Embolus - A mass, such as an air bubble, a detached blood clot, or a foreign body, that travels through the bloodstream and lodges so as to obstruct or occlude a blood vessel.
Ischemia - A decrease in the blood supply to a bodily organ, tissue, or part caused by constriction or obstruction of the blood vessels. Necrosis – cell death
15 hemodynamic disorders
60% of lean body weight is water; two thirds of
this water is intracellular, remainder is in the
extracellular space, mostly interstitial fluid.
EDEMA signifies increased fluid in the
interstitial tissue spaces. Depending on the site,
fluid collections are variously designated
hydrothorax, hydropericardium, and
Anasarca: severe, generalized edema with
profound subcutaneous tissue swelling.
• Edema is a normal response of the body to
inflammation or injury. For example, a twisted
ankle, a bee-sting, or a skin infection will all
result in edema in the involved area. In some
cases, such as in an infection, this may be
beneficial. Increased fluid from the blood vessels
allows more infection-fighting white blood cells
to enter the affected area.
Symptoms of Edema
• Edema symptoms depend on the amount of
edema and the body part affected.
• Edema in a small area from an infection or
inflammation (such as a mosquito bite) may
cause no symptoms at all. On the other hand, a
large local allergic reaction (such as from a bee
sting) may cause edema affecting the entire arm.
Here, tense skin, pain, and limited movement
can be symptoms of edema.
• Food allergies may cause tongue or throat
edema, which can be life-threatening if it
interferes with breathing.
• Leg edema of any cause can cause the legs to feel
heavy and interfere with walking. In edema and
heart disease, for example, the legs may easily
weigh an extra 5 or 10 pounds each. Severe leg
edema can interfere with blood flow, leading to
ulcers on the skin.
• Pulmonary edema causes shortness of breath,
which can be accompanied by low oxygen levels
in the blood. Some people with pulmonary
edema may experience a cough with frothy
Treatment of Edema
• Treatment of edema often means treating the
underlying cause of edema. For example, allergic
reactions causing edema may be treated with
antihistamines and corticosteroids.
• Edema resulting from a blockage in fluid
drainage can sometimes be treated by
eliminating the obstruction:
▫ A blood clot in the leg is treated with blood
thinners, and the clot slowly breaks down; leg
edema then resolves as fluid drainage improves.
▫ A tumor obstructing a blood vessel or lymph flow
can sometimes be reduced in size or removed with
surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation.
• Hyperemia is an active process resulting
from tissue inflow because of arteriolar
dilation, e.g. skeletal muscle during
exercise or at sites of inflammation. The
affected tissue is redder because of the
engorgement of vessels with oxygenated
• Congestion is a passive process resulting
from impaired outflow from a tissue. It
may be systemic e.g. cardiac failure, or
local e.g. an isolated venous obstruction.
The tissue has a blue-red color (cyanosis),
due to accumulation of deoxygenated
hemoglobin in the affected tissues.
• Hemorrhage generally indicates
extravasation(force out) of blood due to vessel
• Hematoma: accumulation of blood within tissue.
• Hemostasis is the process of how the body stops
bleeding from a cut or injury
• Bleeding happens when a blood vessel is broken.
The injury can be small, like a minor scrape, or
large, like a deep cut that needs stitches. When a
blood vessel is injured, the body’s hemostatic
system helps to stop the bleeding.
• It represents hemostasis in the intact vascular
• It is a process by which a thrombus is formed.
• A thrombus is a solid mass of blood constituents
which developes in artery or vein.
• Is intravascular coagulation of blood often
causing sinificant interuption to blood flow.
• An embolus is a detached intravascular solid,
liquid, or gaseous mass that is carried by the
blood to a site distant from its point of origin.
• Almost all emboli represent some part of a
dislodged thrombus, hence the commonly used
• The emboli ultimately lodge in vessels too small
to permit further passage, resulting in partial or
complete vascular occlusion leading to ischemic
necrosis of distal tissue, (infarction). Depending
on the site of origin, emboli may lodge in the
pulmonary or systemic circulations.
• An infarct is an area of ischemic necrosis
caused by occlusion of either the arterial supply
or the venous drainage in a particular tissue
e.g. myocardial, cerebral, pulmonary and bowel
• Most infarcts result from thrombotic or embolic
events, and almost all result from arterial
occlusion. Although venous thrombosis may
cause infarction, it more often merely induces
venous obstruction and congestion.
• Shock, or cardiovascular collapse, is the final
common pathway for a number of potentially
lethal clinical events, including severe
hemorrhage, extensive trauma or burns, large
myocardial infarction, massive pulmonary
embolism, and microbial sepsis.