UTC Telecom & Technology 2015 - Battery Backup Workshop

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This is the battery backup workshop slides that were presented as part of the UTC Telecom & Technology 2015 Conference that occurred in Atlanta, GA on the morning of May 5, 2015. Subjects covered: what's a battery, what's the role of a technician with regards to battery backup & what's the role of an engineer with regards to battery backup.

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UTC Telecom & Technology 2015 - Battery Backup Workshop

  1. 1. © 2013 Utilities Telecom Council May  5-­‐8,  2015    |    Atlanta,  GA    |    www.utctelecom.org BATTERY  BACKUP  WORKSHOP MAY  5,  2015 NO POWER=NO SERVICE DAKX TURCOTTE MULTITEL INC.
  2. 2. DISCLAIMER From concept to more practical & technical content. 2
  3. 3. 3 ➡ DISCLAIMER ➡ INTRODUCTION ➡ WHAT IS A BATTERY? ➡ WHAT ARE YOUR CHANCES OF RUNNING ON BATTERIES? ➡ WHY DO BATTERIES FAIL? ➡ WHY DO YOU NEED IT? ➡ BATTERY BACKUP: FIELD OPERATIONS ➡ PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE ➡ OUTAGE INTERVENTION ➡ BATTERY BACKUP: ENGINEERING PERSPECTIVE ➡ PLANNING NEW PROJECTS ➡ REPLACING OLD OR EXISTING PROJECTS ➡ CONCLUSION ➡ SHAMELESS PLUG & FREEBIE
  4. 4. WHAT’S A BATTERY? a container consisting of one or more cells, in which chemical energy is converted into electricity and used as a source of power. bat·ter·y /ˈbatərē/ noun 4
  5. 5. WHAT’S A BATTERY? Electrolytes allow ions to move between the electrodes, which allows current to flow out of the battery to perform work. 5
  6. 6. WHAT’S A BATTERY? 6
  7. 7. WHAT’S A BATTERY? 7
  8. 8. WHAT’S A BATTERY? Lower specific energy than common fuels. Only energy type that delivers their energy as electricity. Meaning they are efficiently converted to mechanical work. 8
  9. 9. WHAT’S A BATTERY? Wet cell (VLA) jar VRLA jar Battery string/bank 9
  10. 10. 10 ➡ DISCLAIMER ➡ INTRODUCTION ➡ WHAT IS A BATTERY? ➡ WHAT ARE YOUR CHANCES OF RUNNING ON BATTERIES? ➡ WHY DO BATTERIES FAIL? ➡ WHY DO YOU NEED IT? ➡ BATTERY BACKUP: FIELD OPERATIONS ➡ PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE ➡ OUTAGE INTERVENTION ➡ BATTERY BACKUP: ENGINEERING PERSPECTIVE ➡ PLANNING NEW PROJECTS ➡ REPLACING OLD OR EXISTING PROJECTS ➡ CONCLUSION ➡ SHAMELESS PLUG & FREEBIE
  11. 11. 11 CHANCES ARE… The stats from our commercial telecom customers are, on average: • Number of outages: 4 outages per site per year • Length of each outage: 1.5 hours • Direct cost of losing a telecom site: $250,0001 • Indirect cost of losing a telecom site: $150,0001 • Direct cost of losing a substation’s protection: TBD2 • Indirect cost of losing a substation’s protection: TBD2 Note: 1: Direct and indirect costs attributed to a battery-related outage when a site was lost in Miami, FL by a major US telecom operator 2: “We don’t even want to image it” is more likely the answer…
  12. 12. MOREOVER… 3 things we know with absolute certainty about batteries: (1) limited CAPACITY (2) finite and unpredictable LIFETIME (3) always fail EXACTLY when you need them 12
  13. 13. What are your chances of running on batteries? I would say: PRETTY HIGH. 13
  14. 14. 14 ➡ DISCLAIMER ➡ INTRODUCTION ➡ WHAT IS A BATTERY? ➡ WHAT ARE YOUR CHANCES OF RUNNING ON BATTERIES? ➡ WHY DO BATTERIES FAIL? ➡ WHY DO YOU NEED IT? ➡ BATTERY BACKUP: FIELD OPERATIONS ➡ PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE ➡ OUTAGE INTERVENTION ➡ BATTERY BACKUP: ENGINEERING PERSPECTIVE ➡ PLANNING NEW PROJECTS ➡ REPLACING OLD OR EXISTING PROJECTS ➡ CONCLUSION ➡ SHAMELESS PLUG & FREEBIE
  15. 15. TOP 10 #BATTERY_FAILS 10 - Prolonged period without being used 9 - Battery post corrosion, causing (dis)charge problems 8 - Excessive deep discharges 7 - Bad manufacturing process or material 6-Torquing: too much > break terminal seal, too little > short 15
  16. 16. TOP 10 #BATTERY_FAILS 5 -AC ripple (on UPS batteries) 4 - Lack of electrolyte (wet cell batteries) 3 - ↑25°C > corrosion > self discharge > thermal runaway 2 - Over-charging = creates heat = loss of water = sulfation 1 - Under-charging = electrolyte stratification 16
  17. 17. 17 ➡ DISCLAIMER ➡ INTRODUCTION ➡ WHAT IS A BATTERY? ➡ WHAT ARE YOUR CHANCES OF RUNNING ON BATTERIES? ➡ WHY DO BATTERIES FAIL? ➡ WHY DO YOU NEED IT? ➡ BATTERY BACKUP: FIELD OPERATIONS ➡ PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE ➡ OUTAGE INTERVENTION ➡ BATTERY BACKUP: ENGINEERING PERSPECTIVE ➡ PLANNING NEW PROJECTS ➡ REPLACING OLD OR EXISTING PROJECTS ➡ CONCLUSION ➡ SHAMELESS PLUG & FREEBIE
  18. 18. WHY DO YOU NEED IT? 18
  19. 19. WHY DO YOU NEED IT? Because there can be up to 15 pieces of equipment making for the “POWER-TRAIN”within a telecom site. Because OUTAGES & EQUIPMENT MALFUNCTIONS happen. Because it impacts you and your CUSTOMERS. And because it’s EXPENSIVE. 20
  20. 20. 28
  21. 21. 29 WHY DO YOU NEED IT? A few stats on availability or poor backup management: • 99.9% (Three Nines) availability = 9 hrs/year of downtime.1 • 99.9999% (Six Nines) availability = 30 seconds/year of downtime.2 • 1 hour of downtime equates to $2.0M/hour in the telecom industry.3 • It’s terrible for your customers: $1.4 million/hour to financial institutions.3 • $80B: the amount of yearly losses due to power disturbances in the US. 66% of that caused by momentary disturbances, 34% caused by sustained interruptions of more than 5 minutes.4 References: 1: GilderGroup 2: The dawn of on-site power: http://ecmweb.com/cee-news-archive/dawn-site-power 3: Overhead: The cost of downtime: http://itknowledgeexchange.techtarget.com/overheard/overhead-the-cost-of-downtime/ 4: Berkeley Lab Study Estimates $80 Billion Annual Cost of Power Interruptions: http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/EETD-power-interruptions.html
  22. 22. It’s clear, YOU NEED BATTERIES. 30
  23. 23. 31 The questions you need to ask: • How much time do you need? • How much time do you really have? • In what state of health is your backup? • Can you consistently meet your average failure? • What happens if your backup doesn’t work?
  24. 24. So, let’s see what the role of Field Operations is when it comes to battery backup. 32
  25. 25. 33 ➡ DISCLAIMER ➡ INTRODUCTION ➡ WHAT IS A BATTERY? ➡ WHAT ARE YOUR CHANCES OF RUNNING ON BATTERIES? ➡ WHY DO BATTERIES FAIL? ➡ WHY DO YOU NEED IT? ➡ BATTERY BACKUP: FIELD OPERATIONS ➡ PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE ➡ OUTAGE INTERVENTION ➡ BATTERY BACKUP: ENGINEERING PERSPECTIVE ➡ PLANNING NEW PROJECTS ➡ REPLACING OLD OR EXISTING PROJECTS ➡ CONCLUSION ➡ SHAMELESS PLUG & FREEBIE
  26. 26. Field Maintenance and Operations teams are typically responsible for two aspects of battery backup: MAINTENANCE ROUTINES & OUTAGE INTERVENTION. 34
  27. 27. 35 ➡ DISCLAIMER ➡ INTRODUCTION ➡ WHAT IS A BATTERY? ➡ WHAT ARE YOUR CHANCES OF RUNNING ON BATTERIES? ➡ WHY DO BATTERIES FAIL? ➡ WHY DO YOU NEED IT? ➡ BATTERY BACKUP: FIELD OPERATIONS ➡ PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE ➡ OUTAGE INTERVENTION ➡ BATTERY BACKUP: ENGINEERING PERSPECTIVE ➡ PLANNING NEW PROJECTS ➡ REPLACING OLD OR EXISTING PROJECTS ➡ CONCLUSION ➡ SHAMELESS PLUG & FREEBIE
  28. 28. MAINTENANCE ROUTINES The two reasons why you do battery preventative maintenance routines are: BATTERIES WILL FAIL & NERC COMPLIANCY. 36
  29. 29. NERC COMPLIANCY What is NERC COMPLIANCY? 37
  30. 30. NERC COMPLIANCY NERC has multiple RELIABILITY STANDARDS. One of them is PRC-005-2, which will be enforced starting April 1, 2015, but should have been used starting February 24, 2014. It covers the MAINTENANCE of all Protection Systems affecting the reliability of the Bulk Electric System (BES) so that these Protection Systems are kept in working order. 38
  31. 31. NERC COMPLIANCY Basically, it tells you what tests & time intervals to follow for your BATTERY MAINTENANCE. It is applicable to both protection relays & TELECOMMUNICATIONS SITES. 39
  32. 32. NERC COMPLIANCY Maximum Maintenance Interval Maintenance Activity VLA (wet cell) VRLA 4 Calendar Months Verify • Station DC supply voltage Inspect • Electrolyte level • For unintentional grounds ✓ ✓ 6 Calendar Months Inspect • Measure battery cell internal ohmic values for each battery cells ✓ 18 Calendar Months Verify • Float voltage of battery charger • Battery continuity • Battery terminal connection resistance • Battery intercell or unit-to-unit connection resistance Inspect • Cell condition of all battery cells (visible cells) or measure battery cell internal ohmic values (not visible cells) • Physical condition of battery rack ✓ ✓ 18 Calendar Months or 6 Calendar Years Verify • Internal ohmic values or float current per cell compared to baseline or Verify • Full or modified capacity (discharge, load) test on the entire battery bank ✓ ✓ But every 3 years for the capacity test 40
  33. 33. NERC COMPLIANCY If, like most companies, you have VRLAs, you need to test your batteries EVERY 6 MONTHS using an ohmic test (conductance, impedance). And you have to demonstrate COMPLIANCY… 41
  34. 34. What’s a test procedure like? 42
  35. 35. PSMP Always refer to your Protection System Maintenance Program Start Here 43
  36. 36. PSMP Always refer to your Protection System Maintenance Program Start Here Ticket A technician will typically receive an automated ticket to perform a maintenance routine 44
  37. 37. PSMP Always refer to your Protection System Maintenance Program Start Here Ticket A technician will typically receive an automated ticket to perform a maintenance routine Plan Workload A technician will typically receive an automated ticket to perform a maintenance routine 45
  38. 38. PSMP Always refer to your Protection System Maintenance Program Start Here Ticket A technician will typically receive an automated ticket to perform a maintenance routine Plan Workload A technician will typically receive an automated ticket to perform a maintenance routine Execute Routine A technician will typically receive an automated ticket to perform a maintenance routine 46
  39. 39. ROUTINE EXECUTION 1 - Use the turkey baster to measure the specific gravity of each cell. There’s a big drawback: you need protective gear. Test specific gravity of each wet cells’ jars 47
  40. 40. SPECIFIC GRAVITY 48
  41. 41. ROUTINE EXECUTION 1 2 Visual inspection of each battery jar and battery rack - Use the turkey baster to measure the specific gravity of each cell. There’s a big drawback: you need protective gear. Test specific gravity of each wet cells’ jars - Get a flashlight and look for bottom jar’s sediment, warping of place, cracked or broken plates, seeping of acid around the posts, acid leakage at the bottom of the rack, installation issues, electrolyte level for wet cells… 49
  42. 42. 50
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  44. 44. 52
  45. 45. 53
  46. 46. 54
  47. 47. 55
  48. 48. 56
  49. 49. 57
  50. 50. 58
  51. 51. 59
  52. 52. ROUTINE EXECUTION 1 2 Visual inspection of each battery jar and battery rack - Use the turkey baster to measure the specific gravity of each cell. There’s a big drawback: you need protective gear. Test specific gravity of each wet cells’ jars - Get a flashlight and look for bottom jar’s sediment, warping of place, cracked or broken plates, seeping of acid around the posts, acid leakage at the bottom of the rack, installation issues, electrolyte level for wet cells… 3 Full or modified capacity test (aka discharge/load) - Get a load bank & volt meter. As the battery is discharging, you want to take voltage reading of each jar, and at the power plant level, at specific time intervals. Your goal is to measure the time it will take to reach your end-voltage threshold. 60
  53. 53. CAPACITY TEST Capacity test procedure for wet cell (VLA) batteries is detailed in IEEE Standard 450-2010. Capacity test procedure for VRLA batteries is details in IEEE Standard 1188-2005. 61
  54. 54. CAPACITY TEST PROS CONS • Definitive test to measure your battery reserve time • Takes time & is relatively expensive • Need a load bank • It’s relatively technical and requires a high level of security & training, dangerous for people without proper training • It damages the battery • Two plates push electrons from one plate to the other. • The more you do it, the more porous the plates become. 62
  55. 55. 63
  56. 56. ROUTINE EXECUTION 1 2 Visual inspection of each battery jar and battery rack - Use the turkey baster to measure the specific gravity of each cell. There’s a big drawback: you need protective gear. Test specific gravity of each wet cells’ jars - Get a flashlight and look for bottom jar’s sediment, warping of place, cracked or broken plates, seeping of acid around the posts, acid leakage at the bottom of the rack, installation issues, electrolyte level for wet cells… 3 Full or modified capacity test (aka discharge/load) - Get a load bank & volt meter. As the battery is discharging, you want to take voltage reading of each jar, and at the power plant level, at specific time intervals. Your goal is to measure the time it will take to reach your end-voltage threshold. 4 Manual or automated ohmic test - Manual using a portable ohmic testing device, or automated using a battery monitoring system. 64
  57. 57. German physicist. High school teacher. Began his research with a recent invention by Italian Count Alessandro Volta. Using equipment of his creation, he determined that there is a: direct proportionality between the potential difference applied across a conductor and the resultant electric current. 66
  58. 58. Who is Georg Simon Ohm (17 March 1789 – 6 July 1854) 67
  59. 59. OHM’S LAW Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference across the two points, and inversely proportional to the resistance between them. 68
  60. 60. CONDUCTANCE Conductance is a measurement of the plate surfaces available for chemical reaction. High relative conductance is a reliable indication of a healthy battery. Conductance declines as the battery fails. By applying an electrical voltage of a known frequency and amplitude across the jar and measuring the current that flows in response to it.The conductance (acceptance) is the ratio of the AC test current impressed on the jar that is in-phase with the AC voltage, compared to the AC voltage producing it. DC Resistance: Short duration DC load on the cell/unit to measure step change in current and voltage. By dividing the change in voltage by the change in current, a DC resistance is calculated using Ohm's law. 69
  61. 61. IMPEDANCE Performed by sending an electrical current of a known frequency and amplitude, across the cell/unit/block and measuring the AC voltage drop. Compute the resulting impedance using Ohm's law. 70
  62. 62. CONDUCTANCE VS. IMPEDANCE Conductance - Decreases with battery age Impedance - Increases with battery age 71
  63. 63. OHMIC TEST Ohmic test procedure for wet cell (VLA) batteries is detailed in IEEE Standard 450-2010. Ohmic test procedure for VRLA batteries is details in IEEE Standard 1188-2005. 72
  64. 64. 73
  65. 65. BATTERY MONITOR You can automate ohmic testing using a battery monitoring system. Even if the cost is high (~$2,500 per site), the ability to catch a battery before it fails outpace its cost. Selection and use of a battery monitoring system is detailed in IEEE Standard 1491-2005. 74
  66. 66. OHMIC TEST PROS CONS • Non-intrusive • No torquing required as you test the intercell straps • Quicker & safer than a capacity test • Standardized w/ choice of equipment out there • Statistically-proven relationship between ohmic & capacity as tested by discharge • Good way to test that a new battery is good & creating a baseline • Rapid way of tracking relative health & identifying jars/batteries that fail prematurely • General agreement that it is not as definitive as capacity test… • % of negative-pass • Some statistical anomalies that can cloud results • Make sure you have the right reference value when analyzing test results 75
  67. 67. ROUTINE EXECUTION 1 2 Visual inspection of each battery jar and battery rack - Use the turkey baster to measure the specific gravity of each cell. There’s a big drawback: you need protective gear. Test specific gravity of each wet cells’ jars - Get a flashlight and look for bottom jar’s sediment, warping of place, cracked or broken plates, seeping of acid around the posts, acid leakage at the bottom of the rack, installation issues, electrolyte level for wet cells… 3 Full or modified capacity test (aka discharge/load) - Get a load bank & volt meter. As the battery is discharging, you want to take voltage reading of each jar, and at the power plant level, at specific time intervals. Your goal is to measure the time it will take to reach your end-voltage threshold. 4 Manual or automated ohmic test - Manual using a portable ohmic testing device, or automated using a battery monitoring system. 76
  68. 68. A 5FT “TEST”… If you didn’t upgrade your power plant to an intelligent one, you should EQUALIZE your batteries, by making sure float voltage is at the right value for each jar. 77
  69. 69. PSMP Always refer to your Protection System Maintenance Program Start Here Ticket A technician will typically receive an automated ticket to perform a maintenance routine Plan Workload A technician will typically receive an automated ticket to perform a maintenance routine Execute Routine A technician will typically receive an automated ticket to perform a maintenance routine Continue Here Review Tech’s live review & analysis of test data 78
  70. 70. TEST DATA REVIEW 79
  71. 71. PSMP Always refer to your Protection System Maintenance Program Start Here Ticket A technician will typically receive an automated ticket to perform a maintenance routine Plan Workload A technician will typically receive an automated ticket to perform a maintenance routine Execute Routine A technician will typically receive an automated ticket to perform a maintenance routine Continue Here Review Tech’s live review & analysis of test data Close Routine Complete & close PM ticket 80
  72. 72. PSMP Always refer to your Protection System Maintenance Program Start Here Ticket A technician will typically receive an automated ticket to perform a maintenance routine Plan Workload A technician will typically receive an automated ticket to perform a maintenance routine Execute Routine A technician will typically receive an automated ticket to perform a maintenance routine Continue Here Review Tech’s live review & analysis of test data Close Routine Complete & close PM ticket Send to Eng. Email test results to engineering for further analysis & replacement request form filled-out if need be 81
  73. 73. PSMP Always refer to your Protection System Maintenance Program Start Here Ticket A technician will typically receive an automated ticket to perform a maintenance routine Plan Workload A technician will typically receive an automated ticket to perform a maintenance routine Execute Routine A technician will typically receive an automated ticket to perform a maintenance routine Continue Here Review Tech’s live review & analysis of test data Close Routine Complete & close PM ticket Send to Eng. Email test results to engineering for further analysis & replacement request form filled-out if need be Engineering Takes Over • Approve/refuse replacement • Crunch test data and load in central repository • Provide metrics for NERC’s compliancy 82
  74. 74. 83 ➡ DISCLAIMER ➡ INTRODUCTION ➡ WHAT IS A BATTERY? ➡ WHAT ARE YOUR CHANCES OF RUNNING ON BATTERIES? ➡ WHY DO BATTERIES FAIL? ➡ WHY DO YOU NEED IT? ➡ BATTERY BACKUP: FIELD OPERATIONS ➡ PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE ➡ OUTAGE INTERVENTION ➡ BATTERY BACKUP: ENGINEERING PERSPECTIVE ➡ PLANNING NEW PROJECTS ➡ REPLACING OLD OR EXISTING PROJECTS ➡ CONCLUSION ➡ SHAMELESS PLUG & FREEBIE
  75. 75. OUTAGE INTERVENTION Field technicians are the first people to be called/ dispatched in case of: MAIN POWER OUTAGE & POWER EQUIPMENT FAILURE. 84
  76. 76. Alarm to NOC NOC received “Battery On Discharge” & other alarms Start Here 85
  77. 77. ALARM There are typically 2 events that will trigger a BOD alarm: AC FAIL & CHARGER FAIL. 86
  78. 78. Alarm to NOC NOC received “Battery On Discharge” & other alarms Start Here Dispatch NOC will dispatch closest technician to site 87
  79. 79. Alarm to NOC NOC received “Battery On Discharge” & other alarms Start Here Dispatch NOC will dispatch closest technician to site Validate ETA If not done by NOC, a tech will validate the cause of outage, length & ETA to restore 88
  80. 80. Alarm to NOC NOC received “Battery On Discharge” & other alarms Start Here Dispatch NOC will dispatch closest technician to site Validate ETA If not done by NOC, a tech will validate the cause of outage, length & ETA to restore Validate BRT Based on outage information, technician will validate the estimated battery reserve time (BRT) on site 89
  81. 81. AS A RULE OF THUMB Validated ETA - Validated BRT = Time to get to a site & react/repair 90
  82. 82. VALIDATE BRT A validated Battery Reserve Time (BRT) is a key metric field technicians need to react in optimal fashion in case of outage or equipment failure. • Get there as soon as necessary • Bring the right equipment (generator, generator connector fitting plug and cable, replacement parts) • Do as few truck rolls as possible • Keep the site up 91
  83. 83. VALIDATE BRT There are 4 steps needed to validate BRT: (1) look for the last available LOAD reading (2) look for records of exact battery MODEL installed on site (3) find battery model’s DATASHEET with specific capacity measurements at specific end-voltage value (4) use rule of thumb or PEUKERT to estimate BRT 92
  84. 84. German scientist. In 1897, presented his “law” that expresses the capacity of a battery in terms of the rate at which it is discharged. As the rate increases, the battery's available capacity decreases. 94
  85. 85. Who is Peukert 95
  86. 86. PEUKERT Manufacturers rate the capacity of a battery with reference to a discharge time.A battery might be rated at 100 Ah when discharged at a rate that will fully discharge the battery in 20 hours. In this example, the discharge current would be 5 amperes. If the battery is discharged in a shorter time, with a higher current, the delivered capacity is less. 96
  87. 87. PEUKERT What you need to know: (1) The law is not a law, it’s a recognized concept. (2) Peukert determines a “k” factor to apply to a battery technology. For telecom batteries: 1.2. 97
  88. 88. PEUKERT The law: 98
  89. 89. PEUKERT Use a form!!! 99
  90. 90. Alarm to NOC NOC received “Battery On Discharge” & other alarms Start Here Dispatch NOC will dispatch closest technician to site Validate ETA If not done by NOC, a tech will validate the cause of outage, length & ETA to restore Validate BRT Based on outage information, technician will validate the estimated battery reserve time (BRT) on site Continue Here Truck Roll Get all you need and get to the site 100
  91. 91. Alarm to NOC NOC received “Battery On Discharge” & other alarms Start Here Dispatch NOC will dispatch closest technician to site Validate ETA If not done by NOC, a tech will validate the cause of outage, length & ETA to restore Validate BRT Based on outage information, technician will validate the estimated battery reserve time (BRT) on site Continue Here Truck Roll Get all you need and get to the site Repair Proceed with repair or hook-up generator 101
  92. 92. Alarm to NOC NOC received “Battery On Discharge” & other alarms Start Here Dispatch NOC will dispatch closest technician to site Validate ETA If not done by NOC, a tech will validate the cause of outage, length & ETA to restore Validate BRT Based on outage information, technician will validate the estimated battery reserve time (BRT) on site Continue Here Truck Roll Get all you need and get to the site Repair Proceed with repair or hook-up generator Turn On Power Once repaired, or AC is back on, switch off generator and go back to commercial power 102
  93. 93. Alarm to NOC NOC received “Battery On Discharge” & other alarms Start Here Dispatch NOC will dispatch closest technician to site Validate ETA If not done by NOC, a tech will validate the cause of outage, length & ETA to restore Validate BRT Based on outage information, technician will validate the estimated battery reserve time (BRT) on site Continue Here Truck Roll Get all you need and get to the site Repair Proceed with repair or hook-up generator Turn On Power Once repaired, or AC is back on, switch off generator and go back to commercial power Wait!!!!! • Make sure you have enough charger capacity to manage: • in-rush current • recharge batteries • carry the DC load • hope the batteries are recharged before power goes out again… • … all at the same time 103
  94. 94. You’ve just glanced at what a technicians needs to know when it comes to battery backup… And you thought engineers had it hard!? 104
  95. 95. 105 ➡ DISCLAIMER ➡ INTRODUCTION ➡ WHAT IS A BATTERY? ➡ WHAT ARE YOUR CHANCES OF RUNNING ON BATTERIES? ➡ WHY DO BATTERIES FAIL? ➡ WHY DO YOU NEED IT? ➡ BATTERY BACKUP: FIELD OPERATIONS ➡ PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE ➡ OUTAGE INTERVENTION ➡ BATTERY BACKUP: ENGINEERING PERSPECTIVE ➡ PLANNING NEW PROJECTS ➡ REPLACING OLD OR EXISTING PROJECTS ➡ CONCLUSION ➡ SHAMELESS PLUG & FREEBIE
  96. 96. Engineering teams are typically responsible for two aspects of battery backup: PLANNING/SIZING & REPLACING. 106
  97. 97. 107 ➡ DISCLAIMER ➡ INTRODUCTION ➡ WHAT IS A BATTERY? ➡ WHAT ARE YOUR CHANCES OF RUNNING ON BATTERIES? ➡ WHY DO BATTERIES FAIL? ➡ WHY DO YOU NEED IT? ➡ BATTERY BACKUP: FIELD OPERATIONS ➡ PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE ➡ OUTAGE INTERVENTION ➡ BATTERY BACKUP: ENGINEERING PERSPECTIVE ➡ PLANNING NEW PROJECTS ➡ REPLACING OLD OR EXISTING PROJECTS ➡ CONCLUSION ➡ SHAMELESS PLUG & FREEBIE
  98. 98. PLANNING When planning new projects in new or existing sites, engineering needs to RIGHT-SIZE the batteries to be deployed. Let’s see what that means. 108
  99. 99. Project Issued Once strategic engineering is done & funding approved Start Here 109
  100. 100. Project Issued Once strategic engineering is done & funding approved Start Here Estimate Load Look for the THEORETICAL DC load of new equipment 110
  101. 101. Project Issued Once strategic engineering is done & funding approved Start Here Estimate Load Look for the THEORETICAL DC load of new equipment Challenge That Theoretical loads will always vary, typically they are inflated. Agree on a maximum load 111
  102. 102. Project Issued Once strategic engineering is done & funding approved Start Here Estimate Load Look for the THEORETICAL DC load of new equipment Challenge That Theoretical loads will always vary, typically they are inflated. Agree on a maximum load Pick Site Type The type of site you pick with have a huge influence on the battery solution you end up with 112
  103. 103. PICK SITE TYPE Two important aspects to site type: (1) Available FLOOR SPACE (2) FLOOR LOADING capacity Large site Small site Wet cell VRLA 300 lbs/sq.ft 125 lbs/sq.ft Wet cell VRLA 113
  104. 104. Project Issued Once strategic engineering is done & funding approved Start Here Estimate Load Look for the THEORETICAL DC load of new equipment Challenge That Theoretical loads will always vary, typically they are inflated. Agree on a maximum load Pick Site Type The type of site you pick with have a huge influence on the battery solution you end up with Continue Here Pick Battery Pick the battery solution & model you want in your site 114
  105. 105. PICK BATTERY There are two battery technologies to pick from: WET CELL (VLA) & VRLA. 115
  106. 106. PICK BATTERY WET CELL (VLA) VRLA • Proven since… >100 years • Robust • Reliable • Recover well • Long lifetime Pros Cons • Acid!!! • Lead!! • Takes space • Heavy • Requires “maintenance” • Produces hydrogen gas during charging • Needs hydrogen sensor, proper ventilation & equipment in battery room • Small & portable • Easier to install • Can fit anywhere • Lighter • Requires no “dangerous” maintenance • Shorter lifetime • Smaller value over the long run • Higher risks of thermal runaway ConsPros 116
  107. 107. PICK BATTERY Before picking a battery manufacturer & model, check with your STANDARDS group or TECHNOLOGY ADVISOR, they typically have a few selections they want you to use. 117
  108. 108. Project Issued Once strategic engineering is done & funding approved Start Here Estimate Load Look for the THEORETICAL DC load of new equipment Challenge That Theoretical loads will always vary, typically they are inflated. Agree on a maximum load Pick Site Type The type of site you pick with have a huge influence on the battery solution you end up with Continue Here Pick Battery Pick the battery solution & model you want in your site Find Specs Use the battery manufacturer spec sheet to decide which capacity version you need 118
  109. 109. FIND SPECS Each battery model has a specific capacity value for specific end-voltage designs. It’s the engineer’s job to make sure he designs with the right specs. 119
  110. 110. FIND SPECS Each battery model has a specific NOMINAL CAPACITY rating (in Ah) for specific END-VOLTAGE designs, for a REQUIRED RESERVE TIME duration. It’s the engineer’s job to make sure he designs with the right specs. 120
  111. 111. FIND SPECS 121
  112. 112. FIND SPECS 122
  113. 113. FIND SPECS 123
  114. 114. Project Issued Once strategic engineering is done & funding approved Start Here Estimate Load Look for the THEORETICAL DC load of new equipment Challenge That Theoretical loads will always vary, typically they are inflated. Agree on a maximum load Pick Site Type The type of site you pick with have a huge influence on the battery solution you end up with Continue Here Pick Battery Pick the battery solution & model you want in your site Find Specs Use the battery manufacturer spec sheet to decide which capacity version you need Size After picking a model, you now need to decide on the quantity needed to support your load 124
  115. 115. SIZE You’re almost there. You know which model you want to pick & you know your load. BUT… 125
  116. 116. SIZE BUT… You need to provision for growth @ battery end of life. The reality of telecom facilities is that they change. New technologies get added, load will vary. You need to provision for that from day one. 126
  117. 117. SIZE Total Projected Load ➗ Nominal Capacity Specs of chosen model = THE NUMBER OF STRINGS NEEDED OF THAT MODEL 127
  118. 118. SIZE - EXAMPLE Projected Load (A) 100 Battery Model Specs (Ah) (Enersys SBS170F @ 1.75Vpc @ 8hours) 21.6 Number of Strings Needed 4.6 Note: Some people add an aging factor, like 1.25, to the number of strings needed. You don’t have to, but you can if you feel you have the money or your projected load is not relevant. 128
  119. 119. Project Issued Once strategic engineering is done & funding approved Start Here Estimate Load Look for the THEORETICAL DC load of new equipment Challenge That Theoretical loads will always vary, typically they are inflated. Agree on a maximum load Pick Site Type The type of site you pick with have a huge influence on the battery solution you end up with Continue Here Pick Battery Pick the battery solution & model you want in your site Find Specs Use the battery manufacturer spec sheet to decide which capacity version you need Size After picking a model, you now need to decide on the quantity needed to support your load Issue Install & Project Request • Once the project is sent out: • make sure you wait until the project is completed before updating records, in case of outage • don’t forget to update records with new battery model & information • make sure technicians know the ohmic reference value for that model 129
  120. 120. 130 ➡ DISCLAIMER ➡ INTRODUCTION ➡ WHAT IS A BATTERY? ➡ WHAT ARE YOUR CHANCES OF RUNNING ON BATTERIES? ➡ WHY DO BATTERIES FAIL? ➡ WHY DO YOU NEED IT? ➡ BATTERY BACKUP: FIELD OPERATIONS ➡ PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE ➡ OUTAGE INTERVENTION ➡ BATTERY BACKUP: ENGINEERING PERSPECTIVE ➡ PLANNING NEW PROJECTS ➡ REPLACING OLD OR EXISTING PROJECTS ➡ CONCLUSION ➡ SHAMELESS PLUG & FREEBIE
  121. 121. REPLACING Based on Murphy’s law, if you have bad batteries, even if you did everything else right, for sure,THAT ONE SITE WILL FAIL. Replacing a battery is as important as installing a new one. 131
  122. 122. Get Data Get test data from field technicians at regular intervals Start Here 132
  123. 123. Get Data Get test data from field technicians at regular intervals Start Here Analyze Data Look for the THEORETICAL DC load of new equipment 133
  124. 124. ANALYZE DATA The data you’ll receive from field technicians is the only & best metric you have to make a decision to maximize uptime. It’s important, don’t just file it without looking at it. 134
  125. 125. ANALYZE DATA Things to look for: (1) Has the load reading changed since last time? (2) Was the temperature in the site constant at 25°C? (3) Is the float voltage of the jars and strings at the right value? > Remotely connect to the controller to make sure. < (4) Where are the ohmic test results compared to the reference? 135
  126. 126. OHMIC REFERENCE The ohmic reference value is a hot topic: (1) Do not trust the reference value the tech was using. (2) Ideally, have each new string benchmarked at 6 months. (3) Get the reference from the battery manufacturer. Don’t use it just yet. (4) Get reference value from Midtronics or other equipment vendors. Use this one if it’s slightly lower than the mfg’s. (5) Repeat for each of your sites. 136
  127. 127. OHMIC REFERENCE At which reference value should you REPLACE? Status Conductance Reference Impedance Reference Jars are GOOD when > = 80% < = 70% Jars are WARNING when < 80% and > = 60% > 70% and < = 90% Jars are BAD when < 60% > 90% 137
  128. 128. Get Data Get test data from field technicians at regular intervals Start Here Analyze Data Look for the THEORETICAL DC load of new equipment No Data = Age For the sites for which you didn’t get data in the past 24 months, use age as your replacement trigger 138
  129. 129. NO DATA What do you do if you do not have data? (1) Don’t even try hiding it from NERC. (2) Use age as your replacement trigger. (3) Send a tech as fast as you can to inspect & measure. 139
  130. 130. Get Data Get test data from field technicians at regular intervals Start Here Analyze Data Look for the THEORETICAL DC load of new equipment No Data = Age For the sites for which you didn’t get data in the past 24 months, use age as your replacement trigger Replacement List Build a replacement list based on all the data files you received. 140
  131. 131. REPLACEMENT LIST What do you do if you do not have data? (1) Don’t even try hiding it from NERC. (2) Use age as your replacement trigger. (3) Send a tech as fast as you can to inspect & measure. 141
  132. 132. Get Data Get test data from field technicians at regular intervals Start Here Analyze Data Look for the THEORETICAL DC load of new equipment No Data = Age For the sites for which you didn’t get data in the past 24 months, use age as your replacement trigger Replacement List Build a replacement list based on all the data files you received. Continue Here Recalculate BRT When you received your test results, you also go a new DC load reading 142
  133. 133. RECALCULATE BRT Ohmic test results can be represented a % of your reference. Can you use that % as a de-rating factor to reduce battery capacity? 143
  134. 134. RECALCULATE BRT Yes. 144
  135. 135. RECALCULATE BRT 145
  136. 136. RECALCULATE BRT 146
  137. 137. RECALCULATE BRT When you got your test data back from field operations, you also got an updated DC load reading. If it changed, use the new value to recalculate your updated Battery Reserve Time (BRT). 147
  138. 138. Get Data Get test data from field technicians at regular intervals Start Here Analyze Data Look for the THEORETICAL DC load of new equipment No Data = Age For the sites for which you didn’t get data in the past 24 months, use age as your replacement trigger Replacement List Build a replacement list based on SOH & age Continue Here Recalculate BRT When you received your test results, you also go a new DC load reading Repeat Don’t forget to repeat this for each site in your network 148
  139. 139. Get Data Get test data from field technicians at regular intervals Start Here Analyze Data Look for the THEORETICAL DC load of new equipment No Data = Age For the sites for which you didn’t get data in the past 24 months, use age as your replacement trigger Replacement List Build a replacement list based on SOH & age Continue Here Recalculate BRT When you received your test results, you also go a new DC load reading Repeat Don’t forget to repeat this for each site in your network BRT List For any site lacking BRT, create a list to add battery capacity 149
  140. 140. BRT LIST Build a list of all the sites that require added batteries to support: (1) De-rated capacity based on ohmic test results (2) Updated DC load reading 150
  141. 141. Get Data Get test data from field technicians at regular intervals Start Here Analyze Data Look for the THEORETICAL DC load of new equipment No Data = Age For the sites for which you didn’t get data in the past 24 months, use age as your replacement trigger Replacement List Build a replacement list based on SOH & age Continue Here Recalculate BRT When you received your test results, you also go a new DC load reading Repeat Don’t forget to repeat this for each site in your network BRT List For any site lacking BRT, create a list to add battery capacity Cross Reference Both Lists to Create Projects • You end up with two replacement lists, based on: • Ohmic state-of-health (SOH) & age • De-rated capacity & updated load • Cross-reference to: • Prioritize replacement needs • Preventing mistakes such as adding capacity when you should install new model 151
  142. 142. So, who has the toughest job? FIELD TECHNICIANS or ENGINEERS? 152
  143. 143. My point: to maximize battery backup & uptime, you need both teams to work in full cooperation. It’s a question of COMMUNICATION & CULTURE. Promoting this should be a high priority… Everything else is a process. 153
  144. 144. 154 ➡ DISCLAIMER ➡ INTRODUCTION ➡ WHAT IS A BATTERY? ➡ WHAT ARE YOUR CHANCES OF RUNNING ON BATTERIES? ➡ WHY DO BATTERIES FAIL? ➡ WHY DO YOU NEED IT? ➡ BATTERY BACKUP: FIELD OPERATIONS ➡ PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE ➡ OUTAGE INTERVENTION ➡ BATTERY BACKUP: ENGINEERING PERSPECTIVE ➡ PLANNING NEW PROJECTS ➡ REPLACING OLD OR EXISTING PROJECTS ➡ CONCLUSION ➡ SHAMELESS PLUG & FREEBIE
  145. 145. EXTEND LIFETIME My conclusion today: what can you do to help extend the lifetime of your batteries? (4) Top wet cells up in the spring. (3) Never discharge them… hahaha! (2) 25°C all the time (1) Float them at the right voltage 155
  146. 146. ➡ DISCLAIMER ➡ INTRODUCTION ➡ WHAT IS A BATTERY? ➡ WHAT ARE YOUR CHANCES OF RUNNING ON BATTERIES? ➡ WHY DO BATTERIES FAIL? ➡ WHY DO YOU NEED IT? ➡ BATTERY BACKUP: FIELD OPERATIONS ➡ PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE ➡ OUTAGE INTERVENTION ➡ BATTERY BACKUP: ENGINEERING PERSPECTIVE ➡ PLANNING NEW PROJECTS ➡ REPLACING OLD OR EXISTING PROJECTS ➡ CONCLUSION ➡ SHAMELESS PLUG & FREEBIE
  147. 147. We’re at > 150 slides. It’s a little overwhelming.
  148. 148. KEEP CALM AND HAVE ENOUGH BACKUP
  149. 149. At Multitel, we’ve developed a tool that’s AUTOMATING most of the processes & steps you’ve seen here today. FIRM Battery Management It’s the first enterprise software that gives snapshot & detailed views of your at risk sites when it comes to batteries.
  150. 150. 1 2 4 6 3 5 1. # of routines completed for the network, per region, per technician 2. # of cells failed or failing based on impedance 3. # of cells failed or failing based on conductance From the Dashboard, you have access to: 4. List of sites with problems that need escalation 5. List of routines w/ problem or warnings needing approval 6. List of sites for which technicians did an inventory change requiring approval before being updated in FIRM 160
  151. 151. Through a simple interface, it helps field technicians quickly upload test data. And crunches it automatically to generate prioritized replacement lists. Saving engineers valuable time.
  152. 152. Complete battery replacement program.
  153. 153. And automatically updates Battery Reserve Time (BRT).
  154. 154. No matter who you are in the company, no matter the event, no matter where you are: always know the updated reserve time in each site within the network.
  155. 155. FREEBIE Come see us at booth #308 to learn more about FIRM Battery Management and we’ll show you the Top 10 Best & Worst battery models for both Wet Cells & VRLAs.
  156. 156. Data analytics - always know which batteries are best or worst performing within your network, drill to understand more. Worst 10 models Worst failures rates Worst production years
  157. 157. May  5-­‐8,  2015    |    Atlanta,  GA    |    www.utctelecom.org Dakx Turcotte Mobile: +1-418-262-0575 Email: dakx.turcotte@multitel.com Booth # 903

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