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Wastewater treatment and
sludge production:
energy recovery process,
techniques and financial
evaluation
Loro Francesco
AR...
Summary
• The sludge production from WWTP
• The solution:
– Matter recovery
– Energy recovery
• The biogas plant
• The use...
The sludge production
• The byproducts of a
WWTP are:
– Clean water
– Sludge
• How to Reduce the
production:
– New technol...
The reduction of water contents
• High pressure belt
press for sludge
• FILTER PRESSES
• Centrifuges
• Drying Beds
Perform...
The matter recovery
• Use as fertilizer in agricolture
– It is necessary a permit
– Bioaccumulation of pollutants (A.e. if...
Acceptance limits for sludge
Water contents limit  landfill acceptance criteria (EU
Decision 2003/33)
Acceptance limits f...
Acceptance limits for agricolture
The energy recovery from sludge using
Anaerobic Digestion
• The production of biogas
from sludges was developed
during the...
A new mix
• To improve the
biogas production
the sludge is mixed
with organic waste
• The anaerobic
digestion and the
comp...
The Anaerobic Digestion:
The technologies applied
• These technologies works with a mixture
of sludge and Organic Waste
• ...
Anaerobic
digestion plants
in Veneto
ETRA
Bassano d. G.
(VI)
SESA
Este (PD)
ETRA
Camposampiero
(PD)
Agrilux
Lozzo atestino...
The treatment capacity in Veneto
• Treated sludge (EWC
190805) in 2012 : 110.000 t
• Treated OW in 2012: more
than 300.000...
Plant details
Etra - Bassano del Grappa (VI) – Valorga Process
Plant details:
Type Dry
Technologies Valorga
Reactors 3 reactors – 7200 m3
D.M. Contents 20 - 25 %
Temperature
range
37 °C...
Plant Details
Etra - Camposampiero (PD) Linde process
Type Wet
Technologies Linde
Reactors size 3300 m3
D.M. Content 9 - 12 %
Temperature of the
reactor
55 °C
HRT 17 -20 days
T...
Etra Camposampiero (PD)
Organic
Waste
Pulper
Sludge
Landfill
or
incinerator
Green
Waste
Composting
(Vigonza)
Hydrolysis
Bi...
Plant details:
Sesa - Este
Sesa - Este
Type Wet
Technologies Internal projects
Reactors 4 – 5000 m3
d.m. Contents 12 - 16 %
Regime 37 °C
HRT 20 – 25 ...
Sesa - Este
Organic
Waste
Squeezing
Sludge
Landfill
Green
Waste
Composting
Anaerobic
digestion
Biogas
Separator
Solid
frac...
The importance of quality of waste
•The production of organic waste
presents some features:
•The production change in term...
A new problem: the treatment of
wastewater from AD
The anaerobic digestion use a big quantity of water
and produce a waste...
MBR to reduce the sludge production
Some plant use the most advanced
technologies in order to reduce the
amount of sludge ...
Struvite production
KMg(PO4)·6(H2O) MAP [MgNH4PO4*6H2O]
The evaluation of the cost
• Why in the last decade there
was a big growth of the AD
plant that treat sludges and
OW in It...
1. Pre-treatment of the
OW and production of
organic fraction to the
biogas production
2. Wastewater to AD
treatment : sep...
Anaerobic digestion costs
The costs of a composting plant will be lower due to lower technology level
€ 400
€ 450
€ 500
€ ...
Investement costs (in Italy)
• High investement due to the
elevate cost per ton.(400-
1000 €/ton, around two times
for a s...
Operating and maintenance costs
• The maintenance cost are usually very
high (because the machines installed
presents an h...
Simulation of an intergrated plant for slugde
OW – 72.0000 t/y + 55.000 t or green
waste . Interest rate 6%, Amortization
...
Income Analisys of a integrated plant
Total income 6.000.000 €
Workers 23
Energy production 13.000.000 kW
Income Compositi...
Contacts
Loro Francesco
Tel. +39.348.0643462
e-mail: lorofrancesco@outlook.com / floro@arpa.veneto.it
Thanks for the kind ...
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Waste water treatment and sewage slugde management in Veneto: the role of integrated plants, Composting and Anaerobic Digestion

The management of sewage slude is a challenge and an opportunity. the Integratet plant , WWTP - Anaerobic digestion - Composting is a way to solve this problem

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Waste water treatment and sewage slugde management in Veneto: the role of integrated plants, Composting and Anaerobic Digestion

  1. 1. Wastewater treatment and sludge production: energy recovery process, techniques and financial evaluation Loro Francesco ARPAV Subotica, Sept. 2013
  2. 2. Summary • The sludge production from WWTP • The solution: – Matter recovery – Energy recovery • The biogas plant • The use of sludge mixed with organic waste • The technologies • The Veneto situation • The evaluation of costs and the role of subsidies
  3. 3. The sludge production • The byproducts of a WWTP are: – Clean water – Sludge • How to Reduce the production: – New technologies as MBR – Reduction of the amount of water
  4. 4. The reduction of water contents • High pressure belt press for sludge • FILTER PRESSES • Centrifuges • Drying Beds Performance 70% of water 25% of water To improve the performance it is necessary the use of chemicals
  5. 5. The matter recovery • Use as fertilizer in agricolture – It is necessary a permit – Bioaccumulation of pollutants (A.e. if the wastewater is contemined by heavy metals) – Specific limits for HV and POPs • The Composting plant – Production of a fertilizer – Use of green waste as filler – The process needs energy and dedicated equipment – Specific acceptance limits
  6. 6. Acceptance limits for sludge Water contents limit  landfill acceptance criteria (EU Decision 2003/33) Acceptance limits for composting
  7. 7. Acceptance limits for agricolture
  8. 8. The energy recovery from sludge using Anaerobic Digestion • The production of biogas from sludges was developed during the ‘70 and ‘80 but after few years this was abandoned. • The causes was: – High cost of maintenance – Low energy production – Market (the landfill was cheaper than AD)
  9. 9. A new mix • To improve the biogas production the sludge is mixed with organic waste • The anaerobic digestion and the composting plant are an integrated plant
  10. 10. The Anaerobic Digestion: The technologies applied • These technologies works with a mixture of sludge and Organic Waste • The main carbon source are the O.W. • The sludges represent an income for the waste management plant • The composting plant or the reuse in agricolture represents the solution to reduce the amount of sludge and are a fundamental part of an integrated plant
  11. 11. Anaerobic digestion plants in Veneto ETRA Bassano d. G. (VI) SESA Este (PD) ETRA Camposampiero (PD) Agrilux Lozzo atestino (PD) Impianto Comunale Treviso Dolomiti ambiente Belluno Agrinord Verona Villa Bionergia Verona
  12. 12. The treatment capacity in Veneto • Treated sludge (EWC 190805) in 2012 : 110.000 t • Treated OW in 2012: more than 300.000 t • Biogas production: 35.000.000 Nm3 • Energy production: 75 Gwh
  13. 13. Plant details Etra - Bassano del Grappa (VI) – Valorga Process
  14. 14. Plant details: Type Dry Technologies Valorga Reactors 3 reactors – 7200 m3 D.M. Contents 20 - 25 % Temperature range 37 °C HRT 25 -30 dd
  15. 15. Plant Details Etra - Camposampiero (PD) Linde process
  16. 16. Type Wet Technologies Linde Reactors size 3300 m3 D.M. Content 9 - 12 % Temperature of the reactor 55 °C HRT 17 -20 days The technologies: Etra - Camposampiero
  17. 17. Etra Camposampiero (PD) Organic Waste Pulper Sludge Landfill or incinerator Green Waste Composting (Vigonza) Hydrolysis Biogas Anaerobic digestion Solid fraction Liquid fraction WWTP Clean Water Compost Scarps Centrifuge
  18. 18. Plant details: Sesa - Este
  19. 19. Sesa - Este Type Wet Technologies Internal projects Reactors 4 – 5000 m3 d.m. Contents 12 - 16 % Regime 37 °C HRT 20 – 25 days
  20. 20. Sesa - Este Organic Waste Squeezing Sludge Landfill Green Waste Composting Anaerobic digestion Biogas Separator Solid fraction Liquid fraction WWTP Clean Water Compost Solid fraction Liquid fraction Scarps
  21. 21. The importance of quality of waste •The production of organic waste presents some features: •The production change in terms of quantity and quality during the years •The quality of OW could change on the basis of the location and period •High contents of inert waste (dangerous for the biogas equipment) •Specific flows from industry (as food industry)  risk of poisoning A new variable in the process...
  22. 22. A new problem: the treatment of wastewater from AD The anaerobic digestion use a big quantity of water and produce a wastewater that cannot be used in Nitrates Vulnerable Areas Part of the wastewater could be used during the composting process of the solid fraction of AD wastewater Some european project on the recovery of NH3 as solid fertilizer Recovery of P as fertilizer (struvite)
  23. 23. MBR to reduce the sludge production Some plant use the most advanced technologies in order to reduce the amount of sludge (SESA Este)
  24. 24. Struvite production KMg(PO4)·6(H2O) MAP [MgNH4PO4*6H2O]
  25. 25. The evaluation of the cost • Why in the last decade there was a big growth of the AD plant that treat sludges and OW in Italy? • The introducion of a special subsides (Green Certificate) that can increase the income of a plant through the energy selling. • Without this subsides the AD isn’t competitive The evaluation of the cost must take into account the local condition (Green certificates, Green fee)
  26. 26. 1. Pre-treatment of the OW and production of organic fraction to the biogas production 2. Wastewater to AD treatment : separation of the solid franction to composting plant 3. Treatment of the liquid fraction of AD with WWTP 4. Energy recovery (Electric/Heat) Dedicated equipment = dedicated costs
  27. 27. Anaerobic digestion costs The costs of a composting plant will be lower due to lower technology level € 400 € 450 € 500 € 550 € 600 € 650 € 700 € 750 € 800 € 850 € 900 € 950 € 1.000 € 1.050 Costo di investimento digestori anaerobici per ton di frazione organica trattata Economies of scales, a big treatment capacity reduce the cost of treatment (in terms of euro/t)
  28. 28. Investement costs (in Italy) • High investement due to the elevate cost per ton.(400- 1000 €/ton, around two times for a standard composting plant) • The use of anarobic digestion reduce the plant surface (less costs for the purchase of the area where the plant will be located) • The evaluation of the cost for an new istallation or the revamping could change on the basis of the national condition (Green Certificates)
  29. 29. Operating and maintenance costs • The maintenance cost are usually very high (because the machines installed presents an high level of maintenance) • Costs fo Employees are usually higher than a composting plant because it is necessary specialized workers. (In Italy around 10 % of the total costs). • Costs for technical • Costs of enviromental controls, comunication to citizens (NIMBY syndrome) • Waste water treatment (the costs are high due to high level of N) • Management of the organic fractions (composting, landfill, agricoluture)
  30. 30. Simulation of an intergrated plant for slugde OW – 72.0000 t/y + 55.000 t or green waste . Interest rate 6%, Amortization and Green Certificate 15 years, solid waste to landfill 14% w/w 35% 10% 2%2% 14% 30% 7% Amortization cost Workers Fuel & Chemicals Environmental Red Tape Maintenance Cost analysis of a real plant
  31. 31. Income Analisys of a integrated plant Total income 6.000.000 € Workers 23 Energy production 13.000.000 kW Income Composition percentage Green Certificate 18,9 % 27 %Electric Energy Selling 8,9 % Organic Waste Tariff 62,2 % 73 % Other Waste 10,8 %
  32. 32. Contacts Loro Francesco Tel. +39.348.0643462 e-mail: lorofrancesco@outlook.com / floro@arpa.veneto.it Thanks for the kind attention Acknowledgement Etra Spa – Walter Giacetti

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The management of sewage slude is a challenge and an opportunity. the Integratet plant , WWTP - Anaerobic digestion - Composting is a way to solve this problem

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