alfred Stieglitz
The Steerage 1907
Paul Strand
Typewriter keys
1916
Paul Strand
Wall Street
1915
Edward Steichen
The Flatiron
1904
Edward Steichen
Self-Portrait with
Brush and Palette
1902
Edward Steichen
Black: Model Margaret
Horan in a black dress by
Jay-Thorpe
1935
(Vogue, November 1,
1935)
Edward Steichen
Anita Chace in Art Deco
Shawl Vogue US
1925
William H. Mumler
(1832–1884) was an
American spirit
photographer who
worked in New York and
Boston. His first spirit
phot...
William H. Mumler, 1872
"Spirit photograph" of
Mary Todd Lincoln with
her husband by William
H. Mumler. These pictures
wer...
Andre Kertesz: Eiffel Tower Paris 1929
Germaine Berton surrounded by
the Surrealist Group
Cover of
La Revolution Surrealiste
No.1, December 1924
Breton was an an...
Man Ray
La Ville (The City)
1931
Overlay of
multiple exposures
Winifred Casson
Accident
1935
Double exposure -
the
superimposition of
two exposures to
create a single
image
Dora Maar
Untitled (hand and shell)
1934
"Fifty Years of
Hysteria"
article by
André Breton and
Louis Aragon
published in La
Révolution
surréaliste,
number II
1929
Benjamin Peret
Automatons,
illustrating "Au
paradis des
fantômes"
In Minotaure, no.
2/3, 1933
Max Ernst
The Hundred-headless
Woman Opens her August
Sleeve
from La Femme 100 têtes,
1929
Max Ernst
Cover for the
novel Une
Semaine De
Bonte
1934
Man Ray
Lee Miller
1930
from
Surrealism at
the Service of
the Revolution
Man Ray
Untitled
1933
Dora Maar
The Years Lie in
Wait for You
1936
Jacques-André Boiffard
Untitled
1930
Jacques-André Boiffard
Sous le masque Pierre Prévert
1930
Eli Lotar: Aux abattoirs de la Villette
from Georges Bataille’s "Dictionnaire critique" in Documents, no. 6,
1929
Claude Cahun
Self Portrait
1928
Claude Cahun
Self-Portrait
1928
Claude Cahun
Aveux Non Avenus. Paris:
Éditions du Carrefour
1930
Claude Cahun
Untitled
1936
Claude Cahun
Standing and Sitting in a
garden, Claude Cahun and
Marcel Moore
1939
Lee Miller
‘Floating head’
Portrait of Mary
Taylor
1933
Hans Bellmer
La Poupée
(The Doll)
1936/1938
Hans Bellmer
La Poupée
(The Doll)
1935
Raoul Ubac
Le triomphe de la
stérilité
(The triumph of sterility)
1937
Raoul Ubac: Burnout, 1939
Hans Bellmer
The Second Doll
1949
Lee Miller
Portrait of
Space, Egypt
1937
Lee Miller
SS Guard in
Canal
1945
André Kertész: Paris, 1928
André Kertész: A window
on the Quai Voltaire, 1928
André Kertész: Paris, 1929
André Kertész
Lost Cloud, New York
1937
Paul Nougé: photographs from La Subversion des images,
1919-30
Paul Nougé: photographs from La Subversion des
images, 1919-30
Brassaï: photo of rock crystals in Andre Breton’s essay "La
beaute convulsive" ("Beauty will be Convulsive") in Minotaure,...
The Photographers:
Jindřich Štyrský
Malíř Jindřich Štyrský
(1899–1942)
with Toyen
Manic photographer,
collector of dreams,
Sadean tourist
Prague Surrealist Gr...
Jindřich Štyrský
Emile Comes to me in a
Dream
1933
Jindřich Štyrský
Emilie Comes to Me in a
Dream
1933
The Photographers:
Maurice Tabard
Maurice Tabard
(1897-1984)
American photographer
Leading photographers of
the Surrealist movement,
which he entered under ...
Maurice Tabard
Walking Tree
1929
Maurice Tabard: Room with Eye, 1930
Maurice Tabard:
Untitled, 1940
Maurice Tabard:
Study, 1929
Maurice Tabard
Untitled
1930-1935
Maurice Tabard, Fashion for
Balmain, Avedon's Studio, 1949
Francesca
Woodman
Polka Dots 01,
Providence,
Rhode Island
1976
Duane Michals
The Spirit Leaves The Body
1968
Duane Michals: The Spirit Leaves The Body, 1968
Cindy Sherman
Legacy:
Jeff Wall
Jeff Wall: The Giant, 1992
Coffee with a Curator: "Photography and Surrealism"
Coffee with a Curator: "Photography and Surrealism"
Coffee with a Curator: "Photography and Surrealism"
Coffee with a Curator: "Photography and Surrealism"
Coffee with a Curator: "Photography and Surrealism"
Coffee with a Curator: "Photography and Surrealism"
Coffee with a Curator: "Photography and Surrealism"
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Coffee with a Curator - Peter Tush: "Photography and Surrealism"
Wednesday, August 3, 2016

Coffee with a Curator is a focused, theme-oriented presentation on a variety of Dali-related topics. The talk is presented by one of The Dali Museum’s Curatorial/Education team or an invited speaker.

Complementary to our current exhibition, Horst: Photographs – Fashion and Surrealism, Curator of Education Peter Tush discusses Surrealism and its relationship with photography. This talk will examine the role of photography within the revolutionary Surrealist Movement, shifting between documentation and the subversion of bourgeois values, and will survey the contributions of key surrealist photographers such as Man Ray, Hans Bellmer, Claude Cahun, Raoul Ubac and Jacques-Andre Boiffard. The talk will conclude with a reflection on the surreal aspects of Horst’s fashion photographs.

For information on upcoming events at The Dali visit: http://thedali.org/events

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Coffee with a Curator: "Photography and Surrealism"

  1. 1. "Photography and Surrealism" Coffee Talk – Peter Tush August 3, 2016
  2. 2. "Photography and Surrealism" Outline: 1. How does Horst relate to Surrealism? 2. Photography as a medium prior to Surrealism 3. Straight photography vs. pictoralism 4. Main themes of surreal photography 5. Surrealism and the documentary photograph 6. Nadja and Photography 7. Key techniques of surreal photography 8. Key surrealist photographers 9. Dali & Photography 10. Legacy
  3. 3. "Surrealism lies at the heart of the photographic enterprise: in the very creation of a duplicate world, of a reality in the second degree, narrower but more dramatic than the one perceived by natural vision." — Susan Sontag, On Photography, 1979
  4. 4. 1. Horst and the Influence of Surrealism
  5. 5. Dinner suit and headdress by Schiaparelli, 1947 Muriel Maxwell American Vogue Cover, July 1, 1939
  6. 6. Horst P. Horst Costume design for "The Dream of Venus" 1939
  7. 7. Horst P. Horst Hands, Hands…, 1941
  8. 8. Horst P. Horst Electric Beauty 1939
  9. 9. 2. Photography and Dalí
  10. 10. René Magritte: Edward James in front of "On the Threshold of Liberty," 1937
  11. 11. Salvador Dalí The Phenomenon of Ecstasy In Minotaure, no. 3/4, 1933
  12. 12. Salvador Dalí "Communication: Visage paranoïaque" ("Communication: Paranoiac Face") in Le Surréalisme au service de la révolution No.3, 1931 For Dalí, the paranoiac image is the result of the delirium of interpretation
  13. 13. Raoul Ubac Dali's Rainy Taxi 1938
  14. 14. Philippe Halsman: Dalí Atomicus, 1948
  15. 15. 3. Straight Photography versus Pictorialism
  16. 16. Straight Photography Alfred Stieglitz: The Terminal 1893
  17. 17. Edward Weston Pepper No. 30 1930
  18. 18. Edward Steichen Gloria Swanson 1924
  19. 19. Edward Steichen Vogue Cover July, 1932
  20. 20. 4. Surrealism & Photography: Major Themes
  21. 21. André Breton: Manifesto of Surrealism, 1924
  22. 22. Rogi Andre: Jacqueline Lamba in aquarium, 1934
  23. 23. Central Themes (1924-1939): Automatism (Man Ray’s solarizations; Nadja’s snapshots) Eroticism, Gaze of desire Fetishization Gender-switching Blasphemy & Scandalization Subversion - destabilize Madness Hysteria Paranoia Crime Paris - City as Metaphor Hallucination Metamorphosis Marvelous (Paul Nouge – the enigma in the everyday) Uncanny & Enigma (Bellmer’s dolls)
  24. 24. Major Theme: Eroticism
  25. 25. Man Ray: The Primacy of Matter over Thought, 1929
  26. 26. Major Theme: Madness
  27. 27. Germaine Berton surrounded by the Surrealist Group Cover of La Revolution Surrealiste No.1, December 1924 Breton was an anarchist who had assassinated a French politician. The Surrealists were sympathetic to anyone who stepped outside the law, particularly if they were idealistic and female.
  28. 28. Papin Sisters Before, After Le Surrealisme au Service de la Revolution, May 1933 After seven years exemplary service as domestics, they killed and mutilated Madame Lancelin and her daughter when a blown fuse threw the house into darkness. The sisters promptly confessed, but it was revealed that they were locked in an incestuous lesbian relationship.
  29. 29. Major Theme: Hysteria
  30. 30. Salvador Dalí "Le Cinquantenaire de l'hystérie, 1878-1928" ("The Fiftieth Anniversary of Hysteria") In La Revolution Surrealiste No.11, 1929 For the surrealists, hysteria was the greatest poetic discovery of the 19th century, reinforcing stereotype of "woman as mad"
  31. 31. Major Theme: the Marvelous
  32. 32. Man Ray Fixed Explosive in Andre Breton’s essay "La beaute convulsive" ("Beauty will be Convulsive") in Minotaure, no. 5, 1934 Delirium is a state to be striven for because it throws into question what is assumed to be "normal" Paranoia
  33. 33. Major Theme: Blasphemy
  34. 34. Man Ray Monument à D. A. F. de Sade in Le Surréalisme au service de la révolution No.5, 1933 This blasphemous image was aligned with the article on the Papin sisters Crime
  35. 35. Major Theme: The Uncanny
  36. 36. Georgio de Chirico Enigma of Fatality 1914 De Chirico’s work brought together the mannequin, the interior and the street in a particularly hallucinatory way; it leads to estrangement as in a dream narrative
  37. 37. The "Uncanny": époque des mannequins, époque des intérieurs
  38. 38. Cover of La Revolution surrealiste No.4, 1925 With a photo by Man Ray of a mannequin
  39. 39. Eugène Atget Boulevard de Strasbourg, Corsets Paris, 1912
  40. 40. Benjamin Peret Automatons, illustrating "Au paradis des fantômes" In Minotaure, no. 2/3, 1933
  41. 41. Major Theme: Paris – City as Metaphor
  42. 42. Eugène Atget Rue du Figuier 1924
  43. 43. 5. Surrealism & Documentary Photography
  44. 44. Anthropological photographs, ordinary snapshots, movie stills, medical and police photographs—all of these appeared in Surrealist journals like La Révolution Surréaliste and Minotaure, radically divorced from their original purposes.
  45. 45. Photo from Survey Of Love, featured in the last issue of La Revolution Surrealiste, No.12, December 1929 Magritte’s The Hidden Woman ("I do not see the (woman) hidden in the forest")
  46. 46. Man Ray Chessboard 1930
  47. 47. Man Ray published in La Révolution surréaliste, number 7 (Jun. 15, 1926)
  48. 48. 6. Nadja & Photography
  49. 49. Breton’s Nadja (1928), a book about mysterious Parisian chance encounters with a woman. In Nadja, photos are used not so much to illustrate passages but rather to accompany and support Breton’s temporary flashbacks. City as Metaphor
  50. 50. Les cabarets du Ciel et de l'Enfer, en bas du 42 rue Fontaine Breton’s Nadja is also about Paris, a City as Metaphor: exploring the city’s commonplace and monuments, it reveals "the marvelous" in the everyday.
  51. 51. Léona Delcourt (Nadja), 1920s. Source: Jacques Rigaut She never appears in the novel.
  52. 52. Anonymous: A Woman’s glove as well Photo used in André Breton’s Nadja, 1928
  53. 53. With the Exception of the Rectangular Mask, which she can say nothing about A Symbolic Portrait of Her and Me
  54. 54. Jacques-André Boiffard No: not even the very beautiful and very useless Porte Saint- Denis, 1928 The surrealists saw the city as a primordial site, a labyrinth; the dwelling place of the modern unconscious
  55. 55. Jacques-André Boiffard: The Humanité bookstore Jacques-André Boiffard: The Boulevard Magenta outside the Sphinx Hotel
  56. 56. Breton wanted a "medical" style of dispassionate observation in the images, as well as the writing. Photographer Jacques-André Boiffard, like Breton, had been a medical student.
  57. 57. Boiffard’s photographs of sites including the Saint- Ouen flea market, the Humanité bookstore and the Sphinx Hotel are famously deadpan, depopulated and far from picturesque. They are pictures of mystery .
  58. 58. For Rosalind Krauss, the photographs are 'banal': 'the presence of the photographs strikes one as extremely eccentric — an appendage to the text that is as mysterious in its motivation as the images themselves are banal'."
  59. 59. But for Walter Benjamin, "[In Nadja], photography intervenes in a very strange way. It makes the streets, gates, squares of the city into illustrations of a trashy novel, draws off the banal obviousness of this ancient architecture to inject it with the most pristine intensity toward the events described…"
  60. 60. According to David Bates, there is so little information for the reader to link the photos to the story that they open up a space between the story and the pictures. The photos don’t describe character actions but show places and things they inhabited. Jacques-André Boiffard Picture caption reads: "I shall take as my point departure the Hôtel des Grands Hommes . . ."
  61. 61. 7. Surrealism & Photography: Technical Experiments
  62. 62. Techniques used to blur reality and dream: • Deliberate ambiguity between reality and imagination • Automatism (Man Ray’s Rayographs) • Double exposure (Man ray’s doubled eyes) • Combination printing • Reversed tonality • Montage • Solarization (Man Ray photo of Jacqueline Goddard) • Rayographs (Man Ray’s photograms) • Cliché verre • Rotation • Distortion (Kertesz nudes) • Close up to confuse scale (Brassai) • Isolate (Kertesz – empty city) Surrealism sought a psychic and social transformation of the individual through the replacing of bourgeois conventions with new values of spiritual adventure, poetry, and eroticism. The Surreal in photography manifested itself through new content and techniques
  63. 63. Automatism - a method of art making in which the artist suppresses conscious control over the making process Brassai Sculptures involontaires’, in Minotaure N°1, Paris 1933
  64. 64. Double Exposure - using the negatives of two or more photographic images in conjunction with one another to create a single image Man Ray Marquise Casati 1922
  65. 65. Dora Maar, Untitled (hand and shell), 1934 Montage - making of composite picture by cutting and joining a number of photographs
  66. 66. Man Ray Solarisation 1930 Solarization - a partial reversal of tone within a print, most visible at the edges of forms, caused by momentary exposure to light during the course of normal darkroom development
  67. 67. Brassai Untitled 1950 Cliché Verre: method of either etching, painting or drawing on a transparent surface, such as glass, thin paper or film and printing the resulting image on a light sensitive paper in a photographic darkroom.
  68. 68. André Kertész Distortion #168 1933 Distortion - renders the image uncanny
  69. 69. 8. The Photographers of Surrealism
  70. 70. The Photographers: Max Ernst
  71. 71. Max Ernst (April 2, 1891- April 1, 1976) Cologne Dadaist and Surrealist Founder
  72. 72. Max Ernst The Chinese Nightingale 1920
  73. 73. Max Ernst: Here all together are my seven sisters, often living on liquid desires and perfectly resembling sleeping leaves, from La Femme 100 têtes, 1929
  74. 74. The Photographers: Man Ray
  75. 75. Man Ray (1890-1976) American visual artist, Member of Alfred Stieglitz's "291" gallery, friend of Marcel Duchamp, informal member of Dada and Surrealism, Dada film maker, inventor of “rayographs”
  76. 76. Man Ray: The Enigma of Isidore Ducasse 1920
  77. 77. Man Ray Rayograph 1922
  78. 78. Man Ray: Black And White 1926
  79. 79. Man Ray: Les Larmes (Glass Tears), 1932
  80. 80. Man Ray: Untitled, 1933
  81. 81. Man Ray Erotique Voilée Veiled Erotic (Meret Oppenheim at the Press) 1933 In Minotaure, 1934
  82. 82. The Photographers: Lee Miller
  83. 83. Lee Miller (1907-1977) American photographer, successful fashion model in 1920s and she became an established fashion and fine art photographer. During the Second World War, war correspondent for Vogue. Apprentice and muse of Man Ray.
  84. 84. Lee Miller Lee Miller in Adolf Hitler's bathtub, Munich 1945
  85. 85. The Photographers: Eugène Atget
  86. 86. Eugène Atget (1857-1927) French photographer, Man Ray’s neighbor, the “Henri Rousseau” of the camera, Paris as empty “dream capital”
  87. 87. Atget on the cover of La Révolution Surréaliste, June, 1926
  88. 88. Eugène Atget Boulevard de Strasbourg, Corsets Paris, 1912
  89. 89. Eugène Atget Window of a shop on the avenue des Gobelins 1925
  90. 90. The Photographers: Jacques-André Boiffard
  91. 91. Jacques-André Boiffard (1902-1961) French photographer, a medical student, Man Ray’s assistant from 1924 to 1929, photos in Nadja, expelled from the movement for taking photographs of Simone Breton, closely associated with Georges Bataille’s Documents
  92. 92. Jacques-André Boiffard: The Humanité bookstore. Photo used in André Breton’s Nadja, 1928 Jacques-André Boiffard: The Boulevard Magenta outside the Sphinx Hotel. Photo used in André Breton’s Nadja, 1928
  93. 93. Jacques-André Boiffard In Georges Bataille: "Le gros orteil“ ("The Big Toe") Documents, no. 6, 1929 Jacques-André Boiffard In Documents, no. 6 1929
  94. 94. Jacques-André Boiffard Renée Jacobi 1930
  95. 95. The Photographers: Eli Lotar
  96. 96. Eli Lotar (1905-1969) French photographer and cinematographer, closely associated with Georges Bataille’s Documents, cinematographer on Buñuel's Las Hurdes
  97. 97. Eli Lotar Aux abattoirs de la Villette from Georges Bataille’s "Dictionnaire critique" in Documents, no. 6, 1929
  98. 98. Eli Lotar Bouche (Mouth) from Georges Bataille’s "Dictionnaire critique" in Documents, no. 3, 1929 Bassesse (bassness), the process of informe (formlessness) when form is undone
  99. 99. The Photographers: Hans Bellmer
  100. 100. Hans Bellmer (1902-1975) German photographer, est known for the life- sized pubescent female dolls His photographs were published in the Surrealist journal Minotaure, 5 December 1934
  101. 101. Hans Bellmer La Poupée (The Doll) 1936
  102. 102. "The body is like a sentence that invites us to rearrange it." - Hans Bellmer Uncanny confusion between animate and inanimate, achieved through the fragmentation and reconfiguring of objects. Assemblage allows a new body to be formed and choreographed to represent desire.
  103. 103. The Photographers: Paul Nougé
  104. 104. Paul Nougé (1895-1967) Belgian photographer poet, founder and theoretician of surrealism in Belgium, sometimes known as the "Belgian Breton"
  105. 105. Paul Nougé The Juggler 1929-1930
  106. 106. Paul Nougé: photographs from La Subversion des images, 1919-30
  107. 107. The Photographers: Raoul Ubac
  108. 108. Raoul Ubac (1910-1985) French painter, sculptor, photographer and engraver
  109. 109. Raoul Ubac Mannequin 1937 Photograph of Masson’s mannequin
  110. 110. Raoul Ubac Portrait Dans un Miroir 1938
  111. 111. Raoul Ubac The Nebula 1939
  112. 112. Raoul Ubac: Le Combat des Penthesilees, 1939
  113. 113. The Photographers: Claude Cahun
  114. 114. Claude Cahun (Lucy Schwob) (1894-1954) French artist, photographer and writer, explorer of gender roles, disciple of Breton
  115. 115. Marcel Moore (Suzanne Malherbe) and Claude Cahun (Lucy Schwob). Self-Portraits Reflected in a Mirror, c. 1920
  116. 116. Claude Cahun Don't Kiss Me I Am in Training 1927
  117. 117. Claude Cahun, What Do You Want from Me?, 1928
  118. 118. Claude Cahun Untitled 1936-1939
  119. 119. The Photographers: Dora Maar
  120. 120. Dora Maar (1907-1997) French and Croatian descent photographer, Picasso’s “weeping woman,” Friend of Paul Eluard, Maar and Picasso also studied printing with Man Ray
  121. 121. Dora Maar Père Ubu 1936
  122. 122. Dora Maar Le Simulateur (The Simulator) 1936 Pompidou, Paris http://designobserver.com/fea ture/exposure-the-simulator- by-dora-maar/38751/
  123. 123. The Photographers: Brassaï
  124. 124. Brassaï (1899-1984) Hungarian-French photographer, tutored by his fellow Hungarian André Kertész, Brassai photographed many of his artist friends, including Salvador Dalí, Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Alberto Giacometti, took photographs for Harper's Bazaar.
  125. 125. Brassaï Photo of Hector Guimard's metro entrances in Paris for Salvador Dali’s essay "On the Terrifying and Edible Beauty of the Modern Style Architecture" In Minotaure, no. 3/4, 1933
  126. 126. Brassai: Photo for Salvador Dalí’s article "Sculptures involontaires" in Minotaure no. 1 Paris, 1933 Photographs of everyday objects presented as "Involuntary Sculptures," including a bus ticket, a piece of bread, a distorted bar of soap and a rolled piece of paper obtained from a person described as "débile mental."
  127. 127. Brassaï: Untitled, 1933
  128. 128. The Photographers: André Kertész
  129. 129. André Kertész (1894-1985) Hungarian-born photographer, seminal figure of photojournalism. Mentor to Brassaï.
  130. 130. André Kertész: In a sculptor’s studio, 1925 André Kertész: Entry to the Galerie de l’Horloge, Passage de l’Opera, 1925
  131. 131. Eroticism Andre Kertesz: Distortion 38, 1933
  132. 132. André Kertész Meudon, France 1928
  133. 133. 10. Legacy of Surrealist Photography
  134. 134. Legacy: Duane Michals
  135. 135. Duane Michals (1932-Present)
  136. 136. Duane Michals: Magritte with Hat, 1965
  137. 137. Duane Michals Dr. Heisenberg's Magic Mirror 1998
  138. 138. Duane Michals: Dr. Heisenberg's Magic Mirror, 1998
  139. 139. Legacy: Francesca Woodman
  140. 140. Francesca Woodman (1958-1981)
  141. 141. Francesca Woodman Space2, Providence, Rhode Island 1976
  142. 142. Francesca Woodman Space, Providence, Rhode Island 1975
  143. 143. Francesca Woodman Self Portrait Talking to Vince 1980
  144. 144. Legacy: Cindy Sherman
  145. 145. Cindy Sherman Untitled #92 1985
  146. 146. Cindy Sherman Untitled 1985
  147. 147. Cindy Sherman Untitled #261 Mannequin 1992
  148. 148. Legacy: Jerry Uelsmann
  149. 149. Jerry Uelsmann Tree House 1982
  150. 150. Legacy: Gregory Crewdson
  151. 151. Gregory Crewdson: Ophelia (from the Beneath the Roses series), 2001
  152. 152. Marcel Duchamp André Breton 1945
  153. 153. Flâneur from the French noun flâneur, means "stroller", "lounger", "saunterer", or "loafer." According to Baudelaire, the flâneur is not only a critical part of modernity but he also a enjoys all the pleasures of it.
  154. 154. In this painting, Edouard Manet is shown in the pose of a flâneur (see Baudelaire's essay entitled The Painter of Modern Life). The portrait, by French artist Henri Fantin-Latour, was painted in 1867.
  155. 155. Baudelaire, Benjamin, Breton
  156. 156. Quaker Efficiency Expert: Frederick Winslow Taylor "Down with dawdling" led to the demise of the flâneur
  157. 157. For Breton, the war on the work ethic and the value of the flâneur was a strategy against a society that "maximized" efficiency and rationality
  158. 158. Walter Benjamin: the arcades, the lost corners of the city, the passé
  159. 159. Man Ray Monument à D. A. F. de Sade in Le Surréalisme au service de la révolution No.5, 1933 This blasphemous image was aligned with the article on the Papin sisters
  160. 160. Man Ray Fixed Explosive in Andre Breton’s essay "La beaute convulsive" ("Beauty will be Convulsive") in Minotaure, no. 5, 1934 Delirium is a state to be striven for because it throws into question what is assumed to be "normal"
  161. 161. Round the Clock, 1987
  162. 162. Comme ils l’entendent (The way they see it; left) and Comme nous l’entendons (The way we see it; right), photographs by E.L.T. Mesens reproduced in Adieu a Marie, Brussels, Feb or Mar, 1927
  163. 163. Max Ernst: Vision Induced by the Nocturnal Aspect of the Porte St. Denis, 1927, Private Collection Employs both frottage (rubbing) and grattage (scraping) to circumvent the mediation of the conscious mind
  164. 164. Max Ernst: La Ville entière, (The Entire City), 1935-36, Kunsthaus, Zurich
  165. 165. The photos Breton used in Nadja seem deliberately banal
  166. 166. Jeff Wall: Dead Troops Talk (A vision after an ambush of a Red Army patrol, near Moqor, Afghanistan, winter 1986)
  167. 167. "Photography and Surrealism" Outline: 1. How does Horst relate to Surrealism? 2. Photography as a medium prior to Surrealism 3. Straight photography vs. pictoralism 4. Main themes of surreal photography 5. Surrealism and the documentary photograph 6. Nadja and Photography 7. Key techniques of surreal photography 8. Key surrealist photographers 9. Dali & Photography 10. Legacy
  168. 168. Woodman studied surrealist texts in Rome at the Libreria Maldoror, a bookshop-gallery that specialized in work about and by surrealists, and which ultimately hosted her first small show. She made use of many surrealist motifs, including mirrors, gloves, birds and bowls. Like Magritte, she often shrouded her subjects in white sheets; like Man Ray, she painted body parts, especially hands. And as Hans Bellmer did, she bound her legs tightly with tape, and perhaps like Claude Cahun she used mirrors to emphasize ambiguous sexuality.
  169. 169. Surreal Photographers Checklist: Jean-Eugène-Auguste Atget Hans Bellmer Denise Bellon Ilse Bing Jacques-André Boiffard Brassaï Josef Breitenbach André Breton Claude Cahun Georges Hugnet Valentine Hugo Louis-Jean-Baptiste Igout Pierre Jahan André Kertész Germaine Krull Jacques-Henri Lartigue Eli Lotar Dora Maar René Magritte Man Ray Marcel Mariën Willy Maywald E. L. T. Mesens Lee Miller Paul Nougé Jean Painlevé Gaston Paris Roger Parry Roger Schall Jindřich Štyrský Raoul Ubac Robert Valençay Wols
  170. 170. Horst P. Horst Salvador Dalí 1943
  171. 171. Horst P. Horst Dalí Bacchanale Costumes 1939
  172. 172. Horst P. Horst Mainbocher Corset 1939
  173. 173. 2. Development of Photography as a Medium
  174. 174. Still life with plaster casts, made by Daguerre in 1837, the earliest reliably dated daguerreotype
  175. 175. Kodak and the Rise of Amateur Photography
  176. 176. Eastman Kodak Advertisement for the Brownie Camera, c. 1900
  177. 177. Alfred Stieglitz Winter – Fifth Avenue 1893 Alfred Stieglitz The Steerage 1907
  178. 178. Paul Strand Typewriter keys 1916 Paul Strand Wall Street 1915
  179. 179. Edward Steichen The Flatiron 1904
  180. 180. Edward Steichen Self-Portrait with Brush and Palette 1902
  181. 181. Edward Steichen Black: Model Margaret Horan in a black dress by Jay-Thorpe 1935 (Vogue, November 1, 1935)
  182. 182. Edward Steichen Anita Chace in Art Deco Shawl Vogue US 1925
  183. 183. William H. Mumler (1832–1884) was an American spirit photographer who worked in New York and Boston. His first spirit photograph was a self- portrait which developed to apparently show his deceased cousin.
  184. 184. William H. Mumler, 1872 "Spirit photograph" of Mary Todd Lincoln with her husband by William H. Mumler. These pictures were mostly double exposures.
  185. 185. Andre Kertesz: Eiffel Tower Paris 1929
  186. 186. Germaine Berton surrounded by the Surrealist Group Cover of La Revolution Surrealiste No.1, December 1924 Breton was an anarchist who had assassinated a French politician. The Surrealists were sympathetic to anyone who stepped outside the law, particularly if they were idealistic and female.
  187. 187. Man Ray La Ville (The City) 1931 Overlay of multiple exposures
  188. 188. Winifred Casson Accident 1935 Double exposure - the superimposition of two exposures to create a single image
  189. 189. Dora Maar Untitled (hand and shell) 1934
  190. 190. "Fifty Years of Hysteria" article by André Breton and Louis Aragon published in La Révolution surréaliste, number II 1929
  191. 191. Benjamin Peret Automatons, illustrating "Au paradis des fantômes" In Minotaure, no. 2/3, 1933
  192. 192. Max Ernst The Hundred-headless Woman Opens her August Sleeve from La Femme 100 têtes, 1929
  193. 193. Max Ernst Cover for the novel Une Semaine De Bonte 1934
  194. 194. Man Ray Lee Miller 1930 from Surrealism at the Service of the Revolution
  195. 195. Man Ray Untitled 1933
  196. 196. Dora Maar The Years Lie in Wait for You 1936
  197. 197. Jacques-André Boiffard Untitled 1930 Jacques-André Boiffard Sous le masque Pierre Prévert 1930
  198. 198. Eli Lotar: Aux abattoirs de la Villette from Georges Bataille’s "Dictionnaire critique" in Documents, no. 6, 1929
  199. 199. Claude Cahun Self Portrait 1928
  200. 200. Claude Cahun Self-Portrait 1928
  201. 201. Claude Cahun Aveux Non Avenus. Paris: Éditions du Carrefour 1930
  202. 202. Claude Cahun Untitled 1936
  203. 203. Claude Cahun Standing and Sitting in a garden, Claude Cahun and Marcel Moore 1939
  204. 204. Lee Miller ‘Floating head’ Portrait of Mary Taylor 1933
  205. 205. Hans Bellmer La Poupée (The Doll) 1936/1938
  206. 206. Hans Bellmer La Poupée (The Doll) 1935
  207. 207. Raoul Ubac Le triomphe de la stérilité (The triumph of sterility) 1937
  208. 208. Raoul Ubac: Burnout, 1939
  209. 209. Hans Bellmer The Second Doll 1949
  210. 210. Lee Miller Portrait of Space, Egypt 1937
  211. 211. Lee Miller SS Guard in Canal 1945
  212. 212. André Kertész: Paris, 1928
  213. 213. André Kertész: A window on the Quai Voltaire, 1928 André Kertész: Paris, 1929
  214. 214. André Kertész Lost Cloud, New York 1937
  215. 215. Paul Nougé: photographs from La Subversion des images, 1919-30
  216. 216. Paul Nougé: photographs from La Subversion des images, 1919-30
  217. 217. Brassaï: photo of rock crystals in Andre Breton’s essay "La beaute convulsive" ("Beauty will be Convulsive") in Minotaure, no. 5, 1934
  218. 218. The Photographers: Jindřich Štyrský
  219. 219. Malíř Jindřich Štyrský (1899–1942) with Toyen Manic photographer, collector of dreams, Sadean tourist Prague Surrealist Group founders
  220. 220. Jindřich Štyrský Emile Comes to me in a Dream 1933
  221. 221. Jindřich Štyrský Emilie Comes to Me in a Dream 1933
  222. 222. The Photographers: Maurice Tabard
  223. 223. Maurice Tabard (1897-1984) American photographer Leading photographers of the Surrealist movement, which he entered under the influence of his friend, American photographer Man Ray
  224. 224. Maurice Tabard Walking Tree 1929
  225. 225. Maurice Tabard: Room with Eye, 1930
  226. 226. Maurice Tabard: Untitled, 1940 Maurice Tabard: Study, 1929
  227. 227. Maurice Tabard Untitled 1930-1935
  228. 228. Maurice Tabard, Fashion for Balmain, Avedon's Studio, 1949
  229. 229. Francesca Woodman Polka Dots 01, Providence, Rhode Island 1976
  230. 230. Duane Michals The Spirit Leaves The Body 1968
  231. 231. Duane Michals: The Spirit Leaves The Body, 1968
  232. 232. Cindy Sherman
  233. 233. Legacy: Jeff Wall
  234. 234. Jeff Wall: The Giant, 1992

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