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MGT567 Creative Problem Solving


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MGT567 Creative Problem Solving

  1. 1. Module 5David A. JarvisSalve Regina UniversityMGT567 Creative Problem SolvingOctober 6-7, 20-21 2012
  2. 2. Explorer Artist Judge Warrior Turning yourSearching for new Evaluating the Carrying your idea resources into new information merits of an idea into action ideas
  3. 3. Divergent/convergent thinking
  4. 4. To Diverge To Converge Defer judgment Apply affirmative judgment Go for quantity Keep novelty aliveMake connections Check your objectives Seek novelty Stay focused Allow for incubation
  5. 5.  Hold evaluation until Increases your awareness of a later time and respect for possibilities Suspend disbelief Replaces a “can’t” mentality with a “can do” mindset Entertain potential value Makes you more open and receptive to new things Expands your array of usable choices Helps you to get a different idea or new way of looking at things
  6. 6.  The ability to generate Increases the likelihood of a many possibilities breakthrough idea The more your produce, the more you learn “The best way to have Most original ideas come after a a good idea is to have period of extended idea lots of ideas.” generation Prevents jumping on the first idea that sounds like it might work
  7. 7.  Prevent teams from Increases the likelihood of becoming isolated obtaining unusual responses and solutions Find remarkable idea combinations at Encourages flexible thinking intersections Helps to elaborate on or extend initial ideas Provides cross-fertilization of ideas and results
  8. 8.  Stretch your thinking Generate an idea that Leads to breakthrough ideas is paradigm breaking Take a new view of a old problem Stimulates other ideas that may be practical Fosters a playful and creative atmosphere in groups
  9. 9.  Using effective critical thinking, as opposed to faultfinding Don’t focus on “wrong” or “why it won’t work” Consider both the positives and negatives Keep the momentum of the “Leaders should not creative process going be unduly critical of Remember, feedback can either developing ideas…” support or hinder creativity
  10. 10.  Entertain original concepts that have been previously generated Be open to the unexpected Avoid simply discarding unexpected outcomes as mistakes Be open to the benefits of new discoveries
  11. 11.  Consider the reality of the situation Understand your criteria for success Work within your constraints True creativity is about developing something that is novel and meets a need “You must embrace both realism and creativitythroughout the evaluation process…”
  12. 12.  Ensure that the best “Creativity is damn hard…” alternatives are selected and developed Must deliberately and systematically refine your thinking Balance and combine intuition with critical analysis (the analytic sandwich)
  13. 13. Take a break from actively pursuing a solution when the problem is not consciously worked on, allowing options to develop without full awareness
  14. 14. Creative problem solving process
  15. 15. Assessing the situation Formulating Exploring a plan the vision CREATIVEIMPLEMENTATION PROBLEM CLARIFICATION Exploring SOLVING Formulating acceptance PROCESS challenges Formulating Exploring solutions ideas TRANSFORMATION
  16. 16. Clarification Transformation Implementation (1) Assessing the (2) Exploring the (3) Formulating (4) Exploring (5) Formulating (6) Exploring (7) Formulating a Step situation vision challenges ideas solutions acceptance plan Diverge Converge Diverge Converge Diverge ConvergePurpose To describe and To identify the To generate novel identify relevant To develop a gaps that must be To increase the To develop an ideas that address To move from data and to vision of a desired closed to achieve likelihood of implementation importance ideas to solutions determine next outcome the desired success plan challenges process step outcomeThinking Diagnostic Visionary Strategic Ideational Evaluative Contextual Tactical Skill Making a careful Articulating a vivid Identifying the Producing original Assessing the Understanding the Devising a plan that examination of a image of what you critical issues that mental images and reasonableness and interrelated includes specific and situation, describing desire to create must be addressed thoughts that quality of ideas in conditions and measureable steps the nature of the and pathways respond to order to develop circumstances that for attaining a problem, and needed to move important workable solutions will support or desired end and making decisions toward the desired challenges hinder success methods for about appropriate future monitoring process steps to be effectiveness takenAffective Avoiding Sensitivity to Mindfulness Dreaming Sensing gaps Playfulness Tolerance for risks Skills premature closure environment Attending to To imagine as To become Freely toying with Resisting the urge to The degree to which Not allowing thoughts, feelings possible your desires consciously aware of ideas push for a decision people are aware of yourself to be and sensations and hopes discrepancies their physical and shaken or unnerved relative to the between what psychological by the possibility of present situation currently exists and surroundings failures or setbacks is desired or required Key Develop, elaborate, Sell, convince, Picture, dream, look Come up with, Execute, implement, Words Clarify, untangle, expand, evaluate, market, promote, at, forecast, contem invent, break do, script, explicate, define, flesh out, leverage, influence, plate, see, speculate, through, originate, orchestrate, devise, decipher, clear up, strengthen, refine, persuade, pitch, ponder, wonder innovate, hatch, plot, outline, uncover, discern why analyze, maximize, position, introduce, about fashion, think up, organize, rollout, build on advocate, Tools • 5 W’s and an H • Wishful thinking • Statement • Brainstorming • Criteria • Assisters and • Generating • Why/why • Storyboarding starters • Forced • Evaluation resisters actions steps diagram • Success zones • Webbing connections matrix • Stakeholder • How-how • Hits • PPC° analysis diagram • Highlighting • Sequencing • Performance dashboard
  17. 17. Step Thinking Skill Affective Skill1 Assessing the situation Diagnostic Mindfulness2 Exploring the vision Visionary Dreaming3 Formulating challenges Strategic Sensing gaps4 Exploring ideas Ideational Playfulness Avoiding premature5 Formulating solutions Evaluative closure Sensitivity to6 Exploring acceptance Contextual environment7 Formulating a plan Tactical Tolerance for risks
  18. 18. Assessing the situation
  19. 19. Move quickly in response toInfluence and be influenced new ideasMake adjustments as things Act as gatekeepers to the change flow of information Sort through what is Make good and wise important and what isn’t decisionsEnsure opportunities aren’t Understand the context of missed the current realityInterpret data and explore Be cognizant of both the meaning content and the process
  20. 20. First, you need to understand… What needs to be done Who can help or hinder youWhy you should or shouldn’t do it How it should be done
  21. 21. • Focus on the present moment• Being fully present• Openness to experience• Non-judgment• Acceptance of things as they are• Connection• Non-attachment• Peace and equanimity• Compassion SOURCE: “Nine Essential Qualities of Mindfulness”, Psychology Today, 2/22/12
  22. 22. Take in data Examine the situation Analyze choices Make a decisionDetermine process steps
  23. 23. “You see,” he explained, “I consider that a man’sbrain originally is like a little empty attic, and youhave to stock it with such furniture as you choose.A fool takes in all the lumber of every sort that hecomes across, so that the knowledge which might be useful to him gets crowded out, or at best is jumbled up with a lot of other things, so that he has difficulty laying his hands upon it.” (Sherlock Holmes, “A Study in Scarlett”)
  24. 24. Information and Impressions Feelings knowledge Specific knowledge or Personal hunches or Emotional responses, facts about the area, guesses, intuition, “sixth sentiments, sympathy,news, research, theory, sense”, beliefs, empathy from many disciplines predictions Questions Observation Inquiring, doubting, Taking into account paradoxes, uncertainty, through the senses, confused, unclear, perceiving, curiositySOURCE: Creative Problem Solving: An Introduction
  25. 25. Who? What? When? • What has been done • When did I become aware? • Who’s involved? before? • When must action be • Who created the situation? • What resources do we taken? • Who will have to help? have? Need? • When is the best or worst• Who’s concerned? Excited? • What do we want to time to work on it? happen? Where? Why? How? • Why do we have this • How do I see this situation? • Where does the action situation? • How do others view it? take place? • Why hasn’t it been • How do we want things to • Where else has someone dealt with? change? dealt with this situation? • Why do we want to • How will it be different than• Where would we like to be? deal with it? the present? Remember to ask “else”? Who else? Etc. SOURCE: Creative Problem Solving: An Introduction
  26. 26. Exploring the vision
  27. 27. Help others works towardsIdentify future opportunities goals Ensure high levels of Initiate change performance Inspire others Create consensusProvide others with direction Create a sense of purpose Determine which activities have the greatest potential (anticipating what will be required)
  28. 28. “There is no more powerful engine driving an organization towards excellence and long-range successthan an attractive, worthwhile and achievable vision of the future, widely shared.” (Burt Nanus, Visionary Leadership)
  29. 29. “For the eyes of the world “I have a dream that my “(Disneyland) will be filled now look into space, to the four children will one day with the moon and to the planets live in a nation where they accomplishments, the joys beyond, and we have will not be judged by the and hopes of the world wevowed that we shall not see color of their skin but by the live it. And it will remindit governed by a hostile flag content of their character.” us and show us how to of conquest, but by a make those wonders part banner of freedom and of our own lives.” peace.”
  30. 30. I want a career We want to be #1 We want to that is fulfilling in our industry and reduce our resourcebut allows me to provide a sustained use while preserving have a full return for our a high qualityrelationship with investors of life my familyAn individual A company A country
  31. 31. Alternative Which is the views of most productive future pathway to your directions purpose Creating a wide shared clear sense ofpurpose, direction and desired future state
  32. 32. Think about many positive and negative future outcomes STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3 STEP 4 Use statement Identify the Reverse anyIdentify the starters to key WIBAI topic to create statements statements explore alternatives (the most(think headlines) (wouldn’t it be promising and (WIBNI, WIBAI) awful) ones to void)
  33. 33. Create a sequential story about the future highlightingsignificant events – from the present to a desired future STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3Identify the topic Decide on the Define your to explore number of panels current situation STEP 4 STEP 5 STEP 6 Project yourself Elaborate on the Sequence the story images into the future (outcomes, obstacles, insights)
  34. 34. Formulating challenges
  35. 35. Break out of old ways of Uncover opportunities you looking at a problem didn’t even know existed Identify issues hidden inDiscover the root of issues complex challenges Avoid rushing to a solution – Not waste resources test assumptions Define the issues clearly and Reframe challenges efficiently
  36. 36. what must be done to manifestRecognize the vision critical issues that must be Identify addressed paths to move towards the Find desired futureUnderstand where problems begin and end the best way to approach theDetermine problem
  37. 37. Questioning Someone to stem + take action + Action + Receiver • In what ways • Ownership • Attract might… • Whose • Increase • How might… problem are • Improve • How to… you working • Find • What might… on? • Eliminate • “I” or “we” • Win • Change • Excite • Ensure • CreateShould be in a question form, point to an objective, provoke ideas, be free of limiting criteria and stated concisely
  38. 38.  In what ways might I increase student’s motivation in the classroom? How might we ensure our environment supports collaboration? How can we make staff meetings more productive? How might state government attract new business to the state? What might improve the rate of adoption of hybrid and electric vehicles by …?
  39. 39. STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3 Ask “why” – turn Identify goal or the answer into a Ask “why else isdesired outcome question with a this important?” statement starter STEP 4 STEP 5 STEP 6 Ask “why” and Ask “what’s Continue asking “why else” to stopping me” to “what’s stopping those new explore more me” and “what challenges you concrete else is stopping identified challenges me”
  40. 40. GLOBAL Why? Why else? VISION OR DESIRED OUTCOME What is stopping What else is you? stopping you?CONCRETE
  41. 41. Exploring ideas
  42. 42. Encourage in order to get Have many, varied, unusual breakthroughs ideas Get fresh perspectives Go beyond “surface ideas” Engage in truly original Create an environment where thinking ideas are welcomeGo to unanticipated places Create competitive advantage
  43. 43. Making Build and create things Making Imagine and things up fantasize Make Doing as if / believe pretenseBeing playful is about asking “what if”– turning reality into fantasy or fiction
  44. 44. S Substitute What might you use or do instead? What things might be combined or synthesized toC Combine form new ideas?A Adapt What might be changed or used in a different why?M Magnify or minimize What might be made larger or smaller? How might something be used or applied in a newP Put to other uses or different way?E Eliminate What could be deleted? What if you looked at the problem in the oppositeR Reverse or rearrange way? SOURCE: Creative Problem Solving: An Introduction
  45. 45. Formulating solutions
  46. 46. Hulk smashyour puny ideas!!!
  47. 47. Strengthen the potential of Keep an open mind on an ideas idea’s potentialThink through the strengths Elaborate on less developedand weaknesses of an idea ideas Turn ideas into viable Prioritize the importance of solutions ideas to grow a planProvide a balance between Influence others to novelty and usefulness appreciate novel ideas Evaluate ideas and solutions before others see the final results
  48. 48. S Strengthen OI Identify weakness LD Develop UE Refine T Evaluate IA O Elaborate NThis phase is the transition point between ideas and implementation
  49. 49. EXAMPLES Helps to screen ideas Will options be cost Cost Establishes effective to implement? benchmarks for Will this possibility be Acceptance acceptable to others? evaluation Determines strengths Will the materials Resources needed be available? and limitations Assesses options Time Will the option fit into our schedule? consistently Will there be room to Will it… Does it… Space do what’s needed?
  50. 50. STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3 STEP 4 Check to Develop see if the Select ancriteria to Build the criteria are evaluation evaluate matrix distinct and system options positive STEP 5 STEP 6 STEP 7 Develop options and Evaluate Review the make a each choice matrix final decision
  51. 51. Criteria Decision Criterion Criterion Criterion … Accept Refine Reject 1 2 n good + Option 1 1 to 5 fair -  poor o Option 2 …Option n
  52. 52. Pluses List what is good, positive, about the idea List what might happen if the idea werePotentials pursued, what are the possibilities What are the shortcomings, weaknesses or Concerns limitations of the ideaOvercoming Generate ideas to overcome concerns, concerns starting with the most important Miller, Vehar & Firestien, 2001
  53. 53. Exploring acceptance
  54. 54. Ensure that new ideas are Build coalitions of support rolled out smoothly Ensure psychological, social Avoid being blindsided by and emotional support for critics changeAttract resources necessary for Ensure alignment with success organizational goalsFacilitate the objective analysis Inform action plans with of ideas wisdom and social intelligence
  55. 55. Anticipate, avoid and overcome the people, resources and conditions thatwill hinder your progress
  56. 56. Enough key players should be on board Position so that those left out cannot block power progress All relevant points of view should beExpertise represented so that informed intelligent decisions can be made The group should be seen and respectedCredibility by those in the firm so that the group’s pronouncements will be taken seriously The group should have enough provenLeadership leaders to be able to drive the change process
  57. 57. A management driven hierarchy working in concert witha strategy networkSOURCE: “Accelerate!”, John Kotter, HBR, Nov 2012
  58. 58. The Eight Accelerators:The processes that enable the strategy network to functionSOURCE: “Accelerate!”, John Kotter, HBR, Nov 2012
  59. 59. Assister ResisterWho? Helpful people Critics or opponentsWhat? Essentials resources Things that might be unavailable The worst time to carry outWhen? The best time to carry out solution solution Best places to implement theWhere? plans; support success Worst places; hinder successWhy? Best, most important justifications Least persuasive justifications Actions others might take to Actions others might take toHow? support idea undermine idea
  60. 60. STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3 STEP 4 Generate a Estimate Generate Identify their list of all of where levels action steps current level the of support to close the of supportstakeholders need to be gaps How to best influence those individuals, groups or organizations that have a vested interest
  61. 61. Formulation a plan
  62. 62. Establish schedules and Assign resources deadlines Monitor progress Manage detailsDeal with failures and Conduct contingency setbacks planning
  63. 63.  What steps are you committed to take? What resources are required to take them? When and where will they take place? Who will be involved? Why are they important? How will you carry them out?
  64. 64. Immediate (next 24 hours) Action By Whom? By When? Resources?1. XXX XXX XXX XXX Short-term steps Action By Whom? By When? Resources?1. XXX XXX XXX XXX Intermediate steps Action By Whom? By When? Resources?1. XXX XXX XXX XXX Long-term steps Action By Whom? By When? Resources?1. XXX XXX XXX XXX
  65. 65. “We cannot wait for greatvisions from great people…It is up to us to light our own small fires in the darkness.” (Charles Handy)
  66. 66. BOOKS Arthur, Cropley. Creativity in Education and Learning. Routledge, 2001. ISBN-10: 0749434473 Kelley, Tom, Jonathan Littman, and Tom Peters. The Art of Innovation: Lessons in Creativity from IDEO, Americas Leading Design Firm. Crown Business, 2001. ISBN-10: 0385499841 Lehrer, Jonah. Imagine: How Creativity Works. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2012. Leonard-Barton, Dorothy and Walter C. Swap. When Sparks Fly: Harnessing the Power of Group Creativity. Harvard Business Review Press, 2005. ISBN-10: 1591397936 Managing Creativity and Innovation (Harvard Business Essentials). Harvard Business Review Press, 2003. ISBN-10: 1591391121 Puccio, Gerald, Marie Mance and Mary C. Murdock. Creative Leadership - Skills That Drive Change. 2nd ed. Sage Publications, 2011. ISBN-10: 1412977576 Treffinger, Donald, Scott Isaksen, and Brian Stead-Doval. Creative Problem Solving: An Introduction. 4th ed. Prufrock Press, 2006. ISBN-10: 1593631871ARTICLES “Developing Creative and Critical Thinkers”, Col. Charles D. Allen, U.S. Army, Ret. and Col. Stephen J. Gerras, Ph.D., U.S. Army, Ret., Military Review, Nov-Dec 2009 “Sparking creativity in teams: An executive’s guide”, Marla M. Capozzi, Renée Dye, and Amy Howe, McKinsey Quarterly, April 2011 “How Pixar Fosters Collective Creativity”, Ed Catmull, Harvard Business Review, Sept 2008 “Inside Cisco’s Search for the Next Big Idea”, Guido Joret, Harvard Business Review, Sept 2009 “How to Kill Creativity”, Teresa M. Amabile, Harvard Business Review, Sept-Oct 1998 “Cultivating organizational creativity in an age of complexity” (IBM study, 2011) “Defining Systematic Creativity” (LEGO Learning Institute, 2009) “Accelerate!”, John P. Kotter, Harvard Business Review, Nov 2012 “What Doesnt Motivate Creativity Can Kill It”, Teresa Amabile and Steve Kramer, Harvard Business Review Blog Network, April 25, 2012 “KIDS Vision: Imagining Possible Futures for Technology”, Latitude Studios