GEOAGRAPHY PRESENTATION

TOPIC:
FOSSIL FUELS
AIM:
THE IMPACT OF COAL ON THE ENVIRONMENT

FOCUS: USA
INTRODUCTION TO COAL
 FORMATION
 WHAT


IS COAL?

A fossil fuel, Coal from the English word ‘col’
coal forms
when dead...
COAL


Surface Mining is used to
produce most of the coal in the
U.S. because it is less expensive
than underground minin...
A.

COAL HANDLING- handling of bulky pieces of coal

B.

STOCKPILES-machinery dumping coal into piles

C.

STACKING-feedin...
Coal
Transportation

Ohio river, Louisville

Transport to
thermal plant in
China

TRANSPORTATION OF COAL

Coal transport i...
ECONOMIC

IMPORTANCE

ELECTRICITY
 Of all known sources of
From focus usa
energy, coal is the most
important source suppl...
IMPACT

ON ENVIRONMENT

:

AIR

Air quality reduced due to emission from vehicles,
generators and equipment. Also from coa...
IN WATER:
There is damage to water quality due to:
 Acid mine drainage into water bodies
Colorado mountains
 Soil erosio...
Stock piles at the hay point coal
terminal

ON

THE LAND

open pit mines are difficult to close and its sometimes
impossib...
Coal Mining and Impacts ( Daisy Sowah, thats me)
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Coal Mining and Impacts ( Daisy Sowah, thats me)

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Geography presentation on coal for my project for geog class last year. It would have to be downloaded to be viewed properly because there are A LOT of transitions and animations to consider. text normally come in and exit then the pictures follow at the same time so please download

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Coal Mining and Impacts ( Daisy Sowah, thats me)

  1. 1. GEOAGRAPHY PRESENTATION TOPIC: FOSSIL FUELS AIM: THE IMPACT OF COAL ON THE ENVIRONMENT FOCUS: USA
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION TO COAL  FORMATION  WHAT  IS COAL? A fossil fuel, Coal from the English word ‘col’ coal forms when dead plant matter is fossilised carbon is a is a meaning a converted into combustible black or brownishpeat, which in turn is converted into black sedimentary rock usually lignite, then suboccurring in rock strata in layers or bituminous coal, then veins called coal beds or coal bituminous coal, and lastly seams. anthracite. ThisThe harder forms, such as  involves biological and geological coal, can be regarded as anthracite processes that take place metamorphic rock because of later over a long period. exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal is composed primarily of carbon along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen.
  3. 3. COAL  Surface Mining is used to produce most of the coal in the U.S. because it is less expensive than underground mining. Surface mining can be used when the coal is buried less than 200 feet underground. In surface mining, giant machines remove the top-soil and layers of rock to expose large beds of coal. Once the mining is finished, the dirt and rock are returned to the pit, the topsoil is replaced, and the area is replanted. The land can then be used for croplands, wildlife habitats, recreation, or offices or stores.(Alppachian mountains)   MINING Underground Mining, sometimes called deep mining, is used when the coal is buried several hundred feet below the surface. Some underground mines are 1,000 feet deep. To remove coal in these underground mines, miners ride elevators down deep mine shafts where they run machines that dig out the coal.(west Virginia)
  4. 4. A. COAL HANDLING- handling of bulky pieces of coal B. STOCKPILES-machinery dumping coal into piles C. STACKING-feeding the conveyor RECLAIMING-reclaiming coal from stock piles E. SAMPLING-a routine sampling is taken at a set frequency over a period of time or shipment F. WASHABILITY-the amount of physical breakage required to separate material of diff densities G. CRUSHING-reducing size of coal for easy transport H. SCREENING-group particle size into ranges of grades I. GRAVITY SEPARATION-make use of diff relative densities of coal and reject material J. DEWATERING PRODUCT COAL-water is removed to reduce mass and run-off K. THICKENERS-used to dewater slurries of either tailings or product L. CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION-measurement of flow, density levels, ash and moisture COAL PROCESSING D. After coal comes out of the ground, it typically goes on a conveyor belt to a preparation plant that is located at the mining site. The plant cleans and processes coal to remove dirt, rock, ash, sulfur, and in Coal processing plantother unwanted Kentucky, USA materials, increasing the heating value of the coal. A coal preparation plant (CPP) is a facility that washes coal of soil and rock, preparing it for transport to market. A CPP may also be called a coal handling and preparation plant (CHPP), prep plant, tipple, or wash plant.
  5. 5. Coal Transportation Ohio river, Louisville Transport to thermal plant in China TRANSPORTATION OF COAL Coal transport in India The way that coal is transported to where it will be used depends on the distance to be covered. Coal is generally transported by conveyor or truck over short distances. Trains and barges are used for longer distances within domestic markets, or alternatively coal can be mixed with water to form a coal slurry and transported through a pipeline.
  6. 6. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE ELECTRICITY  Of all known sources of From focus usa energy, coal is the most important source supplying more than 55% of heat and energy in the world. Not only coal is a source of energy and heat but also it is the source of valuable products, viz., gases, tar, oils, pitch, coke, ammonia; fertilizers, synthetic dyes and numerous drugs. Nowadays, steam is used to produce electric power, which is then transmitted to the factory by means of wires   Coal is also a key component of important industrial processes such as steel and cement manufacturing both of which are central to building the essential infrastructure of growing economies.
  7. 7. IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT : AIR Air quality reduced due to emission from vehicles, generators and equipment. Also from coal dust blowing from mining sites could cause respiratory problems ( coal dust causes black lung disease)  Greenhouse gas emissions like CO2 and the potent methane(released during mining) that could also result in ocean acidification.(coal fires burn for decades) Brandon shores power plant,  Radiation exposure (low levels of uranium and Maryland thorium and other radioactive isotopes)  Mercury emissions in form of methyl mercury which is a potent toxic compound to wildlife Underground coal fire, mountains of  NOISE POLLUTION  Colorado
  8. 8. IN WATER: There is damage to water quality due to:  Acid mine drainage into water bodies Colorado mountains  Soil erosion and run-off deposition stream  Weathering causing leeching and oxidation  Pesticides intoxicating water bodies  Discharge of waste such as mercury, arsenic and nickel into storage ponds which could then leak into groundwater flows  Excavation, extraction and withdrawal of water affecting ground water flows and surface run-off  Waste piles and ash deposited in rivers producing sediment, unfit for use even years later 
  9. 9. Stock piles at the hay point coal terminal ON THE LAND open pit mines are difficult to close and its sometimes impossible to reclaim land  Ecological sources (habitats) are affected due to noise, run-off, acid mine drainage, mortality of biota, Open cut with in the Bowen exposure to contaminants, interference miningniche and basin behavioral activities  Vandalism of paleontological and cultural sites due to land clearance and excavation  Possible hazards like earthquakes and landslides triggered due to blasts and excavation which alter drainage patterns and increases run-off and erosion 

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