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15 hemodynamic disorders


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15 hemodynamic disorders

  2. 2. Edema 60% of lean body weight is water; two thirds of this water is intracellular, remainder is in the extracellular space, mostly interstitial fluid. EDEMA signifies increased fluid in the interstitial tissue spaces. Depending on the site, fluid collections are variously designated hydrothorax, hydropericardium, and hydroperitoneum (ascites). Anasarca: severe, generalized edema with profound subcutaneous tissue swelling.
  3. 3. • Edema is a normal response of the body to inflammation or injury. For example, a twisted ankle, a bee-sting, or a skin infection will all result in edema in the involved area. In some cases, such as in an infection, this may be beneficial. Increased fluid from the blood vessels allows more infection-fighting white blood cells to enter the affected area.
  4. 4. Symptoms of Edema • Edema symptoms depend on the amount of edema and the body part affected. • Edema in a small area from an infection or inflammation (such as a mosquito bite) may cause no symptoms at all. On the other hand, a large local allergic reaction (such as from a bee sting) may cause edema affecting the entire arm. Here, tense skin, pain, and limited movement can be symptoms of edema.
  5. 5. • Food allergies may cause tongue or throat edema, which can be life-threatening if it interferes with breathing. • Leg edema of any cause can cause the legs to feel heavy and interfere with walking. In edema and heart disease, for example, the legs may easily weigh an extra 5 or 10 pounds each. Severe leg edema can interfere with blood flow, leading to ulcers on the skin. • Pulmonary edema causes shortness of breath, which can be accompanied by low oxygen levels in the blood. Some people with pulmonary edema may experience a cough with frothy sputum.
  6. 6. Treatment of Edema • Treatment of edema often means treating the underlying cause of edema. For example, allergic reactions causing edema may be treated with antihistamines and corticosteroids.
  7. 7. • Edema resulting from a blockage in fluid drainage can sometimes be treated by eliminating the obstruction: ▫ A blood clot in the leg is treated with blood thinners, and the clot slowly breaks down; leg edema then resolves as fluid drainage improves. ▫ A tumor obstructing a blood vessel or lymph flow can sometimes be reduced in size or removed with surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation.
  8. 8. Hyperemia • Hyperemia is an active process resulting from tissue inflow because of arteriolar dilation, e.g. skeletal muscle during exercise or at sites of inflammation. The affected tissue is redder because of the engorgement of vessels with oxygenated blood.
  9. 9. Congestion • Congestion is a passive process resulting from impaired outflow from a tissue. It may be systemic e.g. cardiac failure, or local e.g. an isolated venous obstruction. The tissue has a blue-red color (cyanosis), due to accumulation of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the affected tissues.
  10. 10. Hemorrhage • Hemorrhage generally indicates extravasation(force out) of blood due to vessel rupture • Hematoma: accumulation of blood within tissue.
  11. 11. Hemostasis • Hemostasis is the process of how the body stops bleeding from a cut or injury • Bleeding happens when a blood vessel is broken. The injury can be small, like a minor scrape, or large, like a deep cut that needs stitches. When a blood vessel is injured, the body’s hemostatic system helps to stop the bleeding.
  12. 12. Thrombosis • It represents hemostasis in the intact vascular system. • It is a process by which a thrombus is formed. • A thrombus is a solid mass of blood constituents which developes in artery or vein. • Is intravascular coagulation of blood often causing sinificant interuption to blood flow.
  13. 13. EMBOLISM • An embolus is a detached intravascular solid, liquid, or gaseous mass that is carried by the blood to a site distant from its point of origin. • Almost all emboli represent some part of a dislodged thrombus, hence the commonly used term thromboembolism.
  14. 14. Embolism (cont.) • The emboli ultimately lodge in vessels too small to permit further passage, resulting in partial or complete vascular occlusion leading to ischemic necrosis of distal tissue, (infarction). Depending on the site of origin, emboli may lodge in the pulmonary or systemic circulations.
  15. 15. INFARCTION • An infarct is an area of ischemic necrosis caused by occlusion of either the arterial supply or the venous drainage in a particular tissue e.g. myocardial, cerebral, pulmonary and bowel infarction. • Most infarcts result from thrombotic or embolic events, and almost all result from arterial occlusion. Although venous thrombosis may cause infarction, it more often merely induces venous obstruction and congestion.
  16. 16. SHOCK • Shock, or cardiovascular collapse, is the final common pathway for a number of potentially lethal clinical events, including severe hemorrhage, extensive trauma or burns, large myocardial infarction, massive pulmonary embolism, and microbial sepsis.